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Smithsonian Institution 

Given in memory of 

Elisha Hanson 

Letitia Armistead Hanson 

Tot Gee 
ENP fatty 

J) fel 



Pee ON AL, 



JANUARY, 1894, To May, 1895 

W J McGer, Chairman C. Harr Merriam 
E: Publication Committee 

N ) 
AG oersteny 

Nov 5 1981 



1894 AND to May 31, 1899 





"a Vice- Presidents 

CHARLES J. BELL, Treaswrer 
CYRUS C. BABB,t} Recording Secretary 
ELIZA R. SCIDMORE, Corresponding Secretary 


EVERETT HAYDEN [ apinacers 
JOHN HYDE | gers 



* Resigned December 14, 1894; vacancy filled by the election January 31, 1895, of 
Charles W. Dabney, Jr. 
+ Resigned January 31, 1895; vacancy filled by the election of Everett Hayden. 





Geographic Progress of Civilization: Annual Address by the Presi- 

Potaey Gr ASO UN an ore HELUBBARD 2-0. 5.5.0 See decie ded sid e's yf blah edhe 1 
Shawangunk Mountain; by N. H. Darron..................000 23 
Weather Making, Ancient and Modern; by Marx W. Harrrnaron. Bi) 
Geomorphology of the Southern Appalachians; by CHarLes WIL- 

ARDEA vES andy ViARTUS vey @ANIPBENE..)s)-15 ns)s oslesclle mens oe «5 63 
ihe Battle of the Forest; by B) EH. Frernow.......2.6..0..5...0. 06. 127 
Surveys and Maps of the District of Columbia; by Marcus Bakrer.. 149 
The First Landfall of Columbus; by Jacques W. Repway........ 179 
ene esresea Ly Vane N ier SOMES WRG NES hoster rated nile nfe-efviclelsialslesolats dno. diate dikitere- aol 193 
Geography of the Air: Annual Address by Vice-President A. W. 

Sir Francis Drake’s Anchorage; by Epwarp L. Berrnoup........ 208 
Note on the Height of Mount Saint Elias; by Israrn C. Russety.. 215 
Noise by C.C, base: The Antarctic Continent.)...¢.. 202.) .06. 2 217 

Magnetic Observations in Iceland, Jan Mayen, 
SHC Spiizwercem MNleI2. te. el. eee 223 
A New Light on the Discovery of America... 224 
Monographs of the National Geographic So- 
CEG PAs ice ner ts ee oes foice = 0 DRS R es ace 225 
Laws of Temperature Control of the Geographic Distribution of Ter- 
restrial Animals and Plants: Annual Address by Vice-President 

Pea Let e Ve PA IN AAHOEL Ie DAINERS ty PVs ata siya ch he Gees sial ain Sechy as alae gs Sel sha eave ore 229 
Oregon: its History, Geography, and Resources; by Joun H. 

Ets RE EMERD NOM rue States NS TN Sle ait Nee. bf foes 0 ord vc love ene laine ed 239 
ema OM NOMITTM OVID fii cieidcte oi ate ieiata Nh 'oeelataisia eters Cais cee oo Wace 

TUES BFC unde ibaa) aincet: Wel) ae a Sa tee i 
[Staats aN SET 9 CN Gina en, oot ee a iii 
POOR aes steeds KOEI bates tty AGEN Atal Sims isha, <a he-aVei'd wleicse Sich [eyaSei geen a a iv 
Publications of the National Geographic Society............ vi 
Proceedings of the National Geographic Society.......-..... xili 
Seventh Annual Report of the Recording Secretary......... sexe 
Seventh Annual Report of the Treasurer................... XXV1 
keport of therAuditine: Committee... 0.05 esc ace. oe coe) MMVI 
PSS OL PIE SOCIEUWEI ee <fai2vio cm skaiee <ecins 0G e 0s sovialtd awlowce Sik 
GME MS Ge PME OGIOL Veh a iesrcie)) ees wine WS ase Cacce sige s MORE 
Honorary Members of the Society..............2... 00250 XXxiil 
Mehive lemiberston the Sociebyers do... yee oe. cts: eee eens XXXIV 
Corresponding Members of the Society.................... Ixxii 



Plate 1—Stereogram of the Shawangunk Mountain............... 23 
2—Lake Mohonk, looking southward............-..006-5-0: 27 
3—Eastern Face of Shawangunk Mountain, looking south- 
CASQWALG » \cse:0  his,c eae viahePnp eines ote ube tatantuega a eee 31 
4—Relief Map of the Chattanooga District................. 63 
5—Map of the Southern Appalachians, showing the deformed 
Cretaceous) Peneplaim::..i.)) sss. v.00 bis ieee 126 
6—Map of the Southern Appalachians, showing the deformed 
Vertiary Peneplaim:t ck vias. 4.5 ee, Pete ee eae eee 126 
La Drow nine thie WO Ee Mb sau tase tocsxeote cc taevcoveyes diate cy-ke Ree eee 127 
8—Map showing the Natural Divisions of the North Ameri- 
Gamoreshsise: 2 cit Some ets heck cates «Glove tca aU ere eee 139 
9= District’ of) Coltmibian-. oie Sitaetiae vee cle cis oe ee 149 
10—A Part of the Map of Juan de la Cosa, 1500, with Vignette ‘ 
of Samana. trom): a eViederni@hanrt waaeeeie. oe e eee 186 
11—Mappa Munde peinte sur Parchemin par Ordre de Henri 
IL; Rode Prance: 1532) Licwar ace dane Geena 188 
12—Map of United States, showing Distribution of the Total 
Quantity of Heat during Season of Growth and Repro- 
ductive: Activity. 20g ae cee te eee 238 
13—Map of United States, showing Mean Temperature of 
Hottest Six Consecutive Weeks of Year............... 238 
14—Map of United States, showing Life Zones............... 238 

15—Membership Diagram, National Geographic Society... . lxxxiii 

Darton: Figure 1—Cross-section of Eastern Ridges of Shawangunk 

Mountain through Lake Mohonk ........... 27 
2—Cross-section of Eastern Ridges of Shawangunk 
, Mountain through Lake Minnewaska........ 29 
3—Lake Awosting.......sdsceene oo: ie oar eee 30 
Hayes and Campseti: Figure 1—Diagram showing Oscillations of 
Land Surface at Chattanooga, 
NennNessee:ane sAaiet ce ge 99 
2—Sketch Map of the Tennessee 
GOregeiis ois see ele eee een 116 

3—Diagram showing Variation in 

Character of Cretaceous and 
Tertiary Sedimentsin Alabama 125 
Fernow: Figure 1—A German Spruce Forest under Management.. 147 
Baxer: Figure 1—District of Columbia. ...............:..5-5 Pen a 

TIllustrations. Vv 

Repway: Figure 1—A Part of the Map of Herrera, 1601, with 
Vignette of Watling Island (modern)....... 187 
2—Modern Map of Samana, Crooked and Acklin 
JUNO A as 4 bie? DSpace mee soem oo soSeeaoD ad 191 
Bass: Figure 3—The Antarctic Continent............-...---5-65- 221 



In addition to announcements of meetings and various circulars sent to 
members from time to time, the Society issues a single serial publication 
entitled THe Natronan GroarapHic MaGazine. During the first two 
years of the existence of the Society this serial was issued in quarterly 
numbers. With the beginning of the third year of the Society and the 
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the serial appeared at irregular intervals in parts or brochures (designated 
by pages and designed either for separate preservation or for gathering 
into volumes), consisting either of single memoirs or of magazine bro- 
chures made up of articles, notes, abstracts, and other geographic matter, 
together with the Proceedings and other administrative records of the 
Society. By reason of a change in the Society’s season and fiscal year, 
volume VI extended from January 1, 1894, to May 31, 1895, and later 
volumes will coincide with the new season, namely, June 1 to May 31. 
Moreover, the numbers will be issued regularly hereafter, at periods to 
_ be announced in the first number of the new volume. 

The Magazine is forwarded gratuitously to all members of the Society. 
The subscription price to the public will be, hereafter, 52.00 a year. 
Members of the Society who want extra copies, and subscription agencies 
for the sale of the Magazine, are allowed a discount of thirty per cent. 


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Volume I, 1889: 4 numbers, 337 pages, 16 plates, and 
26 firures LS aey Cea ema erietena ee UTS Ns lan eg $1 40 | $2 00 

Nor app. l-98 ai MOplates atc cise aete meee tele eres 35 50) a7 

Announcement. "Introductory Address by the 
President, Gardiner G. Hubbard. Geographic Meth- 
odsin Geologic Investigation : by W. M. Davis. The 
' Classification of Geographic Forms by Genesis; by 
W J McGee. The Great Storm of March 11-14, 1888: 
Summary of Remarks by A. W. Greely. The Great 
Storm off the Atlantic Coast of the United States, 
March 11-14, 1888; by Everett Hayden. The Sur- 
vey of the Coast ; by Herbert G. Ogden. The Sur- 
vey and Map of Massachusetts ; by ‘Henry Gannett. 
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“Sa S90) As Sai Neen 9) ar 

Africa, its Past and Future; Annual Address by 
the President, Gardiner G. Hubbard. Report— 
Geography of the Land; by Vice-President Herbert 
G. Ogden. Report—Geography of the Sea; by 
Vice-President George L Dyer. Report—Geogra- 
phy of the Air; by Vice-President A. W. Greely. 
Report—Geography of Life; by Vice-President C. 
Hart Merriam. Annual Report of the Treasurer, 
Auditing Committee, and Secretaries. Certificate of 
Incorporation. Officers, 1889. By-laws. Members. 

No. 3: pp. 183-276, 2 plates and 26 figures........... 

The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania; by 
William Morris Davis. Topographic Models; by 
Cosmos Mindeleff. Abstract of Minutes. Inter- 
national Literary Contest. 

INC 31S 0) CMY Gea Soa 0) 2 2's 

Irrigation in California; by William Hammond 
Hall. Round about Asheville; by Bailey Willis. 
A Trip to Panama and Darien; by Richard U. 
Goode. Across Nicaragua with Transit and Ma- 
chéte; by R. E. Peary. 


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Volume II, 1890: 5 numbers, 347 pages, 9 plates, 

IN@, Tbs joy0y EUS et beeen cep eae ace ae era ee 
On the Telegraphic Determinations of Longitudes 
by the Bureau of Navigation; by J. A. Norris. Re- 
port—Geography of the Land; by Vice-President 
Herbert G. Ogden. Report—Geography of the Air; 
by Vice-President A. W. Greely. Reports of Treas- 
urer, Auditing Committee, and Recording Secretary. 
Abstract of Minutes. Officers, 1890. Members. 

The Rivers of Northern New Jersey, with Notes 
on the Classification of Rivers in General; by Wil- 
liam Morris Davis. A Critical Review of Bering’s 
First Expedition, 1725-’30, together with a Transla- 
tion of his Original Report; by Wm. H. Dall. 

No. 3: pp. 171-230, 6 plates and 4 figures........... 

The Arctic Cruise of the U. 8S. S. Thetis in the 
Summer and Autumn of 1889; by Charles H. Stock- 
ton. The Law of Storms Considered with Special 
Reference to the North Atlantic; by Everett Hay- 
den. The Irrigation Problem in Montana; by H. 
M. Wilson. 

$1 40 






National Geographic Magazine. 

No. 4: pp. 231-286, 2 plates 

Korea and the Koreans; by J. B. Bernadou. ‘The 
Ordnance Survey of Great Britain; by Josiah 

Pierce, Jr. Geographic Nomenclature; by Herbert 
G. Ovden, Gustave Herrie, Marcus Baker, and A. H. 

No. 5: pp. 287-839, i-vili 

Officers, 1890. Contents and Illustrations, vol- 
umes land II. Announcement. Proceedings. Third 
Annual Report of the Secretaries. Report of the 
Treasurer and Auditing Committee. Summary of 
Reports on the Mount Saint Elias Expedition. By- 
laws. Standing Rules of the Board of Managers. 
Rules relating to Publication. Officers, 1891. Mem- 
bers, March 25, 1891. Index to Volumes I and II. 

Volume III, 1891: 5 piper 296 pages, 21 plates, 
and 8 fiour (CAST eerie neers cen MnP aE CN Sey 4 te 

No. 1: pp. 1-30, plate 1, March 28, 1891 
South America; Annual Address by the Presi- 
dent, Gardiner G. Hubbard. 

No. 2: pp. 81-40, April 30, 1891 . 
Geography of the Land; Annual Report by Vice- 
President Herbert G. Ogden. 

No: 3: pp. 41-525 May 1, 1891.22... .2.2...- Thee ae 
Geography of the Air; Annual Report by Vice- 
President A. W. Greely. 

No. 4: pp. 53-204 (with 8 figures), plates 2-20, May 

29, 1891 

An Expedition to Mount St Elias ; 


wife) ayia) el well ofiepeli= tela) s)\.a)ieluije (steele) ee) 6 eilels (ein) /s ailm ts 

by I. C. Rus- 

5: Magazine brochure, Pp. 205-261, i-xxxv, 
plate 21, February 19, 1SOD ihe AS Oy eet Was 
The Cartography and Observations of Bering’s 
First Voyage; by A. W. Greely. Height and Posi- 
tion of Mount Saint Elias; by I. G. Russell. The 
Heart of Africa; by E. C. Hore. Report of Com- 
mittee on Exploration in Alaska. Notes. Index. 
Officers, 1891. Contents. Illustrations. Publica- 
tions. Proceedings. Officers, 1892. Members, 1892. 

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Volume IV, 1892: 7 numbers, 237 pages, 20 plates, 
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See pp. 1-18, March 26; 1892.00.00 6... ce de es 10 | Daye ee 
The Evolution of Commerce; Annual Address by | 
the President, Gardiner G. Hubbard. | 
No. 2: pp. 19-84 (with 5 figures), plates 1-16, March | 
cecly TSUBASA Rrra SEHR a ee ee ee 79 WO 9 
Studies of Muir Glacier, Alaska; by Harry Field- | 
ing Reid. | | 
mes: pp. So-100, March 18, 1892..2. 5.52.2 6....5.. | 10 Daan 
Geography of the Air; Annual Report. by Vice- 
President A. W. Greely. | | | 
No. 4: pp. 101-116, plate 17, March 31, 1892........ le eeaates Nd Was 
The Mother Maps of the United States; by Henry | 
Gannett. | 
No. 5: pp. 117-162, plates 18-20, May 15, 1892...... 30 BO)|| 
An Expedition through the Yukon District ; by | 
C. Willard Hayes. | 
No. 6: Magazine brochure, pp. 163-208, February | | 
8, Pema i ro ei oe | 20 SOI fe vs 
The North American Deserts; by Johannes | 
Walther. The Alaskan Boundary Survey; by T. | | 
C. Mendenhall, J. E. McGrath, and J. Henry 
Turner. Collinson’s Arctic Journey; by A. W. | 
Greely. Notes. 
No. 7: Administrative brochure, pp. 209-2138, 1-xxiv, 
Hema 2 OT SOR Meera to Phe et re cel Bina! als 15 PB | 9 
Officers, 1892. Contents. Illustrations. Publi- 
eations. Fourth Annual Report of the Secretaries 
and Treasurer. Report of the Auditing Committee. 
Proceedings. Fifth Annual Report of the Secreta- 
ries and Treasurer. Report of the Auditing Com- 
mittee. Index. 
Volume V, 1893: 6 numbers, 331 pages, 21 plates, and 
13) IBKEAETN ISIS eg esl eas Cae TEE Mees eee ene ol ae ree $1 95 | $3 00 | 24 
Se 1: pp. 1-20 (with 2 figures), plates 1-5, April 
MLS MMMM eee eAlerts na tieretel tadia\ diay tetayete- © els, s = \eiey seal P\s 39 50 24 
ee verens of America; Annual Address by the 
President, Gardiner G. Hubbard. 
No. 2: pp. 21-44, plates 6-19, March 20, 1898....... 30 SONELe 
The Movements of our Population ; by Henry 

ie National Geographic Magazine. 


No. 3: pp. 45-58, plate 20, April 29, 1893........... 
Rainfall Types of the United States; Annual Re- 
port by Vice-President A. W. Greely. 

No. 4: Magazine brochure, pp. 59-96 (with 3 fig- 
TURES) FORTE! Ake Iimlhy, WO SRS Ws oasis so ohanec ob de 

The Natural Bridge of Virginia; by C. D. Walcott. 
The Geographical Position and Height of Mount 
Saint Elias; by T. C. Mendenhall. The Improve- 
ment of Geographical Teaching; by W. M. Davis. 
An Undiscovered Island off the Northern Coast of 
Alaska; by Marcus Baker, E. P. Herendeen, and 
A. W. Greely. The Geologist at Blue Mountain, 
. Maryland; by C. D. Walcott. The Great Populous 
" Centers of the World; by A. W. Greely. Our 
Youngest Volcano; by J. 8. Diller. 

No. 5: pp. 97—256, January 31, 1894. .0..5.......-. 

Proceedings of the International Geographic Con- 
ference in Chicago, July 27-28, 1893: Introduction. 
Minutes of the Conference. Memoirsand Addresses. 
The Relations of Airand Water to Temperature and 
Life; by Gardiner G. Hubbard. The Relations of 
Geography to History ; by Francis W. Parker. Nor- 
way and the Vikings; by Magnus Andersen. (reo- 
graphic Instruction in the Public Schools; by W. B. 
Powell. The Relations of Geology to Physiography 
in our Educational System; by T. C. Chamberlin. 
The Relations of the Gulf Stream and the Labrador 
Current; by William Libbey, Jr. The Arid Regions 
of the United States; by F. H. Newell. Recent Ex- 
plorations in Alaska ; by Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore. 
The Carayels of Columbus; by Victor Maria Concas. 
In the Wake of Columbus; by Frederick A. Ober. 
Recent Disclosures concerning pre-Columbian Voy- 
ages to Americain the Archives of the Vatican; by 
William Eleroy Curtis. Early Voyages along the 
Northwestern Coast of America; By George David- 

No. 6: Administrative brochure, pp. 257-263, i-lxviii, 
Wiese), (ul SO Am aeaigare cntetiaerec mick cision ie oer a Laee tee 
Officers, 1893. Contents. Illustrations. Publi- 

cations. Proceedings. Sixth Annual Report of the 

Secretaries and Treasurer. Report of the Auditing 

Committee. By-laws. Officers, 1894. Honorary 

Members. Members, 1894. Index. 


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Number of copies 

Volume VI, 1894 and to May 31, 1895: 9 numbers, 
291 pages, 2 plates; and 11 fieures. 2... 0.26 on 

Nomen pp. I-22, Kebruary 1/7, 1594... kj. ce. 
Geographic ee of Civilization; Annual Ad- 
dress by the President, Gardiner G. Hubbard. 

No. 2: pp. 23-84 (with 3 figures), plates 1-3, March 
EDS y ety'6 (Rp ARIAS IS 2a ON apa 
Shawangunk Mountain; by N. H. Darton. 

meee. pp. so-02, April 25, 1894... . cee eee ee 
Weather Making, Ancient and Modern; by Mark 
W. Harrington. 

No. 4: pp. 63-126 (with 3 figures), plates 4-6, May 
2 1 SNEED S55 6 WO eS c eREBSci 

Geomorphology of the Southern “Appalachians ; 
by C. Willard Hayes and Marius R. Campbell. 

No. 5: pp. 127-148 (with 1 figure), plates 7 and 8, 
2 iB) DED SIG at SR Spe er ae a a en 
The Battle of the Forest ; by B. E. Fernow. 

No. 6: pp. 149-178 (with 1 figure), plate 9, Novem- 
Liar IL, TUSQEDS Sag oe Gee Ginecol 

Surveys and Maps of the District of Columbia; by 
Marcus Baker. 


No. 7: Magazine brochure, pp. 179-288 (with 3 fig- 
ures), plates 10-14, December DOW AS Ibis Miss svete 4 

The First Landfall of Columbus ; by J. W. Red- 
way. Japan; by D. W. Stevens. Geography of 
the Air; Annual Address by Vice-President A. W. 
Greely. Sir Francis Drake’s Anchorage; by E. L. 
Berthoud. Note on the Height of Mount Saint Elias ; 
by I. C. Russell. Geographic Notes; by Cyrus C. 
Babb. Laws of Temperature Control of the Geo- 
eraphic Distribution of Terrestrial Animals and 
Plants; Annual Address by Vice-President C. Hart 

moe: pp: 209-284, April 20; 1895.............2. 665 
Oregon : its History, Geogr aphy, and Resources ; 
by John H. Mitchell: 

No. 9: Administrative brochure, pp. Ixxxiii, plate 
PSMA val USO eieie share ede sca Blcle ei) a ci'eieluiatiole « 
Officers, 1894. Contents. Illustrations. Publi- 
cations, Proceedings. Seventh Annual Report of 
the Recording Secretary and Treasurer. Report of 
the Auditing Committee. By-laws. Officers, Sea- 
son of 1895-96. Members. Index. 

$2 10 








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upon notification of copies for sale. 

xii National Geographic Magazine. 

Orders for volumes or single numbers may be sent to booksellers or direct 
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JANUARY, 1894, ro May, 1895 

Abstract of Minutes 

January 12, 1894. Sth meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club, 8 pm. Vice-President Men- 
denhall in the chair. Attendance, 125. 

Report of Auditing Committee, appointed the 5th instant, read 
and approved. 

The general topic, “Surveys and Explorations in Southeastern 
Alaska for the Alaska Boundary Commission,” was discussed by 
Dr T. C. Mendenhall, Mr J. E. McGrath, Mr H. G. Ogden, Mr 
W. C. Hodgkins, Mr P. A. Welker, and Mr H. P. Ritter. The 
subject was illustrated by maps and lantern slides. 

January 19, 1894. Special meeting. 

National Rifles’ Hall,8 pm. President Hubbard in the chair. 
Attendance, 700. : 

Rev E. C. Smith delivered an illustrated lecture on The Ascent 
of Mount Rainier. 

January 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, and 25, 1894. 
Special course of afternoon lectures. 

Large Hall of Columbian University, 4.15 p m. 

Special course by Mr G. K. Gilbert on The Shaping of the 
Earth’s Surface, under the divisions (1) Uplift and Erosion ; (2 
and 3) Water Work; (4) Interaction; (5) Ice Work; (6) Wind 


X1V National Geographic Magazine. 

January 26, 1894. 90th meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club, 8 pm. President Hubbard 
in the chair. Attendance, 75. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Mr G. K. Gilbert for 
his able and instructive course of afternoon lectures. 

The general topic, Alaskan Boundary Surveys, was discussed 
in detail by Mr J. A. Flemer, Mr E. F. Dickins, Mr O. H. Titt- 
mann, Mr J. F. Pratt, and Lieutenant A. P. Niblack, U.S. N., 
the last three of whom used lantern-slide illustrations. 

February 2, 1894. 91st meeting. 

Builders’ Exchange Hall, 8 pm. Attendance, 300. 

Annual address by the President, Hon Gardiner G. Hubbard, 
on The Geographic Progress of Civilization, illustrated by lan- 
tern slides. 

February 9, 1894. 92d meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club, 8 pm. President Hubbard 
in the chair. ; 

Hon Edwin Willits introduced the speaker, Dr C. Hart Mer- 
riam, who read a paper on Geographic Discoveries Made by the 
Biological Expeditions of the United States Department of 

February 16, 1894. Special meeting. 

Builders’ Exchange Hall,8 pm. President Hubbard in the 
chair. Attendance, 500. 

Hon-George C. Perkins, United States Senate, delivered an illus- 
trated lecture on Pacific and Arctic Ocean Whaling Industry. 

February 23, 1894. 93d meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club, 8pm. President Hubbard 
in the chair. Attendance, 50. 

Professor Mark W. Harrington read a paper on Weather Mak- 
ing, Ancient and Modern. : 

March 2, 1894. Special meeting. 

Builders’ Exchange Hall,8 pm. President Hubbard in the 
chair. Attendance, 300. 

Major J. W. Powell delivered an address upon The Water 
Supply of the United States. 

Abstract of Minutes. . XV 

March 9, 1894. 94th meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club, 8 pm. Vice-President Gan- 
nett in the chair. Attendance, 50. 

Dr C. Willard Hayes delivered an address upon The Physi- 
ography of a Portion of the Southern Appalachians, as Ilus- 
trated by a Relief Map of the Chattanooga District; and Mr 
M. R. Campbell read a paper on Tertiary Changes in the Drain- 
age of Southwestern Virginia. 

March 16, 1894. : Special meeting. 

National Rifles’ Hall, 8 p m. President Hubbard in the 
chair. Attendance, 700. 

Professor William H. Pickering delivered an illustrated lecture 
upon Explorations in the Andes of South America. 

March 23, 1894. 95th meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club, 8 pm. President Hubbard 
in the chair. Attendance, 125. 

The amendments to the by-laws proposed February 23 were 
laid upon the table. (These proposed amendments created five 
classes of members—Active Members, Fellows, Honorary Mem- 
bers, Honorary Fellows, and Corresponding Members.) 

Mr Marcus Baker delivered an address upon The Survey and 
Maps of the District of Columbia. 

March 30, 1894. Special meeting. 

Builders’ Exchange Hall, 8 pm. President Hubbard in the 
chair. Attendance, 550. 

Mr Willard D. Johnson delivered an illustrated lecture upon 
The Problem of the Yosemite. 

April 4, 1894. Special meeting. 
Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club, 8 pm. Mr W J McGee in 
the chair. Attendance, 125. 

Dr Carl Lumholtz delivered an illustrated address upon The 
Cliff-dwellers of Mexico. 

April 6, 1894. 96th meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club, 8pm. Mr G. K. Gilbert in 
the chair. Attendance, 50. 

Mr Henry Gannett read a paper upon Statistics of our Indus- 

Xvi | National Geographic Magazine. 

April 13, 1894. Special meeting. 

Builders’ Exchange Hall, 8 pm. President Hubbard in the 

Mr H. M. Wilson delivered an illustrated address entitled 
From Bombay to the Himalayas. 

April 19, 1894. Ith meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club,8 pm. Mr Henry Gannett 
in the chair. Attendance, 75. * 

The general topic was The Public Lands of the United States, 
discussed under the following heads and by the following 
speakers: The National Domain, by Mr F. H. Newell; The 
Texas Land System, by Mr R. U. Goode; The Public Lands of 
Idaho, by E. T. Perkins, Jr.; and The Public Domain in its So- 
cial Aspect, by Mr Neate P. Davis. ul he papers were discussed 
by Mr J. B. Thompson and Mr W. A? Croffut. 

April 20, 1894. Field meeting. 

Eighty members and guests attended an excursion to Virginia 
Beach and the Dismal Swamp. Mr G. K. Gilbert and Dr David 
T. Day took charge of the two parties, and in the evening a 
meeting was held at the Princess Anne Hotel, Virginia Beach. 

April 21, 1894. Special meeting. 

National Rifles’ Hall,8 pm. President Hubbard in the chair. 
Attendance, 500. 

Mr meal Hamilton Cushing delivered an ‘llnstiertea lecture 
upon The Geographic Origin and Distribution of the Pueblo 

May 4, 1894. ISth meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosmos Club,8 pm. Mr G. K. Gilbert in 
the chair. Attendance, 125. 

Mr Henry Farquhar, in behalf of the excursion party to the 
Dismal Swamp, thanked the committee for the able and efficient 
manner in which the plans were carried out. 

Mr R. T. Hill delivered an illustrated lecture upon The Moun- 
tains of Mexico, and remarks were made by Mr H. M. Wilson 
and Senior Don M. Romero, the Mexican minister. 

Abstract of Minutes. Xvil 

Muy 11, 1894. Special meeting. 

Builders’ Exchange Hall, 8 pm. President Hubbard in the 
chair. Attendance, 600. 

Mr Paul B, Du Chaillu delivered an illustrated lecture upon 
The Dwarfs and Forests of Central Africa. 

May 18, 1894. 9th meeting. 

Assembly Hall of Cosms Club, 8 pm. Dr C. Hart Merriam 
in the chair. Attendance, 75. 

Dr T. C. Mendenhall read a paper upon The Northeastern 
Boundary of the United States. 

Professor R. T. Hill spoke of The Geography of Cuba; and 
Professor C. V. Riley discussed The Periodic Appearance of the 

May 25, 1894. Special meeting. 
Y¥ “0, } g 

Builders’ Exchange Hall, 8 pm. President Hubbard in the 
chair. Attendance, 500. 
Mr Alfred F. Sears delivered an illustrated lecture upon Peru. 

June 1, 1894. 100th meeting. 

Large Hall of Columbian University,8 pm. President Hub- 
bard in the chair. Attendance, 250. 

Letters of congratulation to the Society upon the occasion of 
its one hundredth regular meeting were read from Hon Charles 
P. Daly, president of the American Geographical Society, and 
from Mr P. 8. Moxom, president of the Appalachian Mountain 
Club. General A. W. Greely, U.S. A., spoke upon The Work 
of Foreign Geographic Societies, and remarks were made by 
Bishop John J. Keane, Hon J. H. Outhwaite, Dr J. C. Welling, 

and Mr Charles D. Walcott. 

(For remaining meetings, up to May 31, 1895, see accompany- 
ing Calendar, season of 1894-’95.) 

TI —Nar. Geog. Maa., vox. VI, 1894 













19.* Japan: its Geography, Resources, and Future, 
Hon D. W. Stevens 
Introductory Remarks by His Excellency Mr Kurino, the 
Japanese Minister. 
26.* The Elements of Physiography......... Major J. W. Powell 
2.+ The Science of Geography...General A. W. Greely, U. S. A. 
The First Landfall of Columbus in the Light of Early Car- 
GOT DIY cain iercinticeuiycl cal cas Se! a we asdepeleaelas Mr J. W. Redway 
9.* Physiographic Processes................ Major J. W. Powell 
16.+ The Origin and Configuration of the Upper Alpine Passes, 
Dr Lafayette C. Loomis 
23.* From Cape Town into the Countries of the Ma-Shukulumbe, 
Dr Emil Holub 
30.f Recent Results in Oceanography, 
Ensign Everett Hayden, U.S. N. 
The Sigsbee Deep-sea Sounding Machine, 
Commander C. D. Sigsbee, U. S. N. 
The Outfit and Cruises of the U. S. F. C. S. Allatross, 
Commander Z. L. Tanner, U.S. N. 
7.* The Land of the Midnight Sun...... ‘Mr Paul B. Du Chaillu 
14.+ The Geographic Distribution of Soils, 
Professor Milton Whitney 
The Geographic Distribution of Life....Dr C. Hart Merriam 
21.* The Political Geography of Asia........ Hon John W. Foster 
28. The Economic Aspects of Erosion..... Professor N. 8. Shaler 
Joint Meeting with American Forestry Association, in the 
National Museum. Introductory Remarks by Hon J. 
Sterling Morton, Secretary of Agriculture. 
4.* Labor and Industries of the South....Hon Carroll D. Wright 

11.¢ The Northern Appalachians .............. .Mr Bailey Willis 

18.* The Nicaragua Canal.................. Hon John R. Procter 

25. The Pikean, Julian, Plantagenian, and Itascan Sources of — 
GH/eUMEISSTesipp loans cele ee abe eee Elliott Coues, M. D. 

1.* The Seine, the Meuse, and the Moselle, 
Professor William M. Davis 
8.¢ Topographic Forms, 
Major Gilbert Thompson, Mr G. W. Littlehales 
15.“ (Shakespeare’s Hingland:. } Rev G. Arbuthnot 
22.¢ Practical Results of the Bering Sea Arbitration, 
Mr J. Stanley-Brown 
1.* Recent Discoveries in Assyria and Babylonia, 
Rey Dr Francis Brown’ 


Calendar, Season of 1894-95. xX1x 

@Mar. 8.|| The International Boundary between Mexico and the United 
Pause seine ata Nh che. cies Mr A. T. Mosman, 
Mr Stehman Forney, 
Captain E. A. Mearns, U. S. A. 

meee ae Tne Ottoman Mimpire........:...5.20% ss cane Dr Cyrus Adler 
¢Mar. 18. Washington to Pittsburg and to Niagara Falls: 
Aeross. the Appalachians .............. Dr David T. Day 
mide Niavara Falls *,.........4. Mr G. K. Gilbert 

Mar. 20. Reception at the Arlington Hotel, Washington, D. C., 
9 to 12 p m. 

+2Mar. 22.§ Pittsburgh to Yellowstone National Park: 
Pittsburgh to St Paul, through the Oil and Gas Regions, 
Professor Edward Orton 
St Paul to Yellowstone National Park; Wonderland of 
GER YGEMOWSEOIC: « 6/haiais; 80) 5 rors noare Mr Henry Gannett 

@Mar. 22.|| The Alaskan Boundary Survey, 

Mr J. E. McGrath, Mr J. F. Pratt, Mr H. P. Ritter 

@Mar. 25.t Yellowstone National Park to Sacramento: 
The Northern Rockies; Down the Columbia; Mount 
Raimier and Portland::......... Mr E. T. Perkins, Jr. 
Portland to Crater Lake; Mount Shasta and Sacramento, 
Mr J. 8. Diller 

Mar. 29.{ Sacramento to Northern Arizona: 

Sacramento; the Golden Gate; Yosemite; Los Angeles; 

SHlin) 1 BSA ON OKO ns pice ca ete G notes Mr Arthur P. Davis 
From San Bernardino across the Deserts to San Francisco 
Mopnmitainy AwizOna.«,.--. 4206s. Major J. W. Powell 

Mar. 29.* Oregon: its Geography, History, and Resources, 
Hon J. H. Mitchell 
April 2.¢ The Grand Canyon and Sonora, Mexico: 
Salt Lake City to the Grand Canyon; a Winter in the 

Depths of the Canyon......... Mr Charles D. Walcott 
Prescott, Phoenix, and Tucson, to Sonora, Mexico; Visit 
to the So-called Cannibals............. Mr W J McGee 

¢@April 4. The Zulu-Ma-Atabele, and Modes of Travel in South Africa, 
Dr Emil Holub 
April 5.¢ Across the Rocky Mountains to Denver: 
Northern Arizona, the Rio Grande, and across the Moun- 
tainsito Denver: 260)... os Professor A. H. Thompson 
The Home of the Pueblo Indians, 
Mr Frank Hamilton Cushing 
April 5.¢ Some Physical Features of Lake Superior, 
Professor Mark W. Harrington 
¢April 8.{ Denver to Washington : 
Denver to Pueblo, down the Arkansas River, and across 
Heelan SCO! StMOMIS sae lerts eee elie! Mr F. H. Newell 
St Louis to Washington; the Great Caves of Kentucky 
SETAC, LROMEDL Ate o's taleystnh areldia oe 35s Major Jed. Hotchkiss 

ex National Geographic Magazine. 

April 12.|| The Physical Geography, Geology, Agriculture, Religions, and 
Missionary Literary Institutions of the Turkish Empire, 

Rev Henry H. Jessup, D. D. 
2April 19.¢ The Geography and Geology of Costa Rica and Panama, 

Mr Robert T. Hill 
ZApril 26.* The Antiquities and Aborigines of Peru, 

Mr Frank Hamilton Cushing 
2April 29.t Siberia: its Geography and Resources. ..Mr George Kennan 
May — 3.* Fredericksburg and Vicinity; a Symposium Preparatory to 

the Field Day: 
Geography and Geology (15 minutes)..Mr N. H. Darton 
Surveying, Mapping, and Bridging (15 minutes), 
Major Gilbert Thompson 
The Battles: 
As seen from the Northern Side (20 minutes), 
General John Gibbon, U.S. A. 
As seen from the Southern Side (20 minutes), 
Major Jed. Hotchkiss, C. 8. A. 
May 4. Excursion and Field Meeting, Fredericksburg, Virginia, 9am 

to 6 pm. 
@May 10.* President’s Annual Address: Russia. (Joint Meeting of the 
Scientific Societies.)............ Hon Gardiner G. Hubbard 

May 17.¢ The United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries and its 

Relations with the Navy..Commander Z. L. Tanner, U.S. N. 

@May 24.|| The Geography and Geology of Costa Rica and Panama. (Re- 

peatedsby-Tequest: in sc setae eee ees Mr Robert T. Hill 

May 31.t Annual Meeting for Reports, Action on Amendments to By- 
laws, and Election of Officers. 

* National Rifles’ Hall, 8 to 9.15 p m. 
+Cosmos Club Hall, 8 to 10 p m. 

t National Rifles’ Hall, 4.15 to 5.30 p m. 

2 Lecture illustrated by lantern slides. 

|| Columbian University, 8.15 to 9 30 p m. 
q Columbian University, 4.15 to 5.30 pm. 




(Presented to the Society May 31, 1895) 

1515 H Street N. W., 
Wasuineaton, D. C., May 31, 1895. 

The season ending today has been one of the most successful 
in the annals of the Society, not only as regards increase of mem- 
bership, but by reason of the great interest shown in the meetings, 
the large attendance of members and guests, and the character 
and number of the papers read. 

The present membership is 1,178,.consisting of 895 active, 274 
corresponding, and 11 honorary members. Of this total number 
423 have been elected since January 1, 1894, and 3865 since June 
1, 1894, numbers largely in excess of those elected during a 
similar period at any former time in our history. 

To illustrate graphically the number of members elected each 
month since the Society was organized (in January, 1888), the 
length of time each member has remained in the Society, and 
the present membership, the accompanying membership dia- 
gram has been prepared. <A glance at this diagram indicates 
very clearly the fact that our membership has increased very 
rapidly, and that a comparatively small proportion of those 
elected discontinue their membership. (See Plate 15.) 

The change in the Society’s fiscal year from the calendar year 
to that of the year from June 1 to May 31, now in effect, has of 
course been attended with some little embarrassment in connec- 
tion with the publication of the Magazine, the dues of members, 
etc, but the great advantages of the change more than outweigh 
such temporary difficulties. By far the greater part of the en- 
ergy of the Society is expended during the winter season, and it 
is therefore very desirable that its management should be con- 

tinuous from summer to summer, rather than that there should 

be a periodic change, or at least liability to change, of its Board 
of Managers in the midst of the season of its greatest activity. 


xd National Geographic Magazine. 

Owing to this change, the period now under review covers the 
interval from January 1, 1894, to date, but for comparison with 
future seasons, and as a just indication of what may fairly be 
expected during each coming season, it is of interest to review 
some of the principal features of our operations during the period 
from October last up to the present time. 

During this season we have had 17 regular meetings and 28 
special meetings, the latter including the reception, field meet- 
ing, and joint meeting of the Scientific Societies, making a total 
of 45 meetings, with 75 speakers. The average attendance at 
the regular or technical meetings (held for the most part in the 
Assembly Hall of the Cosmos Club) has been 170, and at the 
special or popular meetings (in National Rifles’ Hall), 777. As 
a comparative measure of the Society’s activity it need only be 
added that in 1890 there were but 17 meetings held altogether, 
with far smaller average attendance. 

Especial interest has been shown in a course of illustrated 
afternoon lectures descriptive of a trip across the continent and 
back again, each lecture by two speakers who took up the 
thread of the story, in turn, and described in a popular way, 
and with a very fine series of lantern illustrations, the geography 
and most striking natural and artificial features of the region 
traversed. Each speaker was a recognized authority regarding 
his portion of the route, and the course proved to be a brilliant 
and gratifying success—so much so, in fact, that a similar course 
will undoubtedly be a feature of each of our coming seasons. 

The accompanying calendar gives a brief but complete résumé 
of the entire series of lectures, so that but little more need be said. 
Reference should be made, however, to the very successful recep- 
tion at The Arlington the evening of March 20th, and the excur- 
sion to Fredericksburg, Va., on May 4th, where:a field-meeting 
was held and the day passed amidst scenes of great natural 
beauty as well as of great geographic and historic interest. None 
of the expense of the reception or excursion was charged to the 
Society’s treasury, but those who participated paid the entire 
cost, which was, of course, comparatively small, by reason of 
the excellent management by the committees and the facilities 
secured by the organization of the Society. 

Mention should be made of a lecture delivered under the au- 
spices of the Society by Mrs Robert EK. Peary, in aid of the fund 
to equip an expedition to bring her husband, the distinguished 

Report of the Recording Secretary. XXlil 

arctic explorer, home this summer, at the close of his season’s 
work in northern Greenland, rather than leave him there to 
endure the useless delay and hardship of another arctic winter. 
Our Board of Managers, as a slight recognition of interest in and 
approval of the plan, voted to appropriate a sum sufficient to 
pay the expenses of a lecture by Mrs Peary and to give her the 
gross receipts, and in this way, thanks largely to her own energ 
and the interest of the public in her fascinating story of arctic 
life, the Society was enabled, at comparatively small expense, to 
add $400 to the fund—a result especially gratifying by reason of 
the fact that Lieutenant Peary is one of ourown members. This 
incident furnishes in itself a good example of the practical effect- 
iveness of our organization in aiding actual geographic research, 
as well as in increasing and diffusing geographic knowledge. 

Strong support has been given during past years by our Board 
of Managers to the project of uniting into a closer union the 
various scientific societies of this city, and during the past sea- 
son this object has been consummated in a way that is gratifying 
to its earnest supporters and at the same time satisfactory to the 
more conservative. The present organization and powers of the 
Joint Commission seem to be worthy of strong support and ap- 
proval, and there is every reason to believe that its practical 
results will be satisfactory and mutually advantageous to the 
societies represented. 

The meeting this summer in London of the Sixth Interna- 
tional Geographical Congress promises to mark an epoch in the 
history of geographic progress, and this Society will be repre- 
sented by a delegation which, by authority of the Board of 
Managers, will extend a cordial invitation to the Congress to 
hold its next meeting in this city. It is hoped that this eminent 
and influential body will soon honor this country with its pres- 
ence, and our Society can then justly claim to have aided very 
greatly in the advance of geographic knowledge in the United 
States, as the far-reaching influence of such a meeting can hardly 
be overestimated. 

The library of the Society has received, in addition to the 
regular exchanges, a large number of valuable gifts, notable 
amongst Which have been complete sets of Wheeler’s and Ives’ 
Reports, through the courtesy of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. 
Army; several very handsome volumes from His Imperial 
Highness the Archduke Ludwig Salvator, of Austria; and a 

XXIV National Geographic Magazine. 

number of standard geographic works from Mr E. L. Berthoud, 
of Golden, Colorado. The library is now well worthy of a larger 
and more accessible room than has been available hitherto; this 
matter is now under consideration and will doubtless soon be 
settled in a way that wil) add greatly to our facilities for geo- 
graphic study. | 

Tue NationaL GroGRAPHIc MAGAZINE, the official publication 
of the Society, has maintained its high standard in spite of the 
difficulties of publication by a committee whose members can 
ill afford the time and effort required. It is but fair to state that 
by far the greater part of the work and responsibility has fallen 
to the chairman of the committee, Mr W J McGee, to whom 
credit for results achieved, in spite of many difficulties, is there- 
fore largely due. The accompanying complete statement of the 
contents of the Magazine, volumes I to VI, with a list of prices 
and number of copies on hand for sale, will, it is thought, be of 
general interest to members and others. From this statement 
it will be seen, too, that it is proposed to publish the Magazine 
hereafter bimonthly. — 

For the coming season it is thought desirable to secure still 
larger halls for both our popular and technical meetings, as we 
have entirely outgrown those hitherto used. Arrangements 
have already been made to bring about this result, and the com- 
ing season will doubtless show a still larger membership and at- 
tendance. It is likely, too, that a plan will be perfected by which 
regular notices of meetings can be sent to every member—if not 
weekly, at least every two weeks—in place of the calendars that 
have been issued from time to time, at irregular intervals, during 
the past year. It should be understood, however, that the ad- 
vantages of such regular notices have not at any time been under- 
estimated, but the item of expense for postage has been very 
heavy—indeed, far more so than one can realize at first thought. 
With 900 active members a weekly notice—even using postal 
cards—costs, including printing and addressing, about $12.00, 
or say $400 a year, and it was thought that if half of this amount 
could be saved, without material inconvenience, it was well 
worth trying; the printing is a small item in comparison with 
the expense of postage, and the calendars that have been issued, 
in conjunction with the notices in the daily press each week, 
would seem to answer the purpose almost as well and at far 
less expense. 

Report of the Recording Secretary. XXV 

The thanks of the Society are due to the authorities of Colum- 
bian University for the use upon several occasions of their large 
hall free of expense; to the many able and eminent men who 
have contributed so largely to the value and success of our meet- 
ings, animated solely by their love of the subject and their ap- 
preciation of the objects of the Society ; and to the members of 
the Board of Managers, who have devoted so much of their time 
and energy to the duties of their positions, feeling sufficiently 
rewarded by the growth and success of the Society. Without 
such earnest and voluntary assistance on every side it would, of 
course, be wholly impossible to accomplish what we are doing, 
even with largely increased annual dues, and the fact that this 
Society, although so young in years, is so firmly established and 
doing such effective work can justly be regarded as creditable to 
the United States, and especially to its birthplace, the city of 

Everett HAYDEN, 
Recording Secretary. 


(Presented to the Society May 31, 1895) 

Wasuincton, D. C., May 31, 1895. 
To the President and Members, National Geographic Society : 

I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report, to- 
gether with statement of assets as at the close of the year ending 
May 31. . 

On account of alterations made in the by-laws, by which the 
end of the fiscal year was changed from December 31 to May 31, 
the present account covers a period from January 1, 1894, to 
May 31, 1895. 

The receipts for dues for the season of 1894 amounted to 
$2,811, while those for that of 1895 amount to $3,642, or an in- 
crease of nearly 30 per cent. 

The assets of the Society consist of: 

American Security and Trust Company 5 per cent bonds...... $450 00 
Cash on hand, deposited with Bell & Co............. $107 49 
in possession of Secretary............ 50 00 

—-—— 157 49 

Unpaid dues for the years 1894 and 1895 ................000- 1,321 00 

$1,928 49 

All bills up to this date have been paid, and therefore there 
are no liabilities. 

Respectfully submitted. 
Co JdkeBaure 




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(Presented to the Society May 31, 1895) 

Wasurncton, D. C., July 10, 1895. 
The President and Members of the National Geographic Society : 

We, a committee appointed at the annual meeting of May 31, 
1895, to audit the accounts of the Treasurer for the period from 
January 1, 1894, to May 31, 1895, beg to submit the following 

The Treasurer’s statement of receipts, consisting of dues from 
members, life-membership fees, interest on investments; sale of 
magazines and tickets, and of amounts received from miscella- 
neous sources, has been examined and found correct, as shown 
by the books of his office. 

The vouchers for expenditures have been examined and found 
correct. The return checks (except fifteen which had not been 
cashed at time of the closing of the Treasurer’s account) were 
compared with the vouchers and found to agree. 

We have examined the bank book, showing the account with 
Messrs Bell & Co., and found the cash balance to be four hun- 
dred and twenty-nine dollars and sixty cents, which exceeded 
the Treasurer’s reported balance of one hundred and seven dol- 
lars and forty-nine cents by three hundred’ and twenty-two 
dollars and eleven cents, the amount of the fifteen return checks 
referred to in the paragraph above, one of which represented $50 
advanced to the Secretary. 

The amount of outstanding dues reported by the Treasurer as 
$1,326 was carefully examined and found correct. We have 
prepared a full list of these outstanding dues for the use of the 
next Auditing Committee. 

The four bonds of $100 each and one of $50, rezistered in the 
name of the Society, were inspected by us in the hands of the 
Treasurer. | 

Wn. A. DeCarnpry, 
EC) Riga 
Auditing Committee. 



As ApopreD with AMENDMENTS uP TO May 31, 1895 


The name of this Society is the ‘‘ Narronan GroGcrapnic Socrery.”’ 

ARTICLE II. Obszect. 

The object of this Society is the increase and diffusion of geographic 

ARTICLE III... Mempersuip. 

The members of this Society shall be persons who are interested in 
geographic science. There may be three classes of members—active, 
corresponding, and honorary. 

Active members only shall be members of the corporation ; shall be 
entitled to vote and may hold office. 

Persons residing at a distance from the District of Columbia may be- 
come corresponding members of the Society. They may attend its meet- 
ings, take part in its proceedings, and contribute. to its publications. 

Persons who have attained eminence by the promotion of geographic 
science may become honorary members. 

Corresponding members may be transferred to active membership, and, 
conversely, active members may be transferred to corresponding member- 
ship by the Board of Managers. 

The election of members shall be entrusted to the Board of Managers, 


The officers of the Society shall be a President, six Vice-Presidents, a 
Treasurer, a Recording Secretary, and a Corresponding Secretary. 

The above-mentioned officers, together with eight other members of 
the Society, known as Managers, shall constitute a Board of Managers. 
Officers and Managers shall be elected annually, by ballot, a majority of 
the votes cast being necessary to an election ; they shall hold office until 
_ their successors are elected ; and shall have power to fill vacancies occur- 
ring during the year. 

The President, or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presidents, shall pre- 
side at the meetings of the Society and of the Board of Managers; he 
shall, together with the Recording Secretary, sign all written contracts 
and obligations of the Society, and attest its corporate seal; he shall de- 
liver an annual address to the Society. 



<x National Geographic Magazine. 

Each Vice-President shall represent in the Society and in the Board of 
Managers a department of geographic science, as follows: 

Geography of the Land; Geography of the Sea; Geography of the Air; 
Geography of Life; Geographic Art ; Commercial Geography. 

The Vice-Presidents shall foster their respective departments within 
the Society ; they shall presen? annually to the Society summaries of the 
work done throughout the world in their several departments. 

They shall be elected to their respective departments by the Society. 

The Treasurer shall have charge of the funds of the Society, shall col- 
lect the dues, and shall disburse under the direction of the Board of 
Managers; he shall make an annual report; and his accounts shall be 
audited annually by a committee of the Society and at such other times 
as the Board of Managers may direct. 

The Secretaries shall record the proceedings of the Society and of the 
Board of Managers ; shall conduct the correspondence of the Society ; 
and shall make an annual report. 

The Board of Managers shall transact all the business of the Society, 
except such as may be presented at the annual meeting. It shall formu- 
late rules for the conduct of its business. Five members of the Board of 
Managers shall constitute a quorum at regular meetings and nine mem- 
bers at special meetings. 


The initiation fee for active members shall be two dollars, payable upon 
notice of election. 

The annual dues of active members shall be five dollar s, and of corre- 
sponding members two dollars. 

The fiscal year and season of the Society shall begin on the first day 
of June and end on the thirty-first day of May, and the annual dues of 
members shall be payable on or before the last day of October, or, in the 
case of new members, within thirty days after election. 

Annual dues may be commuted and life membership acquired by the 
payment of fifty dollars. 

No member in arrears shall vote at the annual meeting, and the names 
of members two years in arrears shall be dropped from the roll of mem- 

ARTICLE VI. Meetings. 

Regular meetings of the Society shall be held on alternate Fridays, from 
November until May, and excepting the annual meeting they shall be 
devoted to communications. The Board of Managers shall, however, 
have power to postpone or omit meetings, when deemed desirable. Spe- 
cial meetings may be called by the President. 

The annual meeting for the election of officers shall be the last regular 
meeting in May. 

The Board of Managers shall set apart a time and place for the annual 
address of the President and Vice-Presidents. 

A quorum for the transaction of business shall consist of twenty-five 
active members. 

By-laws. Exxl 

ARTICLE VII. Pun.icarions. 

The Society shall publish a journal or periodical under the title Tur 
Nationat Greoarapoic MaGazinnu, which shall be sent to all members of 
the Society and may be placed on sale. 


These by-laws may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the members 
present at any regular meeting, provided that written notice of the pro- 
posed amendment has been given, signed by at least ten active members, 
ata regular meeting held at least four weeks previously. They may also be 
amended by a two-thirds vote of the voters present at the annual meet- 
ing: provided, however, that written notice of the proposed amendment 
has been given at a regular meeting held at least four weeks previous to 
the annual meeting. 

Printed notice shall be sent to all active members of amendments pro- 
posed for action at the annual meeting. 

SEASON OF 1895-’96 

(Elected at the Annual Meeting, May 31, 1895) 


Vice- Presidents 
CHAS. W. DABNEY, Jr, Land 
A. W. GREELY, Air 
W. W. ROCKHILL, Geographic Art 
HENRY GANNETT, Commercial Geography 


Recording Secretary Corresponding Secretary 





May 31, 1895 


Washington, D. C, 

Don Curist6BpaL CoL6n DE ToLepo pr LA CerDA Y GANTE, 
Madrid, Spain. 

28 Jerinyn street, London, England, 

Honorasie Cuarurs P. Daty, 
84 Clinton place, New York, N. Y. 

Dr Grorce M. Dawson, 
Canadian Geological Survey, Ottawa, Canada. 

132 rue de Grenelle, Paris, France. 

Dr Joun Murray, 
Challenger office, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Baron Apoutr E. NorpDENSKIOLD, 
Stockholm, Sweden. 

Kurftirstenstrasse 117, Berlin W., Germany. 

Vienna, Austria. 

Dr D. Esranisitao 8. ZEBALLOS, 
Buenos Ayres, Argentina, 

IlI—Nar. Geog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. (xxxill) 

KML, National Geographic Magazine. 


Appr, ProrEssoR CLEVELAND, 
Weather Bureau. 

Asnotr, Mrs G. E., 

2611 Fourteenth street. 

ABERT, 5S. T., 

722 Seventeenth street. 

Apranams, Miss L. C., 
1106 New Hampshire avenue. 


AcxrrMaN, Lizutenant A. A., U.S. Navy, ‘ 
: Navy Department. 

Acxuny, Lrzurenant Commanper 8, M., U.S. Navy, 
Commanding U.S. 8. Yantie. 

Apams, Cyrus C., 
512 Madison street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Apams, Miss Jutta M., 
Fourth Auditovr’s office. 

Appison, A. D., 
808 Seventeenth street. 

Appison, Mrs Murray, : 
1756 N street. 

Apuer, Dr Cyrus, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Avsrecat, F. J., 
175 Fifth avenue, Chicago, Ill. 

Anpen, Coronet C. H., U. 8S. Army, 
War Department. 

1207 N street. 

905 I street. 

Care of Miss Van Dyke, 1301 K street. 

ALLEN, Dr J. A., 

American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y. 

706 Twelfth street N. E. 

1706 Pennsylvania avenue. 

Atvorp, Masor Henry E., 
Lewinsville, Fairfax county, Virginia. 

Ames, JoHN G., 
1600 Thirteenth street. 

AnvERSON, Jos. W., M. D., 
1911 Eleventh street. 

Active Members. 

Anprews, Coronet G. L., U.S. Army, 

Anprews, Ensiten Puiuip, U.S. Navy, 

AnprReEWws, WELLS F., 
Aptin, S. A., JUNIOR, 
Appiesy, J. F. R., M. D., 

ARRIAGA, SENoR Don A. Lazo, E. E. and M. P. 



Arkinson, WaveE H., M. D., 



Ayres, Miss Susan C., 

Bass, Cyrus C., 

Bascock, Masor J. B., U. S. Army, 

Bacon, Mrs E. O., 

BapGcrr, Commopore O. C., U. 8. Navy, 

Baiuery, Pasr AssisTANtT ENGINEER F. H., U. 

Battery, VERNON, 
Baker, Marcus, 

Baupwiy, A. L., 

Bautpwiy, H. L., Junror, 

Batpwin, Wm. D., 

Batu, CHarves B., 


2400 Columbia road. 
U.S. S. Raleigh. 
Treasury Department. 
U. 8. Geological Survey. 
1430 Thirty-third street. 
1755 M street. 

428 New Jersey avenue. 
17 Dupont cirele. 

618 Twelfth street. 

800 Seventh street. 
Naval Observatory. 

1352 Q street. 

1813 Thirteenth street. 
U.S. Geological Survey. 
2005 G street. 

915 Sixteenth street. 

1517 Twentieth street. 

S. Navy, 

Navy Department. 

Agricultural Department. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 
722 Sixth street N. E. 
U. S. Geological Survey. 
25 Grant place. 

942 T street. 

XXXV1 National Geographic Magazine. 

1328 Vermont avenue. 

Bauurncer, Mrs Mapison A., 
1303 Clifton street. 

Ba.iocu, GENERAL G. W., ae 
. O. Box 557. 

Barser, A. L., 802 F street 

Barser, AMuHerstT W., 
1216 D street N. E. 

Barciay, Mrs Mary M., 
1771 Madison street. 

Barker, Caprain A. S., U. 8. Navy, 
Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal. 

: f U.S. Geological Survey. 

1306 Rhode Island avenue. 

BaARnagp, R. P., 1011 O street 

Barrineton, Wo. L., 
3514 N street. 

Barry, CHARLES E., 
1421 G street. 

Barrxe, R. F. 
, i Falls Church, Va. 

BartiLett, Caprain J. R., U. S. Navy, 
Providence, R. I. 

Barton, Miss Mary L., 
Treasury Department. 

BarcHELDER, GENERAL R. N., U. S. Army, 
War Department. 

Bates, Masor F. H., U. 8. Army, 
1519 Thirty-first street. 

Bares, Dr Henry H., 
The Portland. 

Bates, Mepican Direcror Newton L., U. Ss. Navy : 
2 ’ y = 
The Shoreham. 

2232 Massachusetts avenue. 

- Beaman, Wm. M., 
: U.S. Geological Survey. 

BEARDSLEY, Mepicat Direcror G. 8., U. S. Navy, 

1704 Connecticut avenue. 

BeckHaM, Miss BLaANcHs, 
2721 N street. 

Bett, Dr A. GRAHAM, 
1331 Connecticut avenue. 

Active Members. XXXVIl 

Bet, Proressor A. MELVILLE, 
1525 Thirty-fifth street. 

Bert, C. J., 
: 1405 G street. 

Bei, Miss GertrupeE A., 
Takoma Park, D. C. 

Bext, E. Oxtver, M. D., 
: The Albany. 

Benner, F. V., 
: The Arlington. 

Benton, FRANK, 
Agricultural Department. 

Bercer, ADOLPHE, 
Pension Office. 

BereMann, H. H., 
511 Seventh street. 

BeEssELIEVRE, 8. L., 
Navy Department. 

Beveriper, M. W., 
1618 H street. 

Bren, Jutus, 
140 Sixth avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Bren, JoserH R., C. E., 

140 Sixth avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Bien, Morris 
: : General Land Office. 

Bicgetow, Proressor Franxk H., 
: 1625 Massachusetts avenue. 

BiGELow, OTIs, ES Se 
J , Md. 

Bircu, CHARLES E., 
: Hydrographie office, Navy Department. 

Briack, H. CAMPBELL, 
2516 Fourteenth street. 

Buarr, H. B. 
: , U. S. Geological Survey. 

BiancHarp, Honoraste N. C., 
U.S. Senate. 

Biount, Henry F., 
5 ’ 3101 U street. 

Biount, Mrs L. E., 
3101 U street. 

BoarpMAN, W. J., 
La 1801 P street. 

Bock, Miss M. C. 
; ; 619 Maryland avenue N, E. 

Bonp, Miss Mary E., =f 
813 First street.. 

XXXVIil National Geographic Magazine. 

Bonn, SamMuet R., 
13 Iowa circle. 

BonuaM, JouHn M., 
Cosmos Club. 

Bovupgk, Jonn K., M. D., 
905 R street. 
Boye, Pryron, 
1425 New York avenue. 

Brace, Mrs Heten D., 
1316 Thirtieth street. 

BraDFORD, COMMANDER R. B., U. 8. Navy, 
1522 P street. 

Brapuey, Honorasce A. C., 
2013 Q street. 

BrabDbey, Georce L., 
2035 P street. 

Brapiey, Mrs J. M., 
816 K street. 

Branner, Dr J. C., 
Leland Stanford Junior University, Cal. 

War Department. 
Brewer, Miss Ciara G., 
1009 Thirteenth street. 

Brewer, Miss Kare, 
1409 Thirtieth street. 

Brewer, Proressor Wm. H., 
418 Orange street, New Haven, Conn. 

Bricut, Ricnarp R., 
130 B street N. E. 

Brinton, Mrs E. &., 
1414 Fourteenth street. 

Britton, A. T., once 
ZZ street. 

Brock, FENELON, 
818 North Carolina avenue S. E, 

Brooks, AuFrep H., 
0 U. S. Geological Survey. 

Brooks. Newton M., 
233 Second street S, E. 

Brown, Dr B. W., mie 
1e Gratton 

Brown, Epwarp J., 
820 Twentieth street. 

Brownz, A. B., 

622 F street. 

Browne, GENERAL Wo. H., 
1645 K street. 

Active Members. XXXIxX 

Bryan, SAMUEL M., 
2025 Massachusetts avenue, 

Buck, Miss Apa P., 
635 Maryland avenue N. E. 

Buckman, Mrs &. A., 
717 Tenth street. 

Buetu, Herpverr L., 
1701 V street. 

BuLxktey, Barry, 
1723 N street. 

Bunce, Apmirau F. M., U. 8. Navy, 
Com’d’g U. 8. Naval Foree, North Atlantic Station. 

BurcuE 1, N. L., 
1102 Vermont avenue. 

Burpetr, GENERAL S. S., 
925 F street. 

Bureess, Cares H., 
Eighth and O streets. 

Bureess, Epwarp &., 
Normal College, New York. 

Burr, Wy. H., 

1017 K street. 

Burton, Prorrssor A. E., 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Busey, 8. C., M. D., 14a) l'etraes 
fa) str . 

Borter, Mrs Jo: Cirestney, 
1416 K street. 

Burier, W. H., 
609 C street. 

Byrnes, W. F., M. D., 

35 B street S. E. 

Cani.i, Timorny, : 
1808 Sixteenth street. 

RanvER, J. V., M. D., 
207 A street S. E. 

Catvo, SeXor J. B., 
1509 Twentieth street. 

CAMPBELL, Miss J. S., 
136 C street S. E. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 

CANTACUZENE, Prince., E. E. and M. P., 
1829 I street. 

Capps, Assistant Navau Construcror W. L., U.S. Navy, 
Navy Department. 

Carterton, M. A., 
Agricultural Department. 

xl National Geographic Magazine. 

CarMAN, Miss Apa, 
1351 Q street. 

1318 Vermont avenue, 

Carr, GENERAL E. A., U.S. Army, 
The Richmond. 

CarrorHers, Miss C. F., 
1802 Twentieth street. 

Carter, Lirurenant R. G., U. S. Army, 
Sixteenth street, Mt Pleasant. 

CatLin, Caprarn Ropert, U.S. Army, 
1428 Euclid place. 

Care Brazilian Legation, 1800 N street. 

213 C-street S. E. 

Cuaney, Honorasie J. C., 
1320 F street. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 

1758 K street. 

Cuerry, CHARLES H., 
1115 S street. 

Cuesnut, Vicror K., 
Agricultural Department, 

Cuester, Miss J. M., 
1016 Eleventh street. 

CHICKERING, Proressor J. W., 
Kendall Green. 

1308 Connecticut avenue. 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Curisti£, ALEX. §., 
General Delivery. 

Cuaristiz, P. H., 
. 1934 Fifth street. 

CuarK, CHARLES &., 
Dennison school. 

Cuark, Eapert A., M. D., 
600 Thirteenth street. 

Criark, E. B., 

U.S. Geological Survey. 

CLARK, Proressor Isaac, 
Howard University. 

Cuark, Miss May &., 
Bureau of Ethnology. 

Active Members. xli 

CLARKE, Mrs F. W..,. 
1612 Riggs place. 

Ciements, Miss L. H., 
1610 Q street. 

Cover, Lirurenant CommManper Ricuarpson, U. 8. Navy, 
1535 New Hampshire avenue. 

Cotpy, Honorasite LEonarD W., 
1325 Tenth street. 

micour, G. R. Les, M. D., 

CorTHELL, E. L., C. E., 

424 Seventh street S. W. 

Cote, T. iee 

12 Coreoran building. 

CoLEMAN, Masor F. W., 
The Richmond. 

Coron, FRANCIS, 
1635 Connecticut avenue. 

Comstock, Mrs §. C., 
1464 Rhode Island avenue. 

ConneELLy, Miss Mary, 
1724 L street. 

Conno.iy, Miss Louise, 
1416 Sixth street. 

Cooke, J. G., 

320 N street. 
Coon, E., 
Corson, Miss Iba, 
914 Farragut square. 
71 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Coves, Dr Exttiorr, 
Smithsonian Institution. 

1307 Connecticut avenue. 

Cove.t, L. W., 

Civil Service Commission. 

CovILLE, Freperick V., 
Agricultural. Department. 

CowsiLt, ARTHUR, 
634 I street N. E., Bernarp J., 
$34 Thirteenth street. 

Crane, Auacustus, JUNIOR, 
1344 F street. 

Cross, WHITMAN, 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

Crowe 1, Mrs A. S., 
933 I street. 

xlil National Geographic Magazine. 

Cummincs, Proressor Grorce J., 

Cummines, Miss M. B., 
Cummrines, Miss S. E., 
CunniINGHAM, Miss M. E., 
CunnineHam, Mrs W. O., 
Curry, W. W., 

Curtis, WILLIAM ELERoy, 
Cusnine, Frank Haminton, 
Cusuinea, Miss S. C., 
Custis, G. W. N., M. D., 
Custis, Miss Vinua C., 
Currer, Wink. 

Daxsnery; Dr C. W., Junior, 
Daxsy, Z. Lewis, 

Dat, Mrs Caronrne H., 

Dau, Dr Wo. H., 

Dana, Genrrau J. J., U.S. Army, 

Darton, N. H., 

Davis, Miss ADELAIDE, 
Davis, ALLAN, 

Davis, Mrs J. T., 

Davis, Proressor Wm. M., 
Dawson, Miss A. B., 

Dawson, THomas F., 

Howard University. 

520 Sixth street. 

520 Sixth street. 

1234 Tenth street. 

1723 K street. 

1510 Ninth street. 

1801 Connecticut avenue. 
Bureau of Ethnology. 

310 Indiana avenue. 

112 East Capitol street. 
112 East Capitol street. 
Agricultural Department. 
The Concord. 

Civil Service Commission. 
1526 Eighteenth street. 
Smithsonian Institution. 
Cosmos Club. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 
1320 Fifteenth street. 
Business High School, First street. 
1426 Q street. 

2 Bond street, Cambridge, Mass. 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

U.S, Senate annex. 

Active Members. xliii 

Day, C. A., 
; 1405 G street. 

Day, Dr Davin T., 

U.S. Geological Survey. 

Day, E. Warren, 
38 Times building, New York, N. Y. 

De Carnpry, Ws. A., 
4 War Department. 

Deckert, Dr E., 
1489 Howard avenue. 

De Merrirt, Dr J. H., 

1335 Vermont avenue. 

Denman, CoLonet H., 
1623 Sixteenth street. 

DertweILer, F. M., 
420 Eleventh street. 

Dickens, ComManper F. W., U.S. Navy, 
Commanding U.S. 8. Constellation. 

Dresitscu, Emit, C. E., 
2014 Twelfth street. 

Dieuponne, FRANK J., 
Ohio National Bank building. 

Ditter, J. S. 
; U.S. Geological Survey. 

Dopee, CHARLEs C., 
Office Naval Intelligence, Navy Department. 

Donn, E. W. 
; ‘ 1708 Sixteenth street. 

‘Doorrrrir, M. H., 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Dovusiepay, H. H., aNeahs 

Doveras, FE. M., 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

Doyur, Joun T., 
Civil Service Commission. 

Dourrietp, GENERAL W. W., 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Dunck er, Joun B., 
940 Westminster street. 

Dutton, Masor C. E., U. S. Army, 

San Antonio, Tex. 

Dyrr, Franx L., 
918 F street. 

Dyer, Lieutenant G. L., U. S. Navy, 
Annapolis, Md. 

: Record and Pension Office. 

xliv National Geographic Magazine. 

Eaton, LirureNant Commanner J. G., U. S. Navy, 
Navy Department. 

Eppy, Mrs Mary H., 

The Shoreham. 

EpMmanps, Proressor J. R., 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Epson, Joun Joy, a 
1003 F street. 

Epson, Joseru R., 
927 F street. 

Epwarps, J. A. 
; ; 1009 'Thirteenth street. 

Keueston, N. H., M. D. 
i é ‘ 1530 Sixteenth street. 

Eimpecr, WILLIAM 
i i U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 

ELpripGer, Grorcr H. 
: U.S. Geological Survey. 

che 4 Brookline, Mass. 

Evuiotr, Miss EvizaBeru, P m 
1114 Fifteenth street, 

Exuiorr, W. Sr Gores, M. D., 
25 E. Forty-fourth street, New York, N. Y. 

Emmons, Lizurenant Grorce T., U. 8. Navy, 
U.S. 8. Pinta, Sitka, Alaska. 

j ; U.S. Geological Survey. 

Evans, H. C. 
: ; U.S. Geological Survey. 

Evans, Mrs Joun O. 
; 2 1219 Sixteenth street. 

Evans, W. W., M. D., 1756 M street 
36 street. 

EverMANN, Proressor B. W., 
1859 Harewood avenue. 

Ewe, Reverenp Proressor J. L., 
Howard University. 

von Ezporr, RicHarp, 
918 N street. 

1407 Staughton street 

Farrrietp, W. B. 
; ; U. 8. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Faris, R. L. 
; 4 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

FarquuHar, Henry, 
e Agricultural Department. 

Active Members. xlyv 

Agricultural Department. 

2013 Massachusetts avenue. 

“4 U.S. Coast and Gaodeiic Survey. 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
ei F street. 

3025 N street. 

1518 Connecticut avenue. 

414 A street 8. E. 

1437 Kenesaw avenue. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 

Army Medical Museum. 

17384 I street. 

1213 K street. 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Foorr, ALLEN R. 
( } Takoma Park, D. C. 

Foorr, Ave. R. S., 

2021 H street. 

Forney, SreuMan, 
: ; U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Forrest, Justus C., 

Hydrographie Office, Navy Department. 

‘Foster, Honorasie Joun W., 
cs 1405 I street. 

Foster, Proressor Ricwarp, 
. ' Howard University. 

Fow er, E. H., 
: 1126 East Capitol street. 

-Fow er, Francis, 
, 1449 Q street. 

Fraser, DANIEL 
4 ; : 458 Pennsylvania avenue. 

Frencu, Grorce N., M. D., 
x ' 18311 street. 

xlvi National Geographic Magazine. 

Frenco, Owen B., 5 
2011 F street. 

FrisBiz, Proressor Epaar, U. 8. Navy, 
1607 Thirty-first street. 

Frost, Fuoyp T. 
j ; Navy Department. 

Fuuuer, Miss A. H., 

1321 Rhode Island avenue, 

Fuuurr, THomas J. D., 
1509 H street. 

GaGeE, N. P., 

Seaton school. 

GANNETT, Henry, 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

GaANnert, S. S. 
; i U.S. Geological Survey. 

GARDNER, C. L., Pees 

Garnett, Henry WIss, 
] 1319 New York avenue. 

GARNIER, Miss M. A., 
6 Grant place. 

Garrison, Miss C. L., 
944 S street. 

GERDINE, THomas G., 
General Land Office. 

912 Nineteenth street. 

Gisss, Epwin A., M. D., 
1608 Thirteenth street. 

Grsps, Miss H. H., 
2905 N street. 

Thirteenth street and Pennsylvania avenue. 


U.S. Geological Survey. 

Gitt, Dr THeopore N., 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Guavis, GEorGE O., JUNIOR., 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

GoppDARD, F. J., 
3077 Dumbarton avenue. 

Goopr, Dr G. Brown, 
National Museum. 

2 ’ 
U. Ss. Geo ogical Sur yey. 

Active Members. xlvii 

1618 Sixteenth street. 

Gooprici, Haron B., 
3 U.S. Geological Survey. 

RHAM, GEORGE C., Hon Sten 
76: street. 

1721 I street. 

Granam, Miss AGNeEs M., 
: 1714 Q street. 

Granam, Anprew B., 
) 1230 Pennsylvania avenue. 

Granarr, F. D. : 
lS ; : U.S. Goast and Geodetic Survey. 

Grant, Miss A. L., 
‘ : 507 East Capitol street. 

Graves, Miss A. E., 
s ; 319 East Capitol street. 

Graves, Louis B., 
i 2504 Fourteenth street. 

Graves, Wavrer H., 
Crow Indian Reservation, Mont. 

Greecor, W. H., 

= Fourteenth and G streets. 

GreeLy, Gexerat A. W., U.S. Army, 
j War Department. 

GREEN, Bernarp R., : 
y 1738 N street. 

GREEN, AssISTANT ENGINEER C. M., U. S. Revenue Marine, 
‘Treasury Department. 

GREEN, Darius A., 
i Navy Department. 

fe 3129 U street. 

Gricr, Francis E., : 
; Navy Department. 

~ : ‘ Civil Service Commission. 

yer, Miss C. C., Sri ROR 

GuzmAn, Dr Don Horacio, E. E. and M. P., 
7 1623 Massachusetts avenue. 

ckrTT, Mrernriiu 
: ‘ U.S. Geological Survey. 

Hacan, Mrs Cornetia J., 1332 V street 
by” street. 

Haener, Jupce A. B., 
ll 1818 H street. 

xlviil National Geographic Magazine. 

Haeve, Dr ARNOLD, 
Haines, Miss M. &., 

Haines, Toomas L., 


Hamizron, WILLIAM, 
Hamtiin, Dr Trunis S., 
Hamma, REVEREND M. W., 
Hanrorp, Lev1, 

Hanks, H. M., 

HansMann, Max, 
Hanvey, Frank L., 
Harpine, Miss Gena R., 
Harpy, Epwarp D., 

Harvuan, Mr Justice Joun M., 

HaArriInGton, Proressor Mark W., 

Harris, HonorasLte Ww. T., 
Harrop, Masor B. M., 
Harr, Proressor A. B., 
Hart, Amos W., 
Hassrouck, E. M., 

Hay, Proressor Roperr, 

Haypen, Ensign Everett, U. 8. Navy, 

U.S. Geological Survey. 

Eighth street and Pennsylvania avenue §S, E. 

175 Fifth avenue, Chicago, Il. 
Metropolitan Club, 
Bureau of Education, 
1306 Connecticut avenue. 
1336 Massachuseits avenue, 
Pension Office. 
409 G street. 
446 L street. 
605 H street. 
1726 Corcoran street. 
234 New Jersey avenue. 
The Shoreham. 
Howard University. 
Fourteenth street and Euclid avenue. 
State University, Seattle, Wash. 
Bureau of Education. 
Masonic building, New Orleans, La. 
15 Appian way, Cambridge, Mass. 
712 Tenth street. 
154 A street N. E. 
P. O. box 562, Junction City, Kans. 

1802 Sixteenth street. 

Active Members. xlix 

Haypen, Miss Lixin, 
Bryn Mawr School, Baltimore, Md. 

Hayes, Miss Annie M., 
Bureau of Engraving and Printing. 

Hayes, Dr C. Witiarp, 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

Haywarp, H. A., 

926 Massachusetts avenue. 

Hazarp, Danrev L., 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

HEAD, Cotonet J. F., U.S. Army, 
2015 R street. 

Hearp, HonoraBLe AUGUSTINE, 
Metropolitan Club. 

Hearst, Mrs P. A., 

1400 New Hampshire avenue. 

Heatoy, A. G., 

1618 Seventeenth street. 

Heprick, H. B., 

Nautical Almanac Office. 

HEiverin, G. F., 

1227 Pennsylvania avenue, 


Sixteenth street and Florida avenue. 

Henpees, Matrruew, 
General Land Office, 

Henprickson, Proressor W. W., U.S. Navy, 
1706 P street. 

Henry, A. J., 

948 S street. 

Hersert, Honorasie Hivary A., 
Navy Department. 

Herrie, Gustave, 
Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. 

Herron, Witiiam H., 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

Hewett, G. C., 
1744 Coreoran street. 

Hickey, Miss 8. G. 
2 : a 1322 Ninth street. 

Hiaerns, M. T., 

Civil Service Commission. 

Hiaut, SHERMAN, 
: 1426 F street. 

Hitz, Georce WILLIAM, 
Agricultural Department. 

Hii, Roserr T., 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

I1V—Nat. Grog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

] National Geographic Magazine. 

HILiesranp, Dr W. F., 
coer, AG EL, 

HitimaN, Myra T., 
Hits, CHaries W., 
Hinman, RussELL, 

Hirt, Honorasre R. R., 
Hitz, Jorn, 

Honpexins, W. C., 
HorrMan, Emit O., 
Sensory, Mrs L. E., 
Houierita, Herman, 
Hott, Henry Perer Renour, 
Horrzman, R. O., 

Hoop, Jameus F., 

Hopkins, J. H., 

Hopxins, Miss M. G., 
ees niin 
Horsrorp, Miss CorNerxts, 
Hosmer, Epwarp 6&., 
Horcuxiss, Masor JED, 
Hovucu, Miss Heien M., 
Hovucu, WALTER, 

ove Reverenp Dr H. C., 

Howe it, D. J., 

U.S. Geological Survey. 

Civil Service Commission. 

227 Third street. 

1345 Vermont avenue. 

806 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

1507 K street. 

Thirty-fifth and Q streets. 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Light-house Board, Treasury Department. 

The Hollenden, Clevelund, Ohio. 
1521 Thirty-first_street. 

Takoma Park, I). C. 

Tenth and F streets. 

622 F street. 

1407 F street. 

2034 G street 

1402 M street. 

27 Cragie street, Cambrid.ze, Mass. 
29 Nassau street, New York, N. Y. 
i Staunton, Va. 

202 Indiana avenue. 

National Museum. 

60 High street, Newburyport, Mass. 

918 F street. 

Active Members. li 

Howe tt, E. E., 

612 Seventeenth street. 

Hoyt, Honorasir Joun W., 
; Pacific building. 

Hussarp, Honorasite GARDINER G., 
“Twin Oaks,” Woodley lane. 

Hupp.esov, 8. M., 
Agricultural Department. 

Hupson, Joun R., Junior, 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

Home, Franr, 
454 Pennsylvania avenue. 

Hont, Mes Atice U., 
Tenley, D. C. 

mont, C. B., 

District building. 
Hurp, Henry M., M. D., 
Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Md. 

Hourcuinson, JoHy, 
1524 P street. 

Horcuinson, W. J., 
1707 Massachusetts avenue, 

Horcuison, Miss J. E., 
516 Third street, 

Hyam, Miss V. W.., 
13145 street. 

Hypg, Miss E. R., 

1526 I street, 

Hype, G. E. 
; 2 U.S. Geological Survey. 

Hypg, Joun, 
Agricultural Department. 

Hype, Miss JosepHine, 
434 K street. 

Incu, Cuter Encinrer Pup, U.S. Navy, 
1748 P street. 

Irtsu, Genera CHArtes W., ‘ 
Agricultural Department. 

The Concord, 

Jackson, Mrs §S. V., 
1711 P street. 

JAMES, Mrs J. F., 

1475 Kenesaw avenue. 

; ; 1671 Thirty-first street. 

Jarvis, Lizeurenant D. H., U. 8S. Revenue Marine, 
New Bedford, Mass. 


hii National Geographic Magazine. 

JENNINGS, Miss H. R., 
1714 Johnson place. 

‘ U.S. Geological Survey. 

JEWELL, Cuauptius B., 
1324 Vermont avenue. 

Jonunson, A. B., 
Light-house Board, Treasury Department, 

Jounson, Miss A. B., 
501 Maple avenue. 

Jounson, H. L. E., M. D., 
1400 L street. 

Jounson, J. B., 
Howard University. 

é ; U.S. Geological Survey. 

Jounson, Tueo. H., 
1115 S street. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 

Jounston, A. D., 
1332 V street. 

Jouvston, Miss E. B., 
1320 Florida avenue. 

Jounston, W. W., M. D., 
1603 K street. 

Jones, Epwarp §., M. D., 
» 1505 R. street. 

JuDD, JoHN G.,* 
420 Eleventh street. 

Kasson, Honorasie Joun A., 
1726 I street. 

KauFrMany, 8. H., 
1421 Massachusetts avenue. 

Kerang, Bisnor J. J., 
Catholie University. 

Keith, ARTHUR, 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

Kewtey, Miss Fannie L., 
1620 Seventeenth street. 

Ke.ty, Miss M. G., 
715 East Capitol street. 

Care of J. B. Pond, Everett House, New York, N. Y. 

Kennepy, Grorce G., M. D., 
284 Warren street, Roxbury, Mass. 

* Died July 28, 1895. 

Active Members. lili 
Kennon, Lizutenant L. W. V., U.S. Army, 
1429 New York avenue. 

Kent, Miss PrIscriia, 
1311 Connecticut avenue. 

Keyser, Miss A. K., 

2019 Massachusetts avenue. 

Krveatt, E. F., 
F 1316 Rhode Island avenue. 

Kimpari, Honoraste S. L., 
Life Saving Service, Treasury Department. 

Kine, Miss Anya &., 
1315 Twelfth street. 

Kine, Proressor F. H., 
1500 University avenue, Madison, Wis. 

Kine, GEorGcE A., 
1420 New York avenue. 

Kine, Miss Meretza, 
721 Irving street. 

KING, R. A., 

1430 Coreoran street. 

Kine, Wiiiiam B., 
1328 Twelfth street. 

Kivu, Surn Brune, 
Korean Legation, Iowa circle. 

Hydrographie office, Navy Department. 

Knapp, Honorasie M. A., 
Sun building. 

Kyow tron, Proressor F. H., 
National Museum. 

Ktset, Epwarp, 
326 First street N. E. 

Kiet, S. J. 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

KumMe.., Cuarves H., 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Kourino, Sarnicuiro, E. E. and M. P., 
Japanese Legation, 1310 N street. 

Lapp, Grorce E., 

Lanper, Mrs J. M. D., 
45 B street S. E. 

Lanetey, Dr S. P., 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Lawrence, Rosert M., M. D., 


1525 Eighteenth street. 

Lawrence, Miss MarGaret, 
1515 Corcoran street. 

liv National Geographic Magazine. 

Lepyarp, L. W., 
Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Ler, REvEREND THomas S., 
St Matthew’s rectory, 1415 H street. 

Lerrer, L. Z., 

Dupont circle, 

LENMAN, Miss I. H. 
; 4 1100 Twelfth street. 

Leverinc, THomas H., 135. One 
IO < str a 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

LinpENnKont, H., 
U.S. Coast and Geodetie Survey. 
LirrLenates, G. W., 
Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. 

Lsunestept, O. A. 
‘ ; U.S. Geological Survey. 

Lone, Caprain Oscar F., U.S. Army, 
: War Department. 

Looxer, Henry B., C. E., 

Surveyor’s office. 

Loomis, Miss A. E., 

Fernandina, Fla. 

Loomis, Dr Larayette C., a 
Winthrop heights. 

Lorp, Epwin C. E., M. D., 
2024 G street. 

Lorp, Caprain THomas W., U.S. Army, 
608 Twelfth street. 

Lorenz, Frep. A., 
: Central School Supply House, Chicago, III. 
Loury, Miss H. S., 

¢ 1309 F street. 

Loveii, W. H. 
; U. S. Geological Survey. 

Lowe, Cuter Eneineer Jonn, U.S. Navy, 
203 East Capitol street. 

Lupineton, Cotonet M. I., U. 8. Army, 
Army building, Chicago, III. 

1243 New Jersey avenue. 

Lyncu, JoHN A., vos ee 
209 street 5. &. 

MaAcraRLaAND, JOSEPH, lay 
1727 F street. 

Mack, Miss Netur M., 
624 A street S. E. 

Active Members. lv 

Pk” 1325 Sixteenth street. 

: a 1644 Twenty-first street. 

ox, Mins M. H. B., 

1329 Corcoran street. 

D HN G. 
Jo ’ 415 I street S, E. 

Mautert, Miss Anna &., 
; 4 1454 Rhode Island avenue. 

Manperson, Honoraste Crarves F., 
; Omaha, Neb. 

nx, H. L., M. D., 

334 Indiana avenue. 

inn, Miss Mary E., 
a 437 Seventh street. 
Manninc, Van H., 


U.S. Geological Survey. 

Marean, M., : 
'*® 1900 Lineoln avenue N. E. 

ARINDIN, Henry L., ! F 
é U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Marsu, Lizutenant C. C., U.S. Navy, 
~- , : U.S. F.S. New York. 
Arsau., R. B., , 
aa U.S. Geological Survey. 

Marri, Arremas, F 
a 1534 Columbia street. 

Martry, Miss Frances, ; 
a 1850 Wyoming avenue. 

Mart, R. H., ; aieble 
ee : Columbian University. 

RVINE, Mrs A. R., 
; 1523 N street. 
[arsur, K., SEcRErARY, 
Bi , 

Marrnews, Commopore E. O., U.S. Navy, 

Japanese Legation, 1310 N street. 

1761 Q street. 

Marrnews, Surcron Wasurnaton, U. 8. Army, 

i: 1262 New Hampshire avenue. 
Marriwety, Winisam F. . 
‘a pore : 435 Seventh street. 

4 1767 Massachusetts avenue. 
Maxcy, F. E., M. D., 

18 Lowa circle. 

ayNAnD, Groner C., 1407 Fifteenth street. 

lvi National Geographic Magazine. 

Maynarp, ComManpEer W., U.S. Navy, 
Navy Department. 

McAnprigz, ALEXANDER, 
U.S. Weather Bureau, San Francisco, Cal. 

McA.uister, C. A., 

Treasury Department. © 

McCarty, Mrs O. V., 
1324 S street. 

McCeney, Miss Mary E., 

The Shoreham. 

McCormick, L. M., Pr 
en Island, N. Y. 

McCuttocu, Miss Mary, 
y P. O. box 646, 

McCuttioucn, Mrs L. V., 
820 Twelfth street N. E. 

McCurpy, ArtHur W., 
Baddeck, C. B. 

McGeps, W J, 

Bureau of Ethnology. 

McGr11, Miss M. C., 1447 Q street 
: street. 

McGratH, JouHN E., 

McGuire, F. B., 

1333 Connecticut avenue, 

McKes, Repick H., 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

McLananan, G. W., 
1601 Twenty-first street., T. N., M. D., 
1226 N street. 

McNett, Earon K., M. D., 
930 K street. 

McPuerson, Mrs Mary E., 
1227 I street. 

Mespr, Apmrrat R. W., U.S. Navy, 

220 Winona avenue, Germantown, Pa. 

Mearns, Captain E. A., U. S. Army, 
Fort Myer, Va. 

Metoy, Ww. A., 
118 C street. 

Metvitir, Encinerr-1n-Curer G. W., U.S. Navy, 
Navy Department, 
DE Menponga, Sennor M. D. F., 
Brazilian Legation, 1800 N street. 

DE MeNpDoNGA, SENHOR SALvApor, E. E. and M: P., 
Brazilian Legation, 1800 N street. 

Active Members. lvii 

Menocat, Civin Encrnerr A. G., U.S. Navy, 
: Norfolk Navy Yard, Va 
Merriam, Dr C. Hart, 
Agricultural Department. 
Merrwaco, Caprarn D. T., Imperial Russian Navy, 
4 1725 H street. 
Mestov, R. D., 
1227 L street. 
Merzerorr, F. B., 
1110 F street. 
Micuier, Paymasrer A. K.; U.S. Navy, 
Navy Department. 
U.S. Geological Survey. 
Minter, E. H., 
1109 M street. 
» Miuus, Coronet Anson, U.S. Army, 
2 Dupont circle. 
Mitmore, Mrs Mary L., 
1713 Coreoran street. 
Miner, Lieutenant R. H., U.S. Navy, 
Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal. 
Mircueii, Proressor Henry, 
54 Burroughs street, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
Mtyoaxa, Caprain N., Imperial Japanese Navy, 
Japanese Legation, 1310 N street. 
Monracur, Proressor A. P., 
Columbian University. 
Moors, F. L., 
1680 Thirty-first street. 
Moors, Mrs M. R., 
P. O. box 505. 
Moaus, J. OLIVER, 
1009 Thirteenth street. 
Morgan, GENERAL M. R., U.S. Army, 
1633 Massachusetts avenue. 
Morrison, J. R. D., 
1326 F street. 
Morrison, W. C., 
1415 Rhode Island avenue. 
Mosmay, A. T., 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 
Murr, Proressor Jonn, 
Martinez, Cal. 
Moutter, Frank C., , 
Agricultural Department 
Moncaster, M., M. D., 
1510 H street 
V—Nar. Geog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

lvili National Geographic Magazine. 

Murcu, B. W., 

Force school. 

Muruin, A. E. 
: : U.S. Geological Survey. 

Murpuy, REVEREND Jos. W., 
927 M street. 

Murray, Captain P. Sr. Crair, U.S. M. C., 
U.S. Marine Barracks. 

Murray, B. P. 
: 10 Third street N. E. 

Myrincer, Miss Caro.ine, 
1214 O street. 

Nassau, Wo. B., ee. 

1730 Sixteenth street. 

Netson, CommanpER Tuomas, U. 8. Navy, | 
Navy Yard, Portsmouth, N. H. 

1025 Vermont avenue. 

Newcome, Proressor Simon, U. 8. Navy, 
1620 P street. 

NeweE 1, F. H. 
‘ d U. S. Geological Survey. 

Nizzs, Proressor Witi1am H., 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

NoricgHian, M., EFFENDI, 
Turkish Legation, 1631 Q street. 

Noyes, Crospy &., 
Editor Evening Star. 

Noyes, THEODORE W.., : 
Office of The Evening Star. 

OaKeEs, GENERAL James, U.S. Army, 
The Portland. 

OGDEN, HrerRBert G., 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

810 H street. 

OMBAR Leas:, 
Hydrographic office, Navy Department. 

Ouiver, Mrs M. E., 

922 Nineteenth street. 

Ouney, CHaARuEs F., 
‘ 137 Jennings avenue, Cleveland, O. 

Owen, F. D., 

1423 New York avenue. 

Owen, CotoneL Wo. H., 
2213 Washington circle. 


Active Members. lix 

900 Fourteenth street. 
C ’ 3 Agricultural Department. 

1597 Corcoran street. 

16 Lafayette square. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 

PARKER, Mepicau Inspector J. B., U. S. Navy, 
Navy Yard, Portsmouth, N. H. 

PARKER, Miss L. M. 
i : 1621 Seventeenth street. 

PARKER, Myron M., 
1020 Vermont avenue. 

ARKER, Mayor Ricuarp C., U.S. Army, , 
Soldiers’ Home, 

PARMENTER, EnsiaN H. E., U.S. Navy, 
a 1710 G street. 
210 First street S. E. 

1529 O street. 

3033 P street. 

ATTERSON, Mrs A. M., 20 Iowa circle 

Patterson, H. J., 
Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, College Park, Md. 

ai ae 937 New York avenue. | 
1100 Vermont avenue. 

Pau, Henry M. 
¢ ; : Naval Observatory. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Payne, JAMES G. 
e. ‘ : 2112 Massachusetts avenue. 

; ; U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Peary, Civit Encineer R. E., U.S. Navy, 
2014 Twelfth street. 

PEELLE, JupDGE Sranton J., aad 
‘ : ne Concora, 

PeLitew, Henry EF. 
7 ; 1637 Massachusetts avenue. 

Ix National Geographic Magazine. 

Penrose, R. A. F., Juntor, M. D., 

1331 Spruce street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Perkins, E. T., JUNIOR, 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

Perkins, Honorasre G. C., 
U.S. Senate. 

Perry, R. Ross, 1309 P street 

Perry, SEATON, 
1713 Rhode Island avenue. 

Perers, EUGENE 
; , 458 Pennsylvania avenue. 

Perers, Lrzeurenant G. H., U.S. Navy, 
U.S. S. Minneapolis. 

Perers, WILLIAM J., 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

jDaqnujiiestel ene les 

1422 New York avenue. 

Puruires, HonoraBLE T. W., 
1122 Vermont avenue. 

PICKERING, Proressor E. C., 
Harvard Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. 

Pickine, Captain Henry F., U.S. Navy, 
Navy Department. 

Pierce, Jostan, JUNIOR, 
1325 Massachusetts avenue. 

Pinuine, J. W., 

1301 Massachusetts avenue. 

Puatr, Honorasie O. H., 
U.S. Senate. 

1301 F street. 

PoLtitox, ANTHONY, 
620 F street. 

Ponp, Mrs E. J., on oe 
5 4 stree . . 

Poouz, Masor De W. C., U.S. Army, 
2030 P street. 

Porter, Minorr E., 
Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. 

PowE.LL, Masor C. F., U.S. Army, 

District building. 

Powe, Mrs Diana KEARNEY, 
1734 K street. 

PowE.t, Masor J. W., 
910 M street. 

Powe, Proressor W. B., 
Franklin school. 



Prentiss, D. W., M. D., 

Active Members. lxi 

Powers, Miss Lypra M., 
1439 Chapin street. 

Prana, Louts, 
646 Washington street, Boston, Mass. 

| Pear, J. F., 

U.S. Coast and Geodetie Survey. 

1101 Fourteenth street. 

Procrer, HonoraBiE JOHN R., 
Civil Service Commission. 

Purnam, GrorGE R., 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Py es, Frep. B., 
Washington Loan and Trust building. 

ibyor, Waiter L., M. D., 
The Albany. 

Raper, Miss KarHErine, 

1914 Third street. 
Ranp, CHarces F., M. D., 

1228 Fifteenth street. 

Ranp, PayMAsTER SrepHeN, U. 8. Navy, 
Navy Yard. 

RANKIN, PresipEnt J. E., 
; : Howard University. 

‘ d Atlantic building. 

Raymonp, Epwarp &., 
Washington Loan and Trust building. 

_ Reep, Lizutenant B. L., U. S. Revenue Marine, 

Life Saving Service, Treasury Department. 

Reep, Miss TEMPERANCE P., 
1616 Rhode Island avenue. 

Reese, Miss Evua, et ees 

Retry, Puri K., 
2321 Pennsylvania avenue. 

‘Reventiow, Count F., E. E. and M. P., 

1409 Twentieth street. 

Reysurn, Rosert, M. D., 
714 Thirteenth street., Genera J. J., U. 8. Army, 
: 1601 S street. 

RicHarpson, C. W., M. D., ert 
v2 street. 

Ricwarpson, F. A., 
308 Vermont avenue. 

Ricwarpson, J. J., M. D., 

1017 Fourteenth street. 

lx National Geographic Magazine. 

Ricumonp, CHares W., 
1307 IT street. 

Ricuter, Miss Ciara M., 
330 A street S. E. 

Ricketts, W. W., 

. . 4. . . 
Civil Service Commission. 

; f Post Office Department. 

RirrenHousE, Masor B. F., U. 8. Army, . 
1705 M street. 

Rirrer, Homer P. 
‘ ‘ U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Rizer, CoLonet H. C., 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

Roserts, A. C., 
Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. 

Roserts, W. F., 1421 G street 

’ Ropertgson, Mrs Gay, 
1123 Seventeenth street. 

Ropinson, HonoraBeE H. A., 
Agricultural Department. 

RocuEsTER, GENERAL W. B., U. 8S. Army, 
1320 Eighteenth street. 

Rock, Muss, C. E., 
1447 Staughton street. 

i Department of State. 

Romero, SENor Don M., E. E. and M. P., 
1413 I street. 

Rooms, Miss Liniian K., 
1345 Princeton street. 

Ross, “HoNnoRABLE JOHN W., 
The Varnum. 

Rorcu, A. LAWRENCE, 
Readville, Mass. 

RusseEtL, Caprain A. H., U. 8. Army, 
U.S. Arsenal, Rock Island, III. 

RussE.L, E. E., 904 S street 

SanpErs, Henry P., 
1504 Twenty-first street. 

Sanps, Miss Marte, 
1222 Connecticut avenue. 

Sancer, Masor J. P., U.S. Army, 
War Department. 

SarGentT, Proressor C. &., 
Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Active Members. Ixili 

Sawyer, Mrs C. B., 

Globe House. 

Sawyer, Mrs N. C., 
; Brattleboro, Vt. 

Scarre, WALTER B., 
143 North avenue, Allegheny, Pa. 

Scutey, Caprain W.S., U.S. Navy, 

Commanding U.S. F.S. New York. 

Scumipt, FERDINAND, 
337 Wallach place. 

Scumript, Frep A., : 
504 Ninth street. 

Scuorpr, W. Kestey, C. E., 
Eckington, D. C. 

ScHouLer, ComMANDER Joun, U.S. Navy, 
U.S. F.S. New York. 

DE ScuwernirTz, Dr. E. A., 
Agricultural Department. 

Scrpmore, Miss Eniza RuHwama, 
The Shoreham. 

Scorr, Miss Fannie T., 
2017 O street. 

488 St Nicholas avenue, New York. 

Scott, W. O. N., 

1711 Connecticut avenue. 

SEAMAN, Proressor WILLIAM H., 
1424 Eleventh street. 

Seavey, Miss J. M., 

Internal Revenue Office, Treasury Department. 

Sepauey, Miss IsaBer, 
1779 Massachusetts avenue. 

SHALER, Proressor N. S., 
: 25 Quincy street, Cambridge, Mass. 

SHarruck, GEORGE B., 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

.511 C street S. E. 

SHaw, Joun W., M. D. 
: d . 908 Fifteenth street. 

Suepp, Mrs S$. &., 

Takoma Park, D. C. 

U.S. Senate. 

Snipy, Leann P., j 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Sure-Cuirr, Wititam H., 
56 R street N. EB. 

xiv National Geographic Magazine. 

Sock, Cuter Encineer W. H., U.S. Navy, 
1404 Fifteenth street, 

SHOEMAKER, Captain C. F., U. S. Revenue Marine, 
Treasury Department. 

Stpwett, Tuomas W., 
1811 I street. 

SicsBEE, CoMMANDER CHarugs D., U.S. Navy, 
Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. 
Srncuarr, C. H:, 
U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, El Paso, Tex. 


; ; 718 Arch street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Srres, C. M. Lacey, 
1315 Clifton street. 

SMALL Te lal JR 
? ? ) t 
Four teenth and G streets. 

Smiru, GENERAL C. H., U. S. Army, 
1728 Q street. 

Smiru, Mrs E. L., 
232 Third street. 

1209 K street. 

Situ, Linco A., 
1631 Massachusetts avenue. 

SmirH, MIppLETON, 
1616 Nineteenth street. 

SmirH, GENERAL Wiiutam, U.S. Army, 
1606 K street. 

Somers, Mrs E. J., 
1100 M street. 

Sommer, E. J. 
: f U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

SorHoron, James T., M. D., 
1917 I street. 

SouTHERLAND, LizuTenant W. H. H., U.S. Navy, 
‘ 1923 N street. 

1003 F street. 

Spencer, Miss Mary A., 
336 Second street N. E. 

SporrorD, A. R., : : 
Library of Congress. 

Sprina-Rice, Ceci A., 
British Embassy. 

SquirE, HonoraBLe Watson C., 
U.S. Senate. 

SranLEy-Brown, JOSEPH, 
1318 Massachusetts avenue. 

Active Members. Ixv 

General Land Office. 

STAVELY, AtBert L., M. D., 
‘ Garfield Hospital. 

AD, Roper, 
1230 Seventeenth street. 

Srerver, Captain E. Z., U. 8. Army, 
4 1429 New York avenue. 

Sreicer, GuorGE, 
2 U.S. Geological Survey. 

Stein, Rosert, 
Fi U.S. Geological Survey. 

Sretiwacey, Epwarp J., 
1214 F street. 

a War Department. 

, Columbian University. 

Srevens, Honorasre D. W., 
, Japanese Legation. 

1415 G street. 

North Andover, Mass. 
The Normandie. 

1510 H street. 

U.S. Geological Survey. 
1821 M street. 

1449 Rhode Island avenue. 

1918 I street. 

‘Srratron, J. A. . 
a, : ( Civil Service Commission. 

7 ‘ ; 1450 Rhode Island avenue. 

‘Srronc, Mr Justice W.,* 
aa 1411 H street. 

 Srupps; Contry. 
; Baltimore and Potomac depot. 

Srurrevant, Mrs A. L., 
Howard avenue, Mt Pleasant. 

* Died August 19, 1895. 

Ixvi National Geographic Magazine. 

Summers, Mino C., 

War Department. — 

Surron, FRANK 
: “ U.S. Geological Survey. 

Swann, Mrs Tuomas, 
1415 I street. 

916 F street. 

Sweat, L. D. M., 

The Normandie. 

1360 E street. 

TANNER, ComMANpDER Z. L., U. S. Navy, 
U.S. Fish Commission. 

TARBELL, Miss Apa M., 

919 I street. 

Taytor, DAnren F., 
918 F street. 

TAYLoR, H. W. 
: ; 100 Fifth street N. E. 

THAYER, JupGE Rurus H., 

930 F street. 

THom, Wm. Taytor, 
1100 M street. 

Tuomas, Lieutenant Cuauncey, U.S. Navy, 
Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. 

Tuomas, Francis, M. D., 
Ednor, Montgomery county, Md. 

THomas, Miss M. von E., 
1309 N street. 

Tuomas, Mrs R. R. D., ee 
Street N. B. 

THompson, Proressor A. H., 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

THompson, Masor GILBERT, 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

THompson, J. B. 
( ‘ 1756 Corcoran street. 

THompeson, JoHN W., 
National Metropolitan Bank. 

THompson, Miss M. Ina, 
1419 I street. 

Taurston, Honoras.e L. A., 
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. 

Tiron, Lizurenanr Pater, U.S. Army, 
1643 Thirteenth street. 

Triton, R. N. 
‘ : 220 Second street N. EB. 

Active Members. Ixvii 

1323 Thirteenth street. 

420 Ninth street. 

1433 Staughton street. 

» ; District building. 

Turner, H. W., 
: U.S. Geological Survey. 

" War Department. 

Tweepy, Frank, 
* U.S. Geological Survey. 

Upton, Lizutenant Frep E., U. 8. Navy, 
’ Bureau of Education. 

UrquuHart, CHarues F., 
U.S. Geological Survey. 

Van Dyker, W. M., 
1111 N street. 

Van Hise, Proressor C. R., 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

1616 Nineteenth street. 

1307 Riggs street. 

: U.S. Geological Survey. 

The Arno. 

i 1106 East Capitol street. 

Vincent, Genera T. M., U.S. Army, 
War Department. 

Wanpey, Joun A., 
Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. 

Waayer, H..H.; 

. Civil Service Commission. 

AINWRIGHT, Daas B., Eee eater 

Warrte, Miss Mary F., 
1616 Rhode Island avenue. 

Watcorr, CHARLEs D., 
; U.S. Geological Survey. 

Civil Service Commission. 

1000 New Hampshire avenue. 


WALKER, Apuirau J. G., U.S. Navy, 

Waker, Honorasie J. H., 
Watt, CotoneL WILLIAM, 
Watuace, Mrs E. E., 
Watuace, Mrs E. R., 
Watton, Miss FLORENCE, 
Warp, Miss Enza T., 
Warp, Mrs Fannin B., 
Warp El. P., 

Warp, Rozgert DE C., 
Waroper, Mrs R. B., 
Warman, P. C., 

Warner, B. H., 

Warren, Miss M. B., 
WasHBurn, W. S., 
WasHINGTON, CoLoneL L. Q., 

Watkins, J. ELFRETH, 

National Geographic Magazine. 

1202 Eighteenth street. 

The Shoreham. 

St Cloud Hotel, New York, N. Y. 

739 East Capitol street. 

321 Massachusetts avenue. 

1107 E street. 

106*Fourth street S. E. 

Civil Service Commission. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

5 Grant place. 

1537 Eighth street. 

The Hamilton. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 
Howard University. 

U. S. Geological Survey. 

2100 Massachuseits avenue. 
19 Second street, Troy, N. Y. 
Civil Service Commission. 

1105 Ninth street, 

Care of Secretary National Geographic Society, 1515 H street. 

Wess, H. RANDALL, 
Wess, W. H., 
Wesster, Mason WiuiiaM H., 

Wet, Joun B., 

727 Nineteenth street. 

415 Fifth avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Civil Service Commission. 

The Clarendon. 

We tkxer, P. A., 

West, Caprain F., U.S. Army, 



Wuirr, Davin, 

Bar, Mises EizaBETH WALKER, 
Wurre, GeEorGE H. B., 

Wnire, Proressor I. C., 
Wurrney, JosEPH N., 


Wurrrenors, W. C., 

Wuirriesry, Grorce P., 

Siar, BB, 

Wicut, Joun B., 

Wicut, Lroyp B., 

Wirevr, Miss F. Isaper, 


Wuoer, Gevera J. T., 
-Wirxes, Miss Janz, 

| Wirxiss, HonorasirE Berrian, 
“Witxinson, A. G., M. D., 


Witiensiicner, WILLIAM C., 

Active Members. 

Wipe, Commanper G. F. F., U.S. 


Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal Company, Norfolk, Va 

U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 2348 Lawrence avenue, Toledo, O. 

1336 Massachusetts avenue. 

Office of The Cincinnati Post, Cincinnati, O. 

Fort Myer, Va. 

1339 L street. 

Waite, Mepicat Inspector C. H., U.S. Navy, 

Naval Laboratory, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
143 North Carolina avenue. 
Lawrence, Mass. 

National Metropolitan Bank. 
Morgantown, W. Va. 

1403 H street. 

1526 New Hampshire avenue. 
1430 Staughton street. 

1338 F street. 

1410 G street. 

25 Grant place. 

1719 Fifteenth street. 


Light-house Board, Treasury Department. 
Johnson City, Tenn. 

814 Connecticut avenue. 

Editor Washington Post. 

1526 K street. 

428 New Jersey avenue S. E. 

lex National Geographic Magazine. 

1301 Eighteenth street. 

WitiiAMs, Masor J. M., U.S. Army, 
1842 Thirteenth street. 

Witiams, Mayor L. P., 
P. O. box 227. 

WixuraMmson, Miss Harper, 
1805 Nineteenth street, 

Wituis, Bartey 
; 3 U. 8. Geological Survey. 

Wiis, F. I., 

War Department, 

Wits, Honoraste Epwin, 
Washington Loan and Trust building, 

Witson, Miss Auisan, Ae : 
The Bancroft. 

Wutson, Masor C. [., U.S. Army, 
War Department. 

Witson, H. M. 
*. ' U.S. Geological Survey. 

Witson, CoLonet J. M., U. S. Army, 
War Department. 

Witson, Josern F., 
1515 Clifton street. 

Witson, Miss Lizzin, 
1116 Fifteenth street. 

Witson, Dr THomas, 
1218 Connecticut avenue 

Wirnys tow, Professor ARTHUR, 

Roe building, Fifth and Pine streets, St Louis, Mo. 

Winston, Isaac, 
1325 Corcoran street. 

Winter, Joun T., M. D.,; 
1528 Ninth street. 

U.S. S. Bennington. 

Wisk, Caprain W.C., U.S. Navy, 

1014 Seventeenth street. 

Wavnnrae yeaciiet, Mit 

Government Hospital for the Insane. 

Woop, Lizurenanr A. N., U.S. Navy, : 
Navy Department. 

Woopwarp, S. W., 
Wyoming avenue. 

Woopworrn, Miron, 
1424 S street. 

Woo.twortH, JAMEs, 
Sandusky, Ohio. 

oy ; gaa at 
assests" * 
— Active Members. Ixxi 
ay P . = * 
1228 Fourteenth street. 
weton, A. &., ; 
2015 Massachusetts avenue. 
, JOHN J., * 

1525 O street. 

it, Moses H., : k 
: 53 Trowbridge street, Cambridge, Mass. 

, Mrs S. B. 
1525 O street. 

tr, Water, M. D., 

Marine Hospital. 

BE. A; 
& . U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

JoHN R. 
, ; 1314 B street S. W. 

Peruvian Legation. 


Ixxil National Geographic Magazine. 


’ 2017 I street. 

ApAms, Proressor FrANK D., 
MeGill University, Montreal, Canada. 

Apams, F. G., 

Kansas: Historical Society. Topeka, Kan. 

Anern, LisuTENANT GeorGE P., U.S. Army, 
Fort Missoula, Mont. 

U.S. S. Amphitrite. 

ANDERSON, Mary L., ‘ 
P. O. box 977, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

ANDREWws, C. L. 
3 f P. O. box 106, Fremont, Wash. 

Arkins, THomas B., 
Maritime Canal Company, 54 Broad street, New York, N. Y. 

Austin, Proressor E. P., 
100 South Eighth West street, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Ayers, H. B., - 

Carlton, Minn. 

Bass, Cyrus K., 
12 Somerset street, Boston, Mass. 

Baser, Miss Zonta, 
6757 Lafayette avenue, Englewood, Ill. 

Bapiey, Mrs Mary &., 
: Windsor, Mo. 

Bage, R. M., Junior, 
Johns Hepkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Baker, Davo, 
Sparrow Point, Md. 

Baker, Lucius, 
P. O. drawer 2596, Fresno, Cal. 

Bancrort, Dr C. F. P., 

Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. 

Ogden, Utah. 

Ventura, Cal. 

Barroii, Liruteyant H. H., U.S. Navy, 
Homestead Steel Works, Munhall, Pa. 

Barton, GEorGE I1., 
4 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Bascom, Dr FLorencn, 
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

ae Se ES 



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Corresponding Members. Ixxill 

BarcHecper, C. F., M. D., 
; . 7 Kirkland street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Bayey, Dr W. S., 
y Colby University, Waterville, Me. 

Bayuts, Jerome Z., 
p Case School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Bearpsvezr, Apmirat L. A., U.S. Navy, 
a Commanding U.S. Naval Force, Pacifie Station. 

Bernavov, Licutenant J. B., U.S. Navy, 
i Torpedo Station, Newport, R. 1. 

ERTHOUD, Epwarp L. 
; eet : P. O. box 45, Golden, Colo. 

Brxsy, Masor W. H., U.S, Army, 
Di 4 Post Office building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

166 Adams street, Chicago, III. 

BricHam, Proressor A. P., 
Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. 

BROADHEAD, Proressor G. C., 
Columbia, Mo. 

Brown, Wu Q., Riddles, O 
: iddles, Ore. 

Butxktey, Frep G., 
- Aspen, Colo. 

‘Bore, J. H. Ten Eyck, 

Cazenovia, N. Y. 

ANTWELL, LizuTENANT J. C., U. S. Revenue Marine, 
1818 Sacramento street, San Francisco, Cal. 

CarterTon, P. J., - 
_ ‘ ‘ Rockport,\Me. 

é ; Juneau, Alaska. 

Cary, Austin, 
a Agricultural Department. 

CHAMBERLIN, Proressor T. C., 
{ University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. 

Cuenery, Lisurenant Commanper L., U.S. Navy, 
; University Club, New York, N. Y. 

“Cuester, Commanper C. M., U.S. Navy, Eyes 
y Navy Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Cuapp, Grorce H., 
? 116 Water street, Pittsburg, Pa. 

'Cuarx, Dr W. B., 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Craypotr, Proressor E. W., 
Buchtel College, Akron, Ohio. 

CLENDENIN, Proressor W. W., 
Louisiana State Experiment Station, Baton Rouge, La. 

_ VI—Nar. Grog. Mac., vor. VI, 1894. 

Ixxiv National Geographic Magazine. 

Coiiiz, Proressor G. L., 
Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. 

Comstock, Proressor T. B., 
University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. 

Concer, CHarues T., 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. 

Contry, Miss M. J., 

" Ventura, Cal. 

Cook, FrepErick A., M. D., 
15 Hart street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Coox, FRED W., 
‘ 415 Power building, Helena, Mont. 

Cootzy, Miss Grace E., 
Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

Craain, Proressor F. W., 


Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Crimuins, Martin L., 
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. 

Crouter, A. L. EH. 
; i “ Mount Airy,” Philadelphia, Pa. 

CULBERTSON, Emma B., M. D., 
33 Newbury street, Boston, Mass 

CuLveER, Proressor G. E., 
Stevens Point, Wis. 

Cosmos Club, San Francisco, Cal. 

Curtis, G. CARROLL, 
68 Thayer Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

60 Perkins Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

Davipson, PRoFEsSOR GEORGE, 
‘ San Francisco, Cal. 

Davis, ARTHUR P., 
U. 8. Geological Survey, P. O. box 788, Denver, Colo. 

Davis, W. T., 

American Bank building, Kansas City. Mo. 

Davis, WALTER W., 
515 Main street, Kansas City, Mo. 

Denmine, Miss C. E., 
f State Normal School, Providence, R. I. 

Denny, ARTHUR A., 
1328 Front street, Seattle, Wash. 

Dopaz, R. E., 

Teachers’ College, 120th street west, New York, N. Y. 

Do.urny, Cares §., M. D., 
‘ - 8707 Woodland avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dorr, R. E. Apruorp, 
Mail and Express, 203 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 


Corresponding Members. Ixxv 

Drewey, W.S., 

Department of Land and Works, Victoria, British Columbia. 

Dryer, CHARLES R., M. D., 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Dums.e, Proressor E, T., 
State Geological Survey, Austin, Tex. 

297 Laurel avenue, Saint Paul, Minn. 

Epson, HonoraBLE OBED, 
Sinclairville, N. Y. 
Emerson, Dr B. K., 

Amherst, Mass. 

Evans, SAMUEL G., 
211 Main street, Evansville, Ind. 

‘*Oakhurst,”’ Easton, Pa. 

Farrcuitp, Proressor H. Le Roy, 
University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. 

FarrcuiLp, Joun F., 
Bank building, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Frenneman, N. M., 
State Normal School, Greeley, Colo. 

Forses, W. H., 

233 Chestnut avenue, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Frank, Grorce W., JUNIOR, 
Kearney, Neb. 

Gane, H. &., 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

GANonG, Proressor W. F., 
119 Oxford street, Cambridge, Mass. 

22 Congress street, Boston, Mass. 

GARRETT, H. G., Orlando, FI 
; la , Fla. 

Goong, J. Pau. 
2 2 Moorhead, Minn. 

Gorman, M. W., 

75 North Fourteenth street, Portland, Ore. 

Goucuer, Dr J. F., 

Woman’s College, Baltimore, Md. 

Grant, Utysses S 

Tir . . . . . 
State Geological Survey, Minneapolis, Minn. 

GREENE, Roger S., Junror, 
: Seattle, Wash. 

Greeory, E. J., 
Fort Collins, Colo. 

Grimstey, G. P., 
87 Hubbard avenue, Columbus, Ohio. 

Ixxvi National Geographic Magazine. 

GRINNELL, GeorGE B., M. D., 
318 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

238 Boston street, Dorchester, Mass. 

310 Chamber of Commerce building, Chicago, III. 

1686 Cambridge street, Cambridge, Mass. 

HaaGaporn, Lirutenant ©. B., U. S. Army, 
Springfield, Mass. 

Harris, Dr T. W., 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Harrison, THomas F., 
: 221 West Forty-fifth street, New York, N. Y. 

Harvey, F. H., 

Galt, Sacramento county, Cal. 

Haske Lt, E. E., 

U.S. Engineer’s office, Sault de Sainte Marie, Mich. 

Hastines, JouHN B., BAieecnaan 
oise, Idaho. 

Haw tey, LizuteNantT CommManper J. M., U.S. Navy, 
U. 8.8. Detroit. 

Milton, Mass. 

Hayes, Proressor Eien, 
Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

Haynes, F. Jay, 
392 Jackson street, Saint Paul, Minn. 

Hensuaw, H. W., 
Chico, Cal. 

Hirt, Harry C., 


P. O. box 1040, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Hits, Victor G., 
; P. O. box D, Cripple Creek, Colo. 

Hircucock, Prorerssor C. H., 
Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. 

Hosss, Dr W. H., 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Hopein, Cyrus W., 
Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 

Ho.wpen, Luruer L., 
: : ‘ 9 Saint John street, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Houmes, Proressor J. A., 
: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Hooprr, Captain C. L., U. 8S. Revenue Marine, 
320 East Sola street, Santa Barbara, Cal. 

Hore, Caprain E. C., 
Care of Thomas Pratt, Bridge street, Sydney, N.S. W. 

Corresponding Members. Ixxvii 

Howe, Epwarp G., 
304 Columbia avenue, Champaign, I!1. 

Howe, Frank D., 
‘ ; Care of Secretary National Geographic Society, 1515 H street. 

Howison, Caprain H. L., U.S. Navy, 
.. Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal. 
Hoxir, Caprain R. L., U. S. Army, 
P. O. box 1240, Pittsburg, Pa. 

904 “ The Rookery,” Chicago, Ill. 

Hupericu, CHarues H., 
P. O. box 640, San Antonio, Tex. 

Hurp, Artuur W., M. D., 
: Buffalo State Hospital, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Ippincs, Proressor J. P., 
3 University of Chicago, Chicago, III. 


% “ Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
; Los Angeles, Cal. 
aGcceErR, T. A., JuNroR, 
4 Care of Drexel Harjes et Cie, Paris, France. 
fEweTT, W. P., 
4 if 180 East Third street, Saint Paul, Minn. 
Jounson, Mrs Mary D., 
b Sitka, Alaska. 
ELLEY, W..D., ‘ 
619 Havemeyer building, New York, N. Y. 
Kemp, Proressor J. F., ; 
. Columbia College, New York, N. Y. 
EMP, JAMEs &., : 
395 Union street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
<ennan, K. K., \ 
Manhattan, Mont. 
19 Rutland street, Cambridge, Mass. 
Manti, Utah. 

402 Front street, San Francisco, Cal. 
Ilchester, Md. 
Department of the Interior, Ottawa, Canada. 

Kiorz, Dr Orro J. 
a : 437 Albert street, Ottawa, Canada. 

Korner, S. R. 
i Fist : Museum of Fine Arts, Back Bay P. O., Boston, Mass. 

Ixxviii National Geographic Magazine. 

ci sh eNRY B. ’ ; 
Kitmnet, Hi J University of Chicago, Chicago, Ll- 

sAMB, Miss LAVINIA ; ; 
Fede re ‘ 579 Broadway, Saint Paul, Minn. 

; e 326 Clinton street, Brooklyn, N. Y- 

Leonarp, A. G. ‘ 
Z ; lowa Geological Survey, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Leverett, FRANK, Denmark, Iow 
rk, a. 

Lewis, JESSE, 
Warrensburg, Mo. 

Lewis, J. V. 
a , Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Lispey, Proressor WILLIAM, JUNIOR, : 
20 Bayard avenue, Princeton, N. J., Henry, M.D., . 
Care of Secretary National Geographic Society, 1515 H street. 

Luioyp, Francis E., 
Pacific University, Forest Grove, Ore. 

Loomis, Henry B., 

Seattle, Wash. 

Luce, JosepH, E. M., 
29 South Sixth East street, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 

MacKayer, James M., : 
Shirley, Mass. 

Mackrnper, H. J. 
j , 1 Bradmore road, Oxford, England. 

Mauer, JAMEs A., 
k P. O. box 35, Johnson City, Tenn. 
Matong, Miss M. J., 2 
Hyattsville, Md. 
Marsvt, Curtis F., 
Care of Secretary National Geographic Society, 1515 H street. 
Marcy, Proressor OLtver, 
703 Chicago avenue, Evanston, Ill. 
Marks, A. J., M. D., 
419 Madison street, Toledo, Ohio. 

Mason, Mrs A. Livineston, 
** Halidon Hall,” Newport, R. I. 
McArruovr, J. J., 
Topographical Survey, Ottawa, Canada. 
McCracken, R. H., 
P. O. box 495, San Antonio, Tex. 
McCurpy, Grorce G., 
‘ae Care Professor E. E. Salisbury, New Haven, Conn. 


Corresponding Members. Ixxix 

McDowe 1, Wititam O., 
Lincoln Park, Newark, N. J. 

McLavueuuin, Mayor Frank, 
Oroville, Cal. 

ME LL, Proressor P. H., 
Auburn, Ala. 

Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass. 

Holden, Mass. 

MeErRILL, F. J. H., 
State Museum, Albany, N. Y. 

Merrity, Proressor J. A., 
Warrensburg, Mo. 

Mitier, Cuanrtes C., 
509 Ross street, Hamilton, Ohio. 

Middletown, Ohio. 

Montcomery, Proressor J. H., 
Allegheny College, Meadville, Penn. 

Morris, Miss L. W., 
617 Milan street, Shreveport, La. 

INIA dase C.. 

1505 Edmondson avenue, Baltimore, Md. 

NEON Or En. MIC 1D: 
314 Saint Louis street, Springfield, Mo. 

Coronado, Cal. 

Norman-Nerupa, L., 
Devonshire Club, Saint James street, London, England. 

’Brian, J. T., 

Kearney, Neb. 

277 Summit avenue, Saint Paul, Minn. 

OszorN, LiruTenant A. P., U.S. Navy, 
Commanding Coast Survey Steamer Gedney. 

Osporne, Dr Grorce L.., 
State Normal School, Warrensburg, Mo. 

Cazadero, Cal. 

Owen, W. O., 

Laramie, Wyo. 

ParkKER, CoLONEL FrAnNcis W., 
. 6640 Honore street, Englewood, III. 

P z 5 Charlevoix, Mich. 

Paviow, Proressor ALEX. W., | 
Sadowaja, Great Spassky Perlouaik, Haus Lebedeff No 3, Moscow, Russia. 

ix National Geographic Magazine. 

PEALE, Dr A. C., 
1909 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

PeckHaM, Grace, M. D., 
The Madison, New York, N. Y. 

Perry, Proressor W. J., 
Bradford, Pa. 

Prtispury, LIEUTENANT CoMMANDER J. E., U.S. Navy, 
Naval War College, Newport, R. I. 

Poore, Howarp W., 
Worcester Academy, Worcester, Mass. 

Power, GEORGE C. 
! P. O. box E, Ventura, Cal. 

Powers, Frep Percy, 
; 32 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Price, JoserH M., 
56 West Seventy-first street, New York, N. Y. 

Prince, JoHn D., M. D., 
9 East Tenth street, New York, N. Y. 

Prince, HonoraB.iE L. BRADFORD, 
Santa Fe, N. M. 

er oe Laguna P. O., Tex 
E a POs: : 

Recivs, Proressor ELIse&n, 
17 rue du Lae, Brussels, Belgium. 

Rerp, Proressor Harry FIELDING, 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Light-house inspector, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rice, Proressor Wi~uiaAM Norta, 
Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn. 

RicHarpson, T. J., 
734 East Fifteenth street, Minneapolis, Minn. 

P. O. box 289, Seattle,; Wash. 

Riorpan, D. M. 
i 5 Flagstatf, Ariz. 

Ropprins, ARTHUR G., 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Roprinson, Miss F. Paces, 
Forest Glen, Md. 

Rockwoop, Proressor C. G., Junior, 
34 Bayard avenue, Princeton, N. J. 

RoruHrock, J. T., M. D., 

Westchester, Pa. 

Russy, ELE. VM D.. : 
222 West 132d street, New York, N. Y. 

RusseL, Lizurenant Epaar, U. 8. Army, 
West Point, N. Y. 

Corresponding Members. Ixxxl 

RusseELt, Proressor Israet C,, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Sarrorp, M. Victor, M. D., 
Kittery, Me. 

Sauispury, Proressor R. D., 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. 

Care of Union National Bank, Denver, Colo. 

Sawin, Proressor James M., 
Point Street Grammar School, Providence, R. I. 

Scuaap, C. H., 
P. O. box 32, Sitka, Alaska. 

Morgan park, Cook county, Ill. 

68 Thayer hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

Scuryver, Miss A. A., 
Teachers’ College, 120th street west, New York, N. Y. 

Scorr, Georce M., 
168 Main street, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

SHEPARD, Proressor E. M., 
Drury College, Springfield, Mo. 

U.S. S. Cincinnati. 

Sriz, Lrzurenant James L., U. S. Revenue Marine, 
U.S. R. M. S. Boutwell, Savannah, Ga. 

Sizer, Franx L., pa HAE 
elena, Mont. 

SmILiE, Epwarp § 


Eliot block, Newton, Mass. 

SmirH, Proressor EvGEeNeE A., 
University of Alabama, University, Ala. 

? ? 
Topographic Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 

Smock, Dr Joun C., 
State Geological Survey, Trenton, N. J. 

SnowpDEN, Lizurenant Tuomas, U. 8. Navy, 
U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Snyper, W. H., 

27 Mellen street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Sranwoop, James H., 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

SrepMAN, Joun M., 
: Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala. 

Stockton, Commanper C. H., U. 8. Navy, 
30 Kay street, Newport, R. I. 

; ‘ 131 Vernon street, Newton, Mass. 

VII —Nar. Grog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

Ixxxil National Geographic Magazine. 

Swan, Honorasie James G., 
Port Townsend, Wash. 

TarBeLL, Horace § 

iis Providence, R. I. 

Tarr, Raupn S$. 
: ; Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Taytor, CHarues E., M. D., 
Saint Thomas, D. W. I. 

Taytor, JoHn M. 
; : Idaho Falls, Idaho. 

TiLLMAN, Coronet S. E., U. 8S. Army, 
West Point, N. Y. 

Tower, G. W., JUNIOR, 
17 College house, Cambridge, Mass. 

Traus, LizurENANT P: E., U. 8. Army, 
West Point, N. Y. 

419 Locust street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Tucker, Proressor Wm. J., 
Andover, Mass. 

Utrica, J. C. 
; P. O. box 1291, Denver, Colo. 

109 Oakdale avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Urrer, Reverend Davin, 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

71 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Wapuanms, Lieutenant ComManper A. V., U.S. Navy, 
Care of Navy Pay Office, San Francisco, Cal. 

Waker, HE. D. 
h 605 Union street, Schenectady, N. Y. 

alt Lake City, Utah. 

“Warp, L. B. 
’ Taylor's Hotel, Jersey City, N. J. 

Warren, Wintiam M., 
329 Broadway, Cambridgeport, Mass. 

Wasnpurn, Proressor F. L., 
: State University, Eugene, Ore. 

WELLS, Witiiam H., 

274 Ashland avenue, Chicago, Ill. 

West, Preston C. F., 
Calumet, Mich. 

WerstGaTE, Lewis G., 
1303 Chicago avenue, Evanston, Ill. 
Wuitcome, F. J., 
Raymond & Whitcomb, 31 East Fourteenth street, New York, N. Y. 

Corresponding Members. Ixxxiil 

Wuire, T. Broox, 
14 Worcester block, Portland, Ore. 

Wuir tte, C. L., 
West Medford, Mass. 

Wiiarp, Dantet E., 
State Normal School, Mayville, N. D. 

Wittams, Proressor H. S., 
Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Wruiiams, WILLIAM, 
University Club, New York, N. Y. 

WrncuetL, Horace V., 
1306 Southeast Seventh street, Minneapolis, Minn. 

WINCHELL, Proressor N. H., 
120 State street, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Woopwarp, Proressor R. &., 
Columbia College, New York, N. Y. 

Woopworrth, J. B., 
7 Rutland square, Cambridge, Mass. 

WortHINGTON, Erastus, JUNIOR, 
637 Exchange building, Boston, Mass. 

WriaGuHt, Proressor G. FREDERICK, 
11 Elm street, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Fayetteville, Ark. 

Honorary members. , : : : : 11 
Active members. ; : ; ; ; : - 6898 
Corresponding members : : : : . . 274 
Total membership, May 31, 1895 : Uy Peles 

VoL. VI, PP. 1-22 FEBRUARY 14, 1894 




“et. =e 
yes * pat 

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Price 25 cents. 

VoL. VI, PP. 1-22 FEBRUARY 14, 1894 






(Presented before the Society February 2, 1894) 

If parallels of latitude were drawn around the earth about 
fifteen degrees north and fifteen degrees south of Washington, 
the land within these parallels would include all the countries 
of the world that have been highly civilized and distinguished 
for art and science. No great people, except the Scandinavians 
and Scotch, who, from their climate, belong to the same region, 
ever existed outside these limits; no great men have ever lived, 
no great poems have ever been written, no literary or scientific 
work ever produced, in other parts of the globe. In the far north 
are found savages and barbarians, the Mongols, Lapps, Eskimos, 
Finns and other equally barbarous tribes; in the south the 
Polynesians in Oceanica, the Hottentots and Bushmen in south- 
ern Africa, the Patagonians and Terra del Fuegans in South 
America. The nearer man lives to the polar regions the greater 
his inferiority in intellect, the greater his barbarism. 

Now, changing our starting point, if two other parallels are 
drawn, one fifteen degrees north and another fifteen degrees 
south of the equator, the country within these parallels would 
contain the richest and most abundantly watered lands, produc- 

1—Nart. Grog, Maa., von. VI, 1894. (1) 

2 G4. G. Hubbard—Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

ing the greatest varieties of vegetal and animal life, the largest 
variety of the most beautiful birds and flowers, the most ferocious 
animals; both animal and vegetal life carried to the highest per- 
fection, save only in the case of man, for whose development a 
different zone has been required. 

When we look at the geographic distribution of man and 
observe that from the Arctic seas to the Antarctic ocean the world 
is inhabited by men of differing race, color, character and civ- 

ilization, we naturally ask, Are the Mongolian, the Polynesian, - 

the Negro, the Indian, and the Caucasian descended from one 
or from: many progenitors? We believe that there are facts 
sufficient to show that man may have originated in one place 
and migrated thence over the world. We have evidence of the 
the life of man during the Ice age in caves among the foot- 
hills of the mountains of France, where the bones of men and 
the remains of their food, nuts_and roots, with the bones of 
the cave bear, the woolly-haired rhinoceros, and other extinct 
animals have been found. As years rolled on and men multi- 
plied, they were compelled to wander in search of food: some to 
colder climates, where they dug holes in the earth in imitation 
of caves and covered them with the branches of trees and leaves ; 
- others emigrated to southeastern EHuyope and thence to western 
Asia, where finding neither caves nor trees, they built huts of 
stone and mud, and wandering still further into China they 
made houses of bamboo; still others migrated to the torrid zone 
and lived in the woods, the trees their only shelter. Wherever 
men wandered they were governed in the construction of their 
habitations and in their food by the climate, the materials at 
hand, and the vegetation. 

Some early men found their way to the gea-coast, where mol- 
lusks and fish served them for food. From the extent of the 
shell mounds in our country and the kitchen-middens of Scan- 
dinavia, these places must have been inhabited for many hun- 
dreds and some say thousands of years. In Europe the forests 
and running streams furnished game and fish, and there man 
lived by hunting and fishing. In eastern and central Asia the 
country is open, destitute of trees and running water, the land 
of the wild horse, goat and cow ; by slow degrees these animals 
were domesticated, and the nomads became: shepherds. ~The 
tribe remained the same, roaming from place to place in quest 
of game,and fish or of pasture, without any permanent abiding 


The Ages of human Development. 3 

place or connection with the soil; even a small tribe required a 
Jarge tract of land, for a square mile supported only one man, 
while in England the population is 265 and in portions of India 
over 400 to the square mile. The flocks and herds increased, 
and gradually came the idea of personal property. After man 
ceased to be a nomad and became a tiller of the soil and began 
to sow and reap, then came the idea of property in real estate, 
belonging not to the individual but to the tribe. 

In all countries similar weapons and instruments were used 
in the chase and for warfare and in the construction of habita- 
tions. Stones, everywhere found, were early shaped into darts 
and lances and then into arrow-heads and axes. ‘This was the 
Stone age. Copper mines have been found in Egypt and near 
Lake Superior, abandoned long before the beginning of history ; 
copper from these and other mines was the first metal used be- 
cause found in its native state; then tin, and with the invention 
of bronze a further advance toward civilization. This was the 
Bronze age. Every new invention or discovery made the next 
stage more rapid; yet it was long after the Bronze age before 
iron was used. 

Even now in the different parts of the world men are passing 
through these various stages. In Kamchatka the natives live 
in caves of rocks and cover the openings with skins; they have 
no domestic animals, not even the dog; their weapons are bones 
and pointed stones. In Terra del Fuego the natives live on sea 
mussels, fish, rats and wild geese. In central Africa the Dwarfs 
possess no domestic animal but poultry, and some of the tribes 
live almost entirely on roots,‘berries and nuts. These people 
belong to the Stone age. Other tribes of Africa have passed 
from savagery to barbarism, the first stage of progress, and make 
vessels of copper and bronze. The equatorial Indians of South 
America subsist almost entirely on the fruit of the banana and 
the palm tree, and by hunting and fishing. The Mandans of 
Dakota lived in mud houses. I have seen similar huts among 
the Tatars of Asia. In Russia the agricultural land generally 
belongs to the commune, or mir, as the commune is called. 
Every year the property is allotted to the families of the mir 
according to their size. 

In the earliest ages government was unknown; with the 
family came the first idea of government, the head of the family 
having despotic power over all its members; then seyeral fam- 

4 G. G. Hubbard—Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

ilies formed the clan, and as the clan grew came the tribe, the 
association of clans. 

The earliest civilizations of which we have any knowledge are 
those of Egypt, Babylon, and China, and though the monu- 
ments of those civilizations are from 5,000 to 6,000 years old, and 
perhaps much older, they show that centuries of civilization 
must have antedated their erection; for the Sphinx and the 
Pyramid of Cheops, the earliest monuments of Egypt, have 
never been surpassed. The manners and customs of the Egyp- 
tians and Chinese were almost. identical, though their architec- 
ture was of entirely different type, depending on the material 
convenient for use—in Egypt, stone; in China, bamboo and wood. 
The syllabic symbols of the Chinese are the counterparts of the 
hieroglyphic writings of Egypt. The civilization of other na- 
tions, save perhaps that of the Indians of this continent, was 
derived from and dependent in a greater or less degree on that 
of Babylon and Egypt. 


At some early period Mongolian tribes must have passed the 
Pamir, descended the plateau of Tibet into the rich valleys of 
eastern China, dispossessed the aborigines of their lands, and 
extirpated, absorbed or forced them into inaccessible fastnesses. 
The physical geography of China influenced and tended to form 
the character of its inhabitants. On the north are the deserts of 
Mongolia and Gobi, beyond these Siberia, until recently even 
more desolate than the Mongolian desert ; on the east the ocean ; 
on the south China sea and the Himalaya mountains ; on the 
south and west the highest and most extensive plateau in the 
world, Tibet, and behind, it a long chain of mountains crossed 
only by passes from 14,000 to 20,000 feet in altitude. These well- 
nigh impassable barriers cut off the Chinese from communication 
with the world, and for ages they remained entirely unknown to 
Europeans, whom they regarded as outside barbarians. 

The great rivers of China have afforded an unsurpassed system 
of inter-communication, and to this the empire owes the homo- 
geneous character of its population, and largely also its long- 
continued political unity. The Chinese very early passed from 
the nomadic to the agricultural state, and for a long period must 
haye made great progress in art and science ; but in some remote 


See Se a. Se 

The crystallized Culture of China. 5 

age this progress was stopped, and since then they have neither 
advanced nor retrograded. The Chinese invented gunpowder, 
the mariners’ compass, and the printing-press. They made silk 
goods and ceramics long before they were known to the western 
world; but they used gunpowder only for fire-works, and even 
with the compass they never ventured so far from the land as 
the Phenecians without it. They had the printing-press long 
before Europe, but their literature is greatly inferior to that of 
the Greeks and Romans, who used only the papyrus and skins 
or parchment for their writings. Their fields of bituminous and 
anthracite coal are unsurpassed in extent, but though coal -has 
been used for ages in their houses, it has never to any consider- 
able extent been used for other purposes. Their form of govern- 
ment, the patriarchal, which contributed to stay development, 

is founded on the conception of the state as an enlarged family, 

and of the family as the state in miniature. As the father pos- 
sesses absolute control over his own family, so the emperor 
possesses despotic power over the lives and property of all the 
families. The Chinese have neither freedom of mind nor liberty 
of body. They are an impersonal people with little conscious 
individuality. Their civilization, begun so early, has remained 
stationary for thousands of years. 


From China we pass to another country no less peculiar in its 
physical features, but entirely dissimilar. In a territory nearly 
two-thirds surrounded by water we should not expect to find 
one of the arid tracts of the world, where rain falls only once 
in three or four years; ina country on a parallel of latitude only 
a little south of Florida, with a mean altitude of 3,000 feet, we do 
not expect to find the zone of maximum heat, and still less do 
we expect to find ice and snow for three months of the year on 
mountains only 7,000 to 8,000 feet in height. All of these con- 
trasts are found in Arabia. A range of mountains follows the 
coast line around the whole of Arabia, and except on Red sea 
and ona few small streams and oases Arabia is dry, hot and 
barren, the land of the shepherd. The largest cities are Mecca 
and Medina, near Red sea, to which annually thousands of pil- 
grims resort; for it is a sacred obligation on every Mohammedan 

to yisit Mecca before he dies, Arabia has been peopled from 

6 G.G. Hubbard—Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

the earliest times, and the bedouin, the inhabitants of the larger 
portion of its territory, have never passed beyond the nomad 
state. The bedouin have always cherished the poet and have 
a rich literature of poetry and romance, and in every tent of 
Arabia may be heard the recital of the stories of the “Arabian 
Nights.” The Arab sheik with his tribe roams from place to 
place seeking pasture for his horses and herds. Thus, without 
contact of man with man, without schools or education, progress 
in trade or commerce is impossible. 

The Arabs as Mohammedans ruled the whole territory from 
Caspian sea to the Indian ocean, and from the western border 
of India through northern Africa to the Atlantic; they crossed 
the straits of Gibralter and, as Moors, conquered the greater 
part of Spain and southern Gaul, where their further progress 
was stopped by Charles Martel at Tours in the year 752. Wher- 
ever they came in contact with other races they accomplished 
much in science, especially in astronomy, but little in art, 
Even now, through their religion and institutions, they give the 
law to one-eighth part of the human race, while their language 
is one of the most extensively spoken in the world. To the 
Arabs we owe probably our first knowledge of astronomy and 
the Arabic numerals, brought to us from India through Arabia. 


China may have been inhabited before Egypt, but it is the 
latter country that has influenced the civilization of the world. 

As Egypt has neither game nor fruits for food, nor broad plains 
for cattle to roam, it could not have been inhabited at an early 
period nor by a nomadic race. Its inhabitants must have come 
from the east and not from the south, from Asia and not from 
Nubia, for they are of the Asiatic and not the Negro type. 

The climate is warm but not enervating; the soil, though rich, » 
produces no large trees—indeed the willow seems to have been 
the only tree that grew spontaneously on the river banks,— 
while the indigenous plants were unsuitable for food. It is in- 
closed by deserts on the east and west, and beyond the valley 
by two low mountain ranges called by Arabian writers “The 
Wings of the Nile,” on the south by the mountains of Nubia, 
on the north by a broad band of marsh land and shallow lakes 
extending along the coast that held the people back from the 

The changeless People of the Nile. ‘er 

sea, while the want of timber suitable for ships prevented them 
from becoming a maritime nation. Herodotus says, “ Egypt is 
the gift of the Nile.” Its valley is so level that it is enriched 
by each inundation of the Nile throughout its entire length of 
600 miles and breadth of from 12 to 15 miles, a little regular 
labor thus securing large returns. The houses were built of dried 
mud, as there are neither trees nor stone, and adobe houses an- 
swered in a country where rain seldom falls. The pyramids 
were built of stone brought from several hundred miles up the 
Nile. The king was the first soldier and the high-priest, the rep- 
resentative of the gods before the nation. The pyramids were 
constructed by the descendants of those who had even then long 
occupied the land—the ancestors of the present fellahin. Egypt 
was conquered by the Hyksos or shepherd kings, by Cambyses, 
Alexander, and others in turn; foreign rulers usurped the throne, 
but the people remained unchanged. If a mummy should 
awake from his sleep of three thousand years he would today 
see the same sky above him, the same river overflowing its bank, 
the same deserts; the same people living in similar houses, cul- 
tivating the ground with the same kind of plow, irrigating with 
the same shadoof—a people as changeless as the sky, the river 
and the desert. 

Architecture has never reached such vast proportions else- 
where, but art, swathed in bands like the mummies, was forced 
into the same cold rigidity and remained unchanged as the 
monuments erected by despotic sovereigns under a sky as un- 
changeable as themselves. 

To the Egyptians we owe the development of agriculture and 


Mesopotamia, or “ The land between the rivers” (Euphrates 
and Tigris), was formerly called Assyria and Babylonia.  As- 
syria occupied the upper portion, 500 miles long and from 100 
to 300 miles wide, a well watered, rich country. Its capital was 

The lower part of the valley, Babylonia, was the seat of the 
earliest civilization. It was 400 miles long and about 100 
miles wide, a rainless country watered by the overflow of the 
Euphrates and the Tigris from April to June, formerly irri- 
gated by numerous canals connecting the Tigris and Euphrates, 

SG. G. Hubbard—Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

East of Mesopotamia were the mountains and deserts of Scythia, 
early inhabited by nomad tribes without permanent or fixed 
habitations. As they increased they required more land for their 
herds, and the overflowing population was forced into the plains 
of Mesopotamia, where they began the cultivation of the valley. 
Mesopotamia was successively ruled by Babylonian, Assyrian, 
Chaldean, Syrian, Median, and Persian monarchs. The kings 
were the religious as well as the secular heads, despots of the 
most absolute kind, ruling over a nation of slaves. They built 
a vast number of great cities. As there were no stones in the 
lower valley the buildings were constructed of sun-dried brick, 
and although there was stone in Assyria, brick was generally 
used as in Babylon. 

In Nineveh and Babylon the architecture of the palaces and 
city walls surpassed in variety, beauty, and taste that of Egypt. 
Hieroglyphics were gradually superseded by cuneiform char- 

acters, running from left to right, in which many books and in- 

- struments were written. As early as the twentieth century B. C. 
their annals were engraved on stone, and every great city had 
its library of baked bricks or tablets, stamped in minute char- 
acters, arranged in order and numbered, so that the student had 
only to give the number of the tablet and receive it from the 
librarian. But notwithstanding their architecture, their libra- 
ries and luxury, the people were intellectually and morally 
barbarous. Mesopotamia, unlike Egypt, was not protected by 
deserts from incursions. The nomads of Scythia, tempted by 
the wealth and luxury of the inhabitants of the plains, again 
and again left their flocks and poured into the valley, and though 
often repulsed, finally overthrew the empire and destroyed the 
irrigating canals; the land was then covered with sand, and 
Mesopotamia has become a desert waste. 

To the inhabitants of Babylonia and Assyria we owe the de- 
velopment of trade and commerce by the caravan. 


Between Mesopotamia and Arabia lies. Syria, a small country 
remarkable for its physical features and its wonderful history. 
In the east a great desert with beautiful oases, where were 
Palmyra, Baalbec and Damascus; west of these oases the moun- 
tains of Moab and Gilead; beyond the mountains in the valley 


eee ee 

The Birthplace of Commerce and Letters. i) 

of the Jordan, with the lake of Gallilee at the north and the 
Dead sea at the south, Palestine, the land of the Jews. Beyond 
the Jordan lay Lebanon and Anti-lebanon; on the sea-coast 
the land of Tyre and Sidon. 

By its position, Syria was the great battle-field of Africa and 
Asia. Bordering on the Mediterranean, it has been the means 
of transmitting the civilizing influences of the east to the west, 
and generations later that of the west to the east. 

The great plateau of Syria stops suddenly at some distance 
from the Mediterranean and encircles on a large curve a belt of 

coast land, sometimes expanding into large plains cut up by 

rocky spurs into narrow valleys opening into the sea and in- 
habited by the Phenecians. Good harbors and timber from the 
mountains of Lebanon and the outlook on the sea invited the 
inhabitants to launch on the Mediterranean their vessels thereto- 
fore confined to the rivers of Mesopotamia. 

The Phenecians, like many other people in modern times, 
began their mercantile career by plundering the neighboring 
coasts and: villages. They rapidly increased in number, and 
soon wealthy cities sprang up on the sea-coast, each city with 
its adjacent territory governed by its king. The Phenecians sent 
out colonies, east to the Persian gulf and Red sea; west to 
Greece, Carthage, Sicily, Italy, and Spain. They sailed through 
the straits of Gibralter northward and southward into the 
Atlantic and became merchants and traders, exchanging their 
manufactures of glass and Tyrian dyes for the goods and precious 
stones of the east, the wheat and grain of Carthage, the gold and 
silver of Spain, the tin and copper of Great Britain. 

The country was frequently conquered by Assyria, Babylon, 
and Egypt without affecting its prosperity; but when Greece 
became a maritime power the Phenecians were driven from the _ 
eastern Mediterranean, and later the Romans drove them from 

‘the western Mediterranean, each state thus protecting its own 
trade and commerce. 

To Phenecia we owe the development of navigation and com- 
merce, the alphabet and, probably, weights and measures. 

Persia and India. 

Three thousand five hundred years ago the Aryans, emigrating 
from the cradle lands of their race, passed through Syria into 

2—Nart, Grog. Maa., you. VI, 1894, 

10 G. G. Hubbard—Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

Persia and later into India, in each country driving the native 
races before them and occupying the most favored parts of the 

- The geographic features of Persia and India are dissimilar, 
affording an opportunity to notice the effect produced on the 
same race by differences in the physical geography of the two 
countries. Persia formerly included Afghanistan and Beloochis- 
tan, and was called the Iranian plateau. It is environed with 
mountains, so that one-half the drainage is inland. Mountain 
chains cross it in every direction; it is dry and hot in summer, 

cold in winter, with great salt deserts and rich fertile valleys of | 

limited extent; it is the land of the rose and the nightingale. 

The Persians are naturally brave, warlike, independent and 
unconquered, but under a despotic government a part of the 
people have lost much of their independence and have become 
great traders. This despotism is, however, principally confined 
to the cities and towns, for the larger proportion of the popula- 
tion are nomads, subject only to their chiefs, and remain free 
and independent. The area of the Iranian plateau is about two- 
thirds that of India; the population of the one is 138,000,000; of 
the other, 287,000,000. 

The vedas, hymns which the Aryans sang three thousand 
years ago on the banks of the Indus in northern India, give us 
our earliest knowledge of India. They show that when they 
were written the Aryans were a people of robust rudeness and 
manly freedom, in character entirely unlike the Hindus of to- 
day, more like the nomad Persians. 

The Aryans found one of the richest countries in the world, 

generally well watered and easily cultivated : in the north, a tem-. 

perate and healthful climate, the region of the Himalayas and 
their foot-hills ; in northern-central India, the warm, rich valleys 
of the Indus and Ganges. . Further southward low mountains 
cross the country from east to west, and from these mountains 
rich plains with an equatorial climate extend to southern India 
and Ceylon. The Aryans conquered India, driving the aborig- 
ines into the mountains and jungles and the Dravidians into the 
southern parts of India, where they retain their habits and cus- 
toms. Though the same race conquered and settled Persia and 
India, it would be difficult to find two nations now more unlike: 
the Persians restless, strong, brave and independent; the Hindus 
small in stature, weak in body, highly imaginative, with little 



The eastward Course of Conquest in Asia. 11 

independence or even love of liberty, easily enslaved, and pas- 
sive under bondage. 

Into this country, considerably over a thousand years ago, the 
Mohammedans came and settled among the earlier inhabitants ; 
and now Brahmins, Mohammedans, Sudras, Dravidians and 
aborigines live together in all parts of India without anything 
in common—they never intermarry, their religious and domestic 
life and all their interests are in opposition ; this diversion of in- 
terests preventing them from uniting against foreign invaders or 
domestic tyrants. England, therefore, with an army of 220,300 
(British, 71,171; native, 149,129) rules the 287,000,000 people of 
India. There is scarcely a country in the world containing so 
great a diversity of tribes and races as India, where we find 
every stage of civilization, from the philosophic Hindu down to 
the most degraded savage. 

The arts of India were more original and varied than those of 
Rome; her forms of civilization present an ever-changing variety, 
such as are nowhere else to be found. Greece and Rome are 
dead, but India is a living entity and a complete cosmos in 
itself. Within the life of the present generation England has in- 
troduced great reforms, abolished inhuman customs, diffused ed- 
ucation, and built railroads in many directions, tending to over- 
throw caste and gradually change the character of the people. 


From Persia we turn to Europe and to Greece, the country 
with which Asia had for many centuries close connection. As 
the geographic situation of Phenecia gave commerce to the 
world, so the position of Greece, a short distance west of Phe- 
necia, gave a further and greater advance to civilization. 

Greece, the smallest of the three peninsulas of Europe, is the 
most bountifully endowed by nature. In variety of physical 
features it excels the countries of Europe, as Europe excels the 
other continents. Into its small territory are gathered all the 
peculiarities of the continent to which it belongs—mountains, 
valleys, rivers, a lovely climate and fine scenery, seas with deep 
gulfs studded with islands, the largest extent of sea-coast in pro- 
portion to its territory of any country. Its mountain ranges 
opening to the sea inclose fertile valleys, which naturally led to 
the formation of autonomous communities, in which each de- 
veloped its own political, social and artistic life independently 

12. G. G. Hubbard—Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

of all others. No other country possessed within such narrow 
limits so many different characteristics of humanity with such 
raried tastes, pursuits, and amusements. Fond of liberty, bold 
and adventurous, never acting together unless driven by the 
necessity of an alliance against a common foe, there were yet 
bonds of unity in the poems of Homer, in their religion, in their 
temples, and especially in their games. 

The gulfs of Corinth and Egina, now connected by a canal, 
divide Greece into parts, each antagonistic to the other: on the 
one side were the Dorians, represented by Sparta; on the other 
the Ionians, represented by Athens; the one an oligarchy, the 
other a democracy ; in the one tyranny of the state, in the other 
freedom of the family; in the one contempt for labor, in the 
other work honorable alike for all; war and hunting the sole 
occupation of the Spartans, commerce, the arts and sciences the 
pursuit of the Athenians. The government of Athens was at 
first democratic, a government of the people by families and 
tribes. Its life-and-death struggle with the Persians compelled 
the Athenians to build a navy and assume the leadership of 
Greece, and to change the form of government. If Greece had 
been defeated, her whole civilization would have been crushed 
by eastern despotism and neither her artistic nor her spiritual 
life would have been possible. Greece was the home of individ- 
ual freedom and democracy, of great philosophers, poets, archi- 
tects, sculptors, and painters. Though Greece and Athens fell, 
it was only to spread their influence and learning far and wide. 

To Greece we owe the separation of church and state—for it 
is the earliest nation of which we have any knowledge where 
the king and priest were not united in the same person,—the 
development of philosophy, literature and art, and the ideas of 
democracy and the personality of man. 


The geographic position of Italy, a neighbor of Greece, border- 
ing on Gaul and not far from Spain, dividing the Mediterranean 
into two distinct parts, was admirably adapted to make her 
capital in the middle of Italy—Rome—the center of the ancient 
world, its mistress. 

Rome had the genius of government; her rule was not that 
of a race, for she united a hundred different races in the state, 





ot. Lae 

‘The early Mistress of the World. 13 

The east and the west contributed to her greatness. The prov- 
inces which became tributary to her enjoyed, in healthfulness 
and fertility of soil, in variety of vegetal and mineral products, 
and in natural facilities for transportation and distribution of 
exchangeable commodities, advantages that have not been pos: 
sessed in equal degree by any territory of like extent in the Old 
World or the New. From Mesopotamia came cotton and silk 
and from India precious stones; from Arabia the Blest came 
spices; grain came from Egypt and Sicily, elephants, lions and 
tigers for her colosseum and circus from Africa, gold and silver 
from Spain, iron, copper and tin from- England, gladiators from 
Gauland Germany. Even the harvests of Eeypt and the wealth 
of Asia could not forever supply the demands of the Roman 
emperor and support in idleness and luxury the people of Rome. 
Some of the countries from which Rome had long drawn its sup- 
plies became exhausted of their fertility and so diminished in 
productiveness as to be no longer capable of affording sustenance 
even to their own inhabitants, while others refused to be still 

longer subject to the despotic rule of Rome. Lands which from 

their abundance sustained a population scarcely inferior to that 
of the whole Christian world of the present day became entirely 
unproductive or at least capable of supporting only the few tribes 
which wander over their deserts. While this exhaustion of the 
national resources was going on the Gauls and Germans, taught 
the art of war by their conflicts with the Romans, once and yet 
again crossed the Alps and carried war into the heart of Italy. 
The Goths, Huns and Vandals, with hordes from the far-distant 
deserts of Tartary and Mongolia, poured through the fastnesses 
of the Alps, and Rome fell. 

To Rome we owe the idea of universal dominion, the merging 
of all nations into one, and the civil law. 

We have now finished our review of the nations of the Old 
World, and have shown that all nations pass through similar 
stages of progress from savagery to a more or less advanced state - 
of barbatism, and that beyond these stages nations have rarely 

if ever progressed without a change in their surroundings or 

contact with other peoples. Certain nations like Egypt, Arabia, 
and China had an early development, and since then have been 
persistent, but have made no progress, while other highly civ- 
ilized nations, like the Babylonians, Assyrians, Phenicians, 

14. G. G. Hubbard— Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

Grecians and Romans, have had their times of development, 
progress and decay. In these nations, excepting Greece, civil- 
ization was confined to the rulers and the noble families, while 
the people were sunk in the deepest degradation and without 
true civilization. . 

We turn now to modern nations, from Asia to Europe, Africa, 
and America. 


After the fall of Rome the first revival of civilization seems to 
have come from the far north, “The land of the midnight sun.” 

A slight knowledge of the geography of Europe will show why 
Scandinavia, the home of the vikings, was the first to awake 
from the lethargy of the dark ages. -Though it lies far away in 
the northernmost part of Europe, yet the winds and waves from 
the Gulf stream bathe its shores and give it a more equable 
climate than that of New England. Whoever looks at the map 
of Norway and sees its gulfs, bays, numerous fiords, and fine 
harbors probably exceeding in number those of all the other 
countries of Europe, will see what gave her the vikings, a race 
of seamen, and why her population, when they found no room 
on their own shores, sailed for other lands and occupations. 
They early became pirates and freebooters, then founded colonies 
on the coasts of North sea, in France, on the coasts of Italy and 
Sicily, in England, the Orkney islands, Iceland, and Greenland. 
In the geographic position of their country and in their habits 
they somewhat resemble the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon. 


Though Seandinavia opened a new era for commerce and for 
a time was all-powerful on the ocean, yet the northmen did 
little for the development of a higher civilization. For progress 
in the arts and sciences, we must return to the shores of the 
Mediterranean. ‘ 

Italy, situated in the middle of the Mediterranean, the penin- | 
sula of Europe which extends furthest southward, rich in its 
valleys and fine harbors, the land of the vine and fig-tree, is 
the only country which has had a renaissance. The ships of 
Venice and Genoa became the carriers of Europe, exchanging 

The Renaissance of Rome. 15 

the products of the Orient for the goods and wares of Europe ; 
and when Constantinople fell and the church of, the east was 
overthrown, Rome a second time became the capital of the 
world, the church was separated from the state, and the pope 
became the spiritual head of the world. 

The practical and reasoning mind of the north could not long 
bear this rule. The discovery of America, the invention of the 
printing-press, and the personality and independence of northern 
Kurope produced Luther and the Reformation, broke up the old 
regime, and brought in a new life to Europe. 


From Italy the wave of civilization which rolled over the 
peninsulas of the Mediterranean at last reached Iberia—the 
Spain and Portugal of today. The greater part of this peninsula 
is an elevated plateau, dry and hot in summer, cold in winter, its 
southern and western coasts only having the climate and prod- 
ucts of Greece and southern Italy. The difference of climate 
and the admixture with more southern races has given to the 
Spaniards and Portuguese a different complexion, temperament 
and character from the inhabitants of northern Europe. The 
sea-coast and harbors of Portugal invited its people to send 
_ out ships on voyages of discovery and trade along the coast of 
Africa. ; 

The peace which followed the war of Ferdinand and Isabella 
with the Moors left a multitude of restless spirits ready for any 
rash undertaking; and for them the discovery of America opened 
a wide field of adventure and led to the conquest of the New 
World and the Orient. Gold and silver poured into Spain, the 
labor of slaves was substituted for that of the freeman, and 
Spain became the first nation of the world, extending her em- 
pire over central Europe and the Netherlands; but wealth, 
luxury, and the religious despotism which reached highest de- 
velopment in the Inquisition led to her conflict with Great 
Britain and finally to her fall. 

Great Britain. 

Great Britain, protected by her insular position from foreign 
invasion, with a mild climate, abundant rainfall, fertile soil, good 
harbors, and vast mineral wealth, is most favorably situated for 
a great nation; yet for many generations before the discovery 

16 G. G. Hubbard— Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

of America the Britons made little progress in population, wealth 
or civilization. 

Later, Hawkins, Drake and others saw that the African slave 
trade was very profitable; so with the aid of Elizabeth they 
built ships, captured negroes in- Africa, and carried them to 
the West Indies, where they were sold as slaves. Their fol- 
lowers became buccaneers and pirates, finding that occupation 
still more profitable. Leaders and seamen were thus trained 
for the war with Spain, which resulted in the destruction of the 
Armada and made England a maritime power. She founded 
colonies in North America, captured islands in the West Indies 
and Pacific, and subsequently acquired India; Cape Colony and 
the Gold coast in Africa, with all of Australia and New Zealand. 
England became a great commercial and mercantile nation, a 
mother of nations; coal and iron mines were opened, the steam 
engine and steam ships were invented; she became a manu- 
facturing nation, the carrier and banker of the world, and her 
wealth and prosperity increased and still continue to grow. 


Over against Greece and Italy and in sight of the Iberian 
peninsula is Africa, the eldest of the continents, the birth-place 
of European civilization. j 

In its physical aspect, its population and its civilization, Africa 
is unlike the other continents. It is a huge peninsula, with few 
bays and gulfs, scarcely any islands, without good harbors or 
rivers navigable from the ocean into the interior. It has only 
one-fourth as much sea-coast in proportion to its area as Europe, 
and only one-third as much as America. It is the only conti- 
nent in which the largest part of its territory lies within the 
tropics. As the éarth here spontaneously furnishes food for the 
sustenance of man, and as only scanty clothing is required, all 
inducements to either mental or manual labor are wanting. 

In all the continents we find traces of inhabitants of a different 
race from those now peopling them, but in no other country are 
the movements of different races so well marked as in Africa. 
The Arabs who now inhabit the northern part of Africa drove 
the former occupants, the Bantus, toward central Africa; they 
in their turn dispossessed the Negro, while the Negro dispos- 
sessed the Dwarfs and their kinfolk the Bushmen and the Hot- 
tentots, who were probably the aborigines. The Dwarfs retreated 

— os 

Slow Progress of the dark Continent. * 17 

to the thick woods of the interior, the Bushmen and the Hotten- 
tots to the extreme southern lands of Africa. 

Cape Colony, in the southern part of Africa, in a mountainous 
region with salubrious climate and considerable fertile soil, was 
settled by the Dutch in 1652, only thirty years subsequent to 

_. the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth. For over one hun- 

dred years the English have held it, but the population today 
is only 1,530,000, of whom but 370,000 are whites and 1,160,000 
Africans. Itshould have been a fit home for the white race, but 
they have not flourished there. 

Contrast Cape Colony with the Argentine republic, on the 
same parallel of latitude and with a similar climate. The 
immigration into that state within the last ten years has been 
over 1,200,000; in 1869 the population was 1,877,000; in 1891, 

Natal, formally occupied by a small number of boers, was 
seized by the British in 1843, when it had only a few inhabitants. 
It possesses great advantages of soil, a semi-tropical but agreeable 
and healthful climate; the land rising in plateaus from the coast 
affords several varieties of temperature. Emigrants at different 
times have poured into the Colony, yet although fifty years have 
elapsed since its settlement by the British, Natal has only 46,000 
Europeans out of a population of over 540,000. Great numbers 
of Negroes, refugees from the neighboring Zulu country, have 
settled in Natal, attracted by the good government of the English. 

Algeria, in the north temperate zone, has a climate like that of 
Spain, Italy, and Greece. It was conquered by the French and 
has been held by them for over sixty years. France has sent 
many colonists to Algeria, but the increase in the Kuropean 
population has been very slow, and for a long time the deaths 
exceeded the births. The population in 1893 was estimated at 
4,124,000, including about 267,000 French and 215,000 other 
Europeans. The French have had little better success in northern 
Africa than the English in the south. 

Within the last fifteen years the nations of Europe have made 
a few settlements in different parts of Africa, the results of which 
cannot be foretold. 


The physical geography of America is essentially different 
from that of the old world, very largely by reason of the fact 
that in the one the mountains run north and south, in the other 

3—Nat. Grog. Maa., von. VI, 1894, 

18 G. G. Hubbard— Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

east and west. It has less ocean front to the square mile than 
Europe, more than either Asia or Africa. 

When America was discovered its north temperate region was 
occupied by numerous tribes of Indians, living by hunting and 
fishing, almost always at war with one another. South of Ohio 
river the land was more easily tilled, and the tribes that in- 
habited it, unlike the aborigines of New England and New York, 
cultivated a little ground and were less savage. Still further 
southward, in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, the Cherokees, 
Chocktaws, and Natches had an organized government with fixed 
places of residence and tribal rights. They relied for their 
support more on agriculture than on the chase and fishing. 
The Pueblos, in New Mexico and Arizona, inhabiting the cliff 
dwellings, had advanced to a still higher state of civilization. 
Among the Pueblos, as well as among the more highly civilized 
tribes of Central America, were other tribes living in the same 
territory, much more savage than their neighbors, and in some 
cases even more savage than the Indians of New England. Still 
further southward, in Central America, in a warmer zone, tem- 
pered by its high mountains, was a higher civilization than in 
the north. Unfortunately, we know little either of this people 
or of the Incas of Peru. On the Pacific coast of North America, 
in a territory 50 miles wide and 1,000 miles long, were a vast 
number of different races and languages. In South America 
there was a greater variety of race and language than in North 
America east of the Sierra Nevada. 

In South America is the richest valley of the torrid or tem- 
perate zone, watered by the Orinoco and the Amazon. A rich 
soil, with a moist and hot climate and an abundance of rain, 
produces a most luxuriant vegetation. Mr Buckle says: * Here, 
where physical resources are the most powerful, where the soil 
is watered by the noblest rivers, the coast studded by the finest 
harbors, the profusion of nature has hindered social progress 
and opposed that accumulation of wealth without which prog- 
ress is impossible.” Fortunately, most valuable timber, the 
rubber tree, quinine, and tapioca yield abundant harvests with- 
out the labor of planting and watching from seed time to har- 
vest, and by quick gains for light work offer inducements to 
the laborer to acquire habits of industry. The inhabitants of 
this region are a mixed race of Spaniards, Indians, and Negroes, 
numbering about 37,000,000, of which 21 percent are white, 35 
- percent Indians, 40 percent mixed, and 6 percent Negroes. In 


The Decadence of the Savage. 19 

all these countries, even those where there are few whites, the 
pure Indian is steadily giving away to the mixed blood, appar- 
ently the product of natural selection. It would seem from this 
that the climate and country are better adapted to the increase 
of mixed blood than either the Spanish or the Indian. 

Central America and South America were settled by the Latin 
race, North America by the French and English.. The French 
early founded settlements,on the Saint Lawrence, and have ever 
since occupied the larger portion of its valley, though their 
population has never spread outside of this territory and por- 
tions of New England. They are a hardy, frugal, and industri- 
ous race, living in a cold, unfruitful country ; all their strength 
and resources are expended in obtaining a scanty livelihood, 
leaving them without opportunity to develop the artistic taste 
and culture natural to the French race. 

The United States owes its rapid growth and prosperity largely 
to the valley of the Mississippi. This great valley slopes from 
the east and west and toward the south, and has the largest ex- 
tent of rich arable iand in the temperate zone. West of the Mis- 
souri are great plains, and further westward among the Rockies 
great parks and plateaus, with short summers and long winters, 
so dry that neither heat nor cold are unpleasant. Here also are 
great mineral veins, bearing gold and silver, lead and copper, 
iron and coal, with rapid streams, fit country for the miner, the 
manufacturer, and the herdsman. In the far west, where there 
are only from five to fifteen inches of rainfall, numerous irri- 
eating ditches have been made, and by means of the storm water 
collected in reservoirs the desert has been made to yield most 
abundant harvests. 

The English ‘and their descendants have never mingled with 
the Indians, but have driven them from their homes, following 
the example of every other nation of the Old World in occupy- 
ing the territory of the aborigines. As soon as the rich plains 
and fertile prairies of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys were ex- 
plored, thousands and tens of thousands of emigrants from the 
Old and New World flocked into a region where they could ob- 
tain homesteads for the asking. This emigration benefited both 
continents, for the population and wealth of the Old World has 
rapidly increased since emigration began, and never in the history 
of the world has so much wealth been created as by the settle- 
ment and cultivation of these valleys. 

20. G. G. Hubbard—Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

Athough the blood of many nations is mingled in the United 
States, we find the same peculiarities prevailing along the same 

parallels of latitude today that existed in the Old World and in | 

the colonies when the country was settled. The people of the 
north are more practical and more inventive than the people of 
the south. In the northern states, in 1891, one patent was issued 
to each 3,257 of the population, in the southern states one to 
every 11,181 of the population; in Connecticut one to every 965, 
in Mississippi one to every 23,447. 

Slavery was early introduced into the United States, but its 

increase was very slow until the cotton-gin was invented, when ~ 

the raising of cotton became profitable and the slave popula- 
tion necessary to the cultivation rapidly increased. It is im- 
possible to ascertain how many Negroes were imported into 
the United States between 1619, when the first cargo was 
landed at Jamestown, and 1808, when the trade ceased. By a 
count made prior to the Revolution the number of slaves was 
a little over 500,000. The first census, in 1792, showed 757,000 
colored, most of whom were slaves. In 1861 there were 4,440,000, 
of which 488,000 were free. Since the abolition of slavery the 
blacks have concentrated upon lands at once both hot and moist, 
in the middle of the Gulf states, and have increased more rapidly 
than the whites in the states of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi and Louisiana. The negroes have increased 70 per- 
cent, the whites 60 percent. 

Table showing the relative Increase of Negroes in the Gulf States. 

1860. | 1870. | 1880. 1890. 
Neproess ok aoe ane. 2,104,000 2,245,000 | 3,064,000 | 3,528,000 
MnTEES IG Sed eae alc eS 2,120,000 | 2,195,000 | 2,805,000 | 3,377,000 
: 4,224,000 | 4,440,000 | 5,869,000 | 6,905,000 


Jamaica and San Domingo. 

A healthy climate, fertile soil, good harbors, and luxuriant 
vegetation, or even a large and prosperous white population, are 
not sufficient to ensure progress in civilization, Jamaica, the 

Where the Whites fall before the Blacks. 21 
Queen of the Antilles, is one of the loveliest islands of the West 
Indies, with a tropical climate on the coast, in the interior high 
mountains with a temperate climate, a sea breeze by day and a 
land breeze by night stronger than are found elsewhere. 

In slavery times the sugar and coffee properties made the 
planters of Jamaica the richest men of England, and the white 
population steadily increased, while the deaths among the 
slaves exceeded the births, and the number was kept up only 
by the average annual importation of 9,000 slaves. The abo- 
lition of slavery caused the failure of the planters, the decrease 
of the white population, the abandonment of the greater part of 
the plantations and properties, and the rapid increase of the 
blacks. In 1861 there were 15,816 whites, 81,074 mixed, 346,376 
blacks; total, 441,266. The proportion was one white man to six 
mixed or mulattoes and twenty-four blacks; today it is one 
white man to four mixed and sixty blacks, the total popula- 
tion being 639,491. 

San Domingo is even more beautiful than Jamaica. It has a 
healthful chmate, high mountains, beautiful scenery, fine harbors, 
a fertile soil which repays with three harvests a year the labor 
of the husbandman. The first European settlements in Amer- 
ica were on this island, four hundred years ago. As the Indian 
proved incapable of enduring the hard labor imposed by the 
Spaniards, Las Casas introduced Negroes to save the life of the 
Indian. His efforts were unsuccessful, for the Indians, number- 
ing it is said 2,000,000 when the Spaniards landed, have all 
perished. The white manruled for nearly three hundred years ; 
vast fortunes were made; the returns from slave labor were so 
great that the carrying trade employed 1,400 vessels with crews 
of 50,000 men. 

About one hundred years ago the blacks of Haiti threw off 
the French yoke, murdered the white men, and established what 
they called a republic. San Domingo subsequently threw off 
the Spanish yoke and declared itself free and independent. The 
Spaniards were killed as the French had been. The white man 
perished even as the Indian perished, and all trade and pros- 
perity passed away. Since then both states have sunk into the 
deepest barbarism, and the people, three-fourths black and one- 
fourth mixed blood, are daily becoming more savage. Fetichism 
and cannibalism are here combined, and the people have fallen 
lower in the scale of civilization than the Negroes of Africa, 

22 G. G. Hubbard—Geographic Progress of Civilization. 

The most favored places in the world for climate, fertility of 
soil, and ease of access are, first, the West Indies; next the 
islands of Oceanica. Surpassing these in fertility and equaling 
them in salubrity of climate is the valley of the Amazon. These 
regions are now inhabited by the Negro, the Polynesian, and 
the Indian. The Negro in the equatorial regions, unless held 
as a slave, supplants the white man; the Polynesian and Indian 
both fade before the civilization of the white man. In the valley 
of the Amazon a mixed race of whites and Indians seems per- 
sistent, and the white element by a kind of natural selection 

A late writer says that these regions must be given up to in- 
ferior races; to this conclusion we cannot agree. In the progress 
of civilization man with his inventions and discoveries, by the 
applied power of steam and electricity, has practically annihi- 
lated time and space. In the early history of man he was con- 
trolled by and subject to his environment, which shaped his life 
and formed his character ; now he in turn controls his environ- 
ment. In our homes we temper the summer heat and make 
an equatorial climate in winter; we daily provide our tables 
with all the products of each season of the year and every clime ; 
we have begun even to understand and combat the microbes of 
the tropical regions that have brought sickness and death in 
their train. 

We have followed the progress of civilization from the rising 
to the setting sun; we have witnessed its decay in one country, 
followed by the rise of a higher civilization in another ; we have 
seen it cross the Atlantic to the New World where it has spread, 
ever widening and deepening its scope, until it has leavened the 
whole mass of humanity. 

We began with the proposition that in all the ages of the past 
civilization has been confined to the favored regions lying in the 
temperate zone; but with ever increasing knowledge there seems 
to be no reason to doubt that man will eventually bring under 
subjection all the adverse conditions of physical life and become 
the master of his environment, until the whole earth, even those 
regions heretofore supposed to be entirely unfit for habitation, 
shall own his power and become the abode of the highest intel- 
ligence and greatest civilization, 



men = 

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Nat. Geog. Mag. 






N.H.DARTON. U.S.Geol. Survey 

2 500 1000 6000/FsT \. 
VERTICAL. ella ir Es eS een : =/!34 
ve / AMILES. 

(The Base 1s at Sea Level.) 



BSS nuoson Suances 

Nat. Geog. Mag. 

Vol. VI. Pl. 1, 





N.H.DARTON. U.S.Geol. Survey 

o $07 1000 6000/F 
VERTICAL, Capt pee 7 

4 / AMES, 
HORIZONTAL Ee = <== fo —" 

(The Besers at Sea Level) 





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VoL. VI, PP. 23-34, PLS. 1-3 MARCH 17, 1894 





Shawangunk yf mountain is a prominent range lying between 
Hudson river and the southern Catskills, in Ulster county, New 
York. To the eastward it rises from the Wallkill valley in steep 
inclines, surmounted by a high escarpment; to the westward it 
slopes to the Rondout valley. Along its axis it rises gradually 
south of Rosendale, and finally attains an elevation of 2,200 feet 
and a width of five miles. It continues to the southward, with 
somewhat decreased height and width, through New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, where it is known as Kittatinny mountain, and 
gives rise to the Delaware, Lehigh and Susquehanna water-gaps. 

The well known summer resorts of lake Mohonk and lake 
Minnewaska are on the summit of Shawangunk mountain, in 
Ulster county, so that the region has become familiar to a large 
number of visitors. Unfortunately, however, no description of 
its geology has ever been published and the meagre references 
in the report of Mather} throw but little light on the subject. 

During the autumns of the past two years I have had occasion 
to spend a few days on the mountain to determine the salient 

* Published by permission of Professor James Hall, State Geologist, in 
advance of the Annual Report of the Geological Survey of New York. 

+ Pronounced ‘‘Shongum,”’ according to the residents of the region. 

t Geology of New York, Report on the First Geological District, 1845, 

4—Nar. Geog, Maa., von, VI, 1894. (23 

24 N. H. Darton—Shawangunk Mountain. . 

features of its geology in Ulster county, and they were found to 
be of great interest. In this article there is presented a brief 
summary of the results of my observations, but in a report on 
the geology of Ulster county, now in preparation, there will be 
a somewhat more detailed description of the region. 

The structure of Shawangunk mountain in Ulster county is 
a particularly interesting illustration of close relation of rock 
texture to topography, for the presence of the mountain and its 
form are directly dependent on the structure of a relatively thin 
sheet of hard rock. In the accompanying stereogram (plate 
1) an attempt has been made to represent its physiographic 
character, and the structure is shown in the cross-section at the 
ends of blocks into which the supposed model is divided. The 
mountain consists of a widely extended sheet of Shawangunk 
erit lying on soft Hudson shales. This sheet lies in a gently 
westward-dipping monocline which is corrugated by a series of 
gentle longitudinal flexures. To the westward it dips beneath 
shales and limestones of the succeeding formations in the Ron- 
dout valley ; to the eastward it terminates in long lines of high 
precipices which surmount steep slopes of Hudson shales. Its 
anticlinals give rise to high ridges and wide plateaus ; its syncli- 
nals constitute in greater part the intervening depressions. In 
several portions of the mountain the grit has been eroded off 
the crests of the anticlinals and the underlying slates are bared. 
This is the case in a wide area southeast of Ellenville, in a long 
strip extending from near lake Mohonk nearly to Rosendale, in 
a small area east of Wawarsing, and in the top of the mountain 
north of lake Minnewaska. Mather has suggested that the great 
cliffs of the region are due to faults, but I find this is not the 
case. Only one fault was found, and this was a small over- 
thrust in the Rosendale region. There are many slight faults of 
a few inches or feet, but they appear to be entirely in the grit. 

The surface of Shawangunk mountain is nearly everywhere 
very rugged, and cliffs and rocky slopes abound. These consist 
of snow-white grits, more or less mantled with dark lichens, 
and are remarkably picturesque. There are many cataracts, 
several beautiful rock-bound lakes, and widely extended views 
of the Catskills to the westward and the Hudson yalley to the 
eastward. The ruggedness is due to the exceptional hardness 
of the grits, the softness of the underlying shales, and a ten- 
dency to vertical jointing which gives rise to cliffs and clefts, 


ne — a 

The Rocks of the District. 5 



There are low lines of cliffs all over the surface of the mountain, 
especially to the southward, but along the eastern face, where 
the grit is being continually undermined by erosion of the slate, 
they are of great prominence, in some cases having a nearly ver- 
tical height of two hundred feet and extending continuously for 
many miles. The “points” are projections or promontories of 
the eastern edge of the grit beyond the general crest line, due to 
a less degree of recession. Buntico point, Paltz point, Gertrude 
nose and Sams point are the most prominent of these, but there 
are many others of minor importance. The cliffs on the surface 
of the ranges are of various heights and lengths, and rise along 
joint cracks. ‘They face in various directions, but a north-and- 
south trend is predominant. They are usually in irregular, dis- 
continuous steps on the slopes and face each other and enclose 
depressions of various sizes on the plateaus. 

The lakes for which the mountain is famous lie in basins of 
moderate depth and are all near the top of the range. They 
are nearly surrounded by cliffs of Shawangunk grit of greater 
or less height, which add greatly to their beauty. The grit is 
mainly a messive white or gray quartzite or conglomerate, aver- 
aging 250 to 300 feet thick. The proportion of pebbles is large 
but variable, many beds being fine. The pebbles and grains are 
quartz, and the matrix is siliceous. The conglomerate is the 
famous Esopus millstone, and has been largely quarried for two 

The relations of the Shawangunk grit to the Hudson shale in 
the Shawangunk mountain region is one of shght but persistent 
unconformity. The coarse grit lies directly on the eroded sur- 
face of the shales. This erosion has truncated low arches of the 
slate, but has channelled its surface only shghtly. Exposures 
of the relations are everywhere abundant. One of the best in- 
stances is along the road from Minnewaska to New Paltz, two 
miles south of lake Mohonk. Here along the mountain slope a 
very low arch of the grit is seen surmounting a truncated arch 
of shales of materially steeper dip. Diversity of dip is seen at 
every locality, varying from very slight to 0°, but several points 
were observed where it was hardly perceptible. 

The corrugations in the general monocline of the mountain 
are a series of anticlinals and synclinals which traverse the range 
diagonally from north-northeast to south-southwest and begin in 
succession from northeast to southwest, their axes rising gradu- 

26 N. H. Darton—Shawangunk Mountain. 

ally to the southward. Beginning at the northern end of the 
range the principal feature is the anticlinal which brings up the 
cement between Rosendale and Whiteport. South of Rondout 
creek, opposite Rosendale, the upward pitch of this flexure in- 
creases rapidly, and the Shawangunk grit soon rises into a ridge 
of considerable altitude. . In a short distance from the creek the 
erits are eroded from the crown of the arch, and to the south- 
ward the underlying shales constitute a series of high but 
rounded hills extending along the center of the mountain. The 
occurrence of these high hills of soft rock is a striking feature, 
and they give a unique character to this portion of the moun- 
tain. Their presence is due to the former protection of the 
arch of Shawangunk grit by which they were originally covered. 
The grit in the flanks of this arch extends down the slopes of 
the mountain, where it dips beneath overlying formations in 
the valley on the western side and extends nearly or quite to the 
base on the eastern side. One mile and a half south of Ros- 
endale the range has the structure shown in the first section 
on the stereogram. It will be seen that the sheet of grit lying 
along the eastern slope of the mountain is considerably corru- 
rugated. This corrugation consists in the main of a western 
limb dipping more or less steeply eastward, and a shallow 
synclinal. In one portion of the ridge, there is a very abrupt 
anticlinal crumple in this synclinal which extends but a short 
distance in either direction and then flattens out into the gen- 
eral flexure. There is also a fault which extends from the 
Rosendale cement region. It gives rise to a sharp ridge which 
continues to the first road across the mountain, beyond which it 
dies out. Along the eastern face of the northeastern range of the 
mountain the dips are in greater part gently to the westward. 
Along the railroad they are 20°, and this is the average for some 
distance. On the first road across the mountain the dips are 
60°, but this steep dip soon gives place to inclinations of not 
over 10°, and toward the southern end of the ridge the synclinal 
dies out, leaving a gentle dip eastward. This grit area lying along 
the eastern slope of the mountain terminates abruptly southward 
in a fine line of cliffs which, owing to the upward pitch of the 
bed in this direction, are of great elevation. This is Buntico 
point, one of the most prominent topographic features in the re- 
gion. Its character is shown in the stereogram. 

South of Buntico point the eastern crest and summit of Shawan- 


1S Wel VAIN UN OU ‘Bepl fos WN 

Structure North of Lake Mohonk. 27 

eunk mountain consists of a great mass of Hudson shales, which 
are being rapidly and deeply eroded. They extend southward 
nearly to lake Mohonk, where the crest of the anticlinal is occu- 
pied by grit for some distance. The grit in the western limb of 
the anticlinal on the northern end of the mountain lies part way 
down the western slope and does not attain the prominence that 
it has in the area terminating in Buntico point. It constitutes 
a monoclinal ridge, with a line of cliffs along its eastern edge, 
above which the hills of Hudson shales rise several hundred feet. 
To the westward the Shawangunk grit dips beneath overlying 
formations in the synclinal valley of Coxingkill. On the opposite 
side of this valley, at High Falls, there rises one of the principal 
anticlinals of Shawangunk mountain, which soon brings up 
Shawaneunk grit in the low ridge on which the village is built. 
This ridge gradually increases in width and altitude southward, 
and near the line of the third section on the stereogram its crest 
is nearly as high as the ridge eastward, from which it is sepa- 
rated by the synclinal valley of the Coxingkill. 


Fiaure 1.—Cross-Section of eastern Ridges of Shawangunk Mountain through 
‘Lake Mohonk, looking northward (S, Shawangunk Grit; H, Hudson Shale). 
Vertical scale exaggerated. 

South of Alligerville the mountain widens rapidly as flexure 
after flexure brings up the Shawangunk grit from the northwest- 
ward. The western ridge rises gradually on the upward pitch of 
the axis of the flexure, and finally becomes the highest part of 
the mountain east of Ellenville. Southwest of lake Mohonk 
there are five of these flexures, together with various small un- 
dulations, with a creek in each synclinal. Lake Minnewaska is 
in the crown of the anticlinal which rises at High Falls, and lake 
Awosting is on the western slope of the same flexure. 

These lakes are all situated near the eastern side of the moun- 
tain and about 150 feet below the crest. They are similar in 
relation and originated under almost the same conditions. Lake 
Mohonk occupies a north-and-south clett in the crown of the 

28 N. H. Darton—Shawangunk Mountain. 

anticlinal which rises at Rosendale. The structure of lake Mo- 
honk is shown in figure 1. 

The lake basin is in Hudson shales, but it is bordered on 
the east and west by high cliffs of Shawangunk grit. To the 
south there is a gap in the front of the mountain through which 
the shales extend to the lake. The top of these shales is a few 
feet above the surface of the lake at its southeastern end, but 
the pitch carries them a few feet below the water surface toward 
the north and west. 

On plate 2 are shown some features of lake Mohonk. 

This view is looking to the southward and out of the gap in 
the eastern front of the mountain through which the Hudson 
shales extend to the lake. On the left is Paltz point, and to the 
right, in the distance, is Cope point, a projection of the southern 
extension of the eastern front of the mountain. 

Kast of the lake there is a thick mass of grit, which hes along 
the crest of the anticlinal. It begins a short distance north- 
ward and is terminated by very abrupt cliffs in Paltz poimt, near 
the southern end of the lake. The character and relations of 
this “point” are represented in the stereogram. 

At the head of the lake and the base of the southern end of the 
mass of grit in Paltz point the Hudson shales constitute a small 
plateau which surmounts the long eastern slope of the mountain. 
There is no cross-drainage way at the base of the cliffs and the 
reason for the abrupt termination of this point is obscure. 

The erit dips gently west-northwestward along the western 
side of Paltz point and very slightly eastward in its easternmost 
part. Northeast of the lake the dip is at a low angle to the west- 
ward, but there are several slight undulations. There is every- 
where a pronounced pitch northwestward. Owing to the west- 
erly dip the grits in the Paltz point ridge are somewhat lower 
just north of the lake than elsewhere. It will be seen from these 
statements that the lake lies slightly west of the center of the 
arch of the anticlinal, and all the dips along its shores are north- 
westward, although at very lowangles. The degree of dip rapidly 
increases down the western slope of the mountain into the syn- 
clinal valley of Coxingkill. 

The outlet of lake Mohonk is to the northward by a branch 
of Coxingkill. This branch flows through a slight depression 
separating the Paltz point range from the main mountain mass, 
and then obliquely down the flank of the anticlinal, 


Lake Minnewaska. 29 

South of Paltz point the eastern front of the mountain pre- 
sents a nearly unbroken line of high cliffs for many miles along 
or near the crest of the anticline. The nature of a portion of 
this escarpment is shown in plate 3 

Two miles south of lake Mohonk there is a shght depression 
in the crest line through which the road to lake Minnewaska 
passes, and there are several other depressions of less amount. 
Millbrook mountain is the culminating feature of this portion 
of the range, beyond which its front is somewhat more irregular 
in contour. 

Lake Minnewaska is similar to lake Mohonk in appearance, 
but it is somewhat larger. It was not ascertained whether its 
basin extends into the Hudson shales, for there is a continuous 
rim of grit surrounding it. As a very great thickness of grit is 
exposed above the water level in this vicinity, it seems probable 
that the bottom of the lake is in or very near the shales. ‘This 
probability is increased somewhat by the presence of the steep 

Fiaure 2.—Cross-Section of the eastern Ridges of Shawangunk Mountain 
through Lake Minnewaska, looking northward (S, Shawangunk grit ; H, Hudson 

cliffs and the width of the valley or cleft in which the lake lies. 
In figure 2 there are shown the principal structural features at 
this locality. 

The cliffs which extend along the eastern side of the lake are 
very high and precipitous. As at lake Mohonk, the rocks are 
greatly fissured and are. traversed by many deep wide clefts. 
The dips are gently anticlinal about the Jake, which is on the 
axis of the flexure. but they increase in amount to the east and 
west. The lake empties to the southward through a wide gap, 
into the synclinal valley of the Coxingkill, and it may be re- 
garded as the headwaters of this stream. 

_ A miie northeast of the lake the anticlinal on which the lake 
is situated is crossed by the road to Port Hixon, and in the 

30> N. Hf. Davton—Shawangunk Mountain. 

vicinity of the road the grit has been removed from the crown 
of the arch for some distance. ‘The road crosses the ridge in a 
gap onthe Hudson shales, and the edges of the grit give rise to 
high cliffs on either side. Down the slope aways, the grit out- 
crops on the flank of the arch, but the slate extends along the 
upper slopes of the mountain for some distance, especially on the 
east side. The occurrence of the slate in this inlymg area is a 
very striking feature, and the reason for the removal of the grit 
at this locality is not clear. 

South of lake Minnewaska the front of the ridge trends south- 
westward some distance, and the Coxingkill anticlinal and the 
anticlinal next west, pass out to the south. There is a promi- 
nent “ point” in this vicinity known as Gertrude nose, which is 
due to a deep incision in the front of the mountain made by a 
small branch of the Wallkill. This stream heads on the plateau 
south of the lake, passes over the edge of the grit in a series of 
falls, and has cut a deep gorge into the Hudson shales below. 

T'iqure 3.—Lake Awosting jrom the East-northeast, Sums Point inthe Distance. 

Lake Awosting is the largest lake of the series, and has a 
length of about a mile. It is surrounded in greater part by low 
clifis and rocky slopes, but near its eastern end there is a line 
of very high cliffs which extend in from the crest of the moun- 
tain eastward and constitutes a high, west-sloping plateau north- 
east of the lake. In figure 3 there is given a view of this lake 
based on kodac photographs. 

The basin of the lake does not appear to be in Hudson shales, 
although possibly they underlie its deeper portions. The grit 
dips gently westward along the lake and this dip continues over a 
wide area of surrounding region, On the west there is a long 
slope to the main Peterkill valley, which extends from a low 
cliff along the lake. The outlet of the lake is by a fork of the 


0 Age ve Te) 
E'Id ‘VEST “IA TOA ‘Bew Hoey JBN 

Lakes and Cascades. 3 

Peterkill which flows along the west-sloping grits for half a 
mile, and then in high falls over the grit into the kill. East 
of the confluence there is a narrow depression known as Dark 
hole, which extends southeastward up the slope of the moun- 
tain. It is rimmed by moderately high cliffs of west-dipping 
erit and was cut by a stream which empties into the Peterkill. 
On the southern side of Dark hole is the high plateau of which 
the eastern front constitutes the cliffs at the southeastern end of 
lake Awosting. 

The Peterkill valley from beginning to end extends along the 
western flank of the anticlinal on which lake Minnewaska is 
situated, and has a cliff of west-dipping grit on its western side 
and slopes of grit on its eastern side. Four miles below lake 
Awosting the’ kill passes over Awosting falls and then over a 
series of cascades, aggregating in all a fall of over 240 feet 
approximately. In Awosting falls there is a clear fall of sixty- 
odd feet. They area mile north of lake Minnewaska. In the 
gorge below the several falls there are high cliffs of grit for some 
distance, but owing to considerable pitch northward or down 
stream and a thickness of erit somewhat over 200 feet, the kill 
has not cut through to the Hudson shales. 

South of lake Awosting there are two small, shallow ponds on 
the summit of the mountain. Mud pond, at the head of Fly 
brook, the principal fork of the Peterkill, is one, and lake Mara- 
tanza is the other. Lake Maratanza empties eastward by a 
branch of the Wallkill which pitches over the edge of the grit 
on the crest of the mountain, in a great fall into a deep gulf of 
Hudson shales. The locality is known as Verkeerder falls. 

Between Gertrude nose and Sams point the crest of the moun- 
tain is very high, but for some distance the edge of the grit is 
broken into great terraces and there is a sloping bench of Hud- 
son shales of some width at the base. Several branches of Wall- 
kill drainage head in the crest of the mountain in this region 
and pass over the edge of the grit in falls of which the above- 
mentioned Verkeerder falls are the most noteworthy. 

In this region the mountain narrows and some of the flexures 
pass out to the southward. This narrowing is due to recession 
of the edge of the sheet of the Shawangunk grit, which is closely 
related to the upward pitch of the flexures. This pitch increases 
the height of the mountain southward, but with increased height 

5—Nar. Grog. Maa., von, VI, 1894. 

32 N. H. Darvton—Shawangunk Mountain. 

there is a corresponding increase of erosion in the soft underly- 
ing shales, which beyond certain mits causes rapid recession. 
This is illustrated by Sams point, where the maximum altitude 
of 2,240 feet is attained. The “ point” is a narrowing extension 
of the grit along the axis of a very flat synclinal, which finally 
terminates in a high narrow cliff presented southward. From 
the wide anticlinal area to the west the grit has been eroded and 
the Hudson shales occupy the surface in a group of very high 
hills. These hills are surrounded by cliffs of the grit which on 
the eastern side rise somewhat above their summits, on the 
northern are about even with their higher summits, and on the 
western lie along their flanks. Originally the grit area in this 
region and southward was as wide as it is now at lake Mo- 
honk, but owing to the greater height to which the northern 
pitch of the flexures carried the grit, it was here more rapidly 
and widely undermined and removed. It is the grit on the 
western limb of the anticlinal that lies on the western flanks of 
the shale hills, constituting a monoclinal ridge of considerable 
prominence which extends from Ellenville far southward into 
Pennsylvania. This monoclinal mountain consists of a single- 
crested ridge of the Shawangunk erit, with a long slope up the 
dip from the valley westward, which terminates in an east- 
facing cliff of grit surmounting long rolling slopes of shale on 
the eastern side of the mountain. Its structure near the southern 
edge of Ulster county is shown in the bottom section on the 
stereogram, and this is typical for the greater part of its course. 
In the valley westward there is a succession of formations overly- 
ing the grit, as shown on the left of the sections in plate 1. They 
are the Clinton red shales, Salina water lime, Helderberg lme- 
stone, Oriskany sandstone, Esopus shales, Onondaga limestones, 
and a great mass of Devonian shales and sandstones which ex- 
tend into the Catskills. The dips along the western slope of the 
mountain are low north of Wawarsing, but they rapidly increase 
southward to an average of about 60° in the vicinity of Ellen- 
ville. In this region of steep dips the streams flowing down 
the steep western slope have cut deep gorges, which extend 
through the grit into the underlying shales. The two streams 
south of Ellenville are exaggerated examples of this, and they 
have been largely instrumental in baring the Hudson shales on 
the anticlinal area behind Sams point. The two streams just 
north of Ellenville also cut into the shales, but they are very 

Gorges and Glaciation. 33 

small and have only formed narrow gorges. Opposite Napa- 
noch is a small creek which has cut a deep gorge into the shales, 
and in the higher part of the slope has bared the grit from an 
area of considerable size, which is surrounded by high cliffs. 
The stream opposite Wawarsing has cut a gorge and removed 
an area of the grit on the upper slopes of the mountain, but does 
not cut through to the shale. The head of this depression ex- 
tends into the head of the depression opposite Napanoch, and 
both are surmounted on the east by a continuous line of high 
cliffs. The stream which flows out of the mountain at Port 
Hixon is larger than the others and has cut a deep, wide gorge ; 
but owing to the lower dip of the grit it does not appear to have 
cut through to the shales to any great extent. No shales were 
observed in place in the depression, but a small amount of shale 
débris was noticed at one point. Everywhere along the steep 
slopes there are clefts in the grit, some of which appear to extend 
down to the shales. One of these is the “ Ice cave,” a locality 
which is widely famous in the region. It is high in the slope, 
about two miles east-northeast of Ellenville. Ice and snow re- 
main in it in greater or less amount, and in some seasons they 
are preserved entirely through the summer and autumn. In the 
vicinity there is also an old copper mine from which large sup- 
plies of fine quartz crystals were obtained some years ago. The 
top of the mountain southwest of Wawarsing is a wide plateau 
which is traversed by the valley of Stony creek. Its surface is 
very irregular and low cliffs of the bare grit abound. 

The grit in the higher portion of Shawagunk mountain 
nearly everywhere presents a basined surface. These basins are 
depressed an inch or two below the general level and are of 
various sizes and shapes. They usually contain pools of water 
and some sand and pebble detritus. They are mostly smooth 
and even polished and are distributed all over the motintain, 
but particularly on the western slope. With the polishing are 
associated lines of glacial scorings and striation which are con- 
spicuous at nearly every locality. Julien* has recorded the direc- 
tion of some of these strive and scorings. The general direction 
is southwestward and the average depth is between one-sixteenth 
and one-eighth of an inch. In the vicinity of Sams point the 
most abundant scratches trend south 46° west and south 29° west. 

* New York Academy of Sciences, Trans., vol. ili, pp. 22-29. 

54 N. H. Darton—Shawangunk Mountain. 

A few were observed somewhat more to the westward in direc- 
tion, one-fourth inch in depth. 

‘In the vicinity of lake Mohonk, about the hotel and on the 
northwestern slope, south 10° west is the general direction ; on 
the southeastern side of the mountain and on the road to Alliger- 
ville, it is south 40° east; and at Sky Top, south 18° east. At 
lake Minnewaska the trend is south 10° west. There is but little 
foreign glacial drift on the summit of the range, so far as ob- 
served, but there is considerable in the adjoining valleys. 

The origin and history of the lakes are not entirely clear, but 
they appear to be due to glacial agencies. The principal feature 
has been a local deepening and widening of a preéxistent valley, 
aided, at least in the case of lake Mohonk, by the presence of 
shales at the point now occupied by the lake. They do not ap- 
pear to be due in great measure to damming by glacial or other 
débris or to dislocation. 

Owing to its prominence the mountain has been long exposed 
to erosion. Originally the grit was overlain by a great mass of 
limestones and shales and the rocks of the Catskills, but these 
were removed far down into the Rondout valley at an early 
period. During the glacial epoch there was great erosion and 
the removal of great masses of the grit, which is now found in 
drift far to the southward. To the glaciation, too, probably is 
due the abruptness of Paltz point and other features of that sort. 
The grit also originally extended far to the eastward, but, owing 
to long-continued undermining by the removal of the soft, under- 
lying shales, its front has receded to its present position. This 
recession is still actively in progress, and every year there fall 
great masses from the front of the mountain. One of the regions 
of weakness is Paltz point, for its base is exposed to erosion on 
several sides, and it will eventually disappear. Probably before 
it is gone the streams heading near its southern end will cut 
back through the shales at the head of lake Mohonk, and this 
beautiful body of water will be tapped. Of course this is all 
very remote, so far as human history goes, and artificial means 
will stay its progress in some measure, but it will all be accom- 
plished in the near future, geologically speaking. Lakes Minne- 
waska and Awosting lie so far back from the front of the moun- 
tain that they will survive lake Mohonk by a very long time, 


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VoL. VI, PP. 35-62 APRIL 25, 1894 





The subject of ancient and modern weather making is a very 
large one—too large to be treated with entire generality. I shall 
discuss it rather from the American standpoint, and shall use 
cases in the Old World simply for the purpose of illustration 
and for completeness. 

Three distinct sorts of weather-making have been employed. 
The first depends on superstitious and religious methods; then 
follows on this the degradation of these religious ideas into 
folk-lore remnants, which have a curious persistency in civilized 
countries. Both these are psychic. Opposed to them is the 
third method, mainly American and intensely practical. with 
which some history and literature are connected. 

I. Superstirious AND ReEuicious Meruops. 


Many Indian tribes have attempted to produce rainy or dry 
weather, according to requirements. Among these may be men- 
tioned the Mandan, the Muskingum, the Moqui, the Natchez, 

* These cases of weather-making among the North American Indians 
were collected for me by Dr Fuller Walker, of the Weather Bureau, who 
searched through the literature available in Washington. 

6—Nar. Grog. Maa., vor. VI, 1894. (35) 

36. M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

Zuni, Choctaws, and others. For this purpose pipes were 
smoked, tobacco was burned, prayers and incantations were 
offered, arrows were discharged toward the clouds, charms were 
used, and various other methods were employed. Classifying 
by tribes the processes employed, we turn first to the Iroquois. 

Mrs E. A. Smith, in her “ Myths of the Iroquois,” says: 

In a dry season, the horizon being filled with distant thunder-heads, it 
was customary to burn what is called by the Indians real tobacco as an 
offering to bring rain. 

On occasions of this nature the people were notified by swift-footed 
heralds that the children, or sons, of Thunder were in the horizon, and 
that tobacco must be burned in order to get some rain. * 

As to the Muskingum, Heckewelder, in his “Account of the 
Indians of Pennsylvania” (Philadelphia, 1819, page 229), says: 

There are jugglers, generally old men and women, who get their living 
by pretending to bring down rain when wanted, and to impart good luck 
to bad hunters. In the summer of 1799 a most uncommon drought 
happened in the Muskingum country (Ohio). An old man was applied 
to by the women to bring down rain, and, after various ceremonies, de- 
clared that they should have rain enough. The sky had been clear for 
nearly five weeks, and was equally clear when the Indian made this 
declaration ; but about four o’clock in the afternoon the horizon became 
overcast, and, without any thunder or wind, it began to rain, and con- 
tinued to do so until the ground became thoroughly soaked. 

Heckewelder adds that ‘‘ Experience had doubtless taught the 
juggler to observe that certain signs in the sky and in the water 
were the forerunners of rain.” 

Among the Natchez, according to Father Charlevoix,t jugglers 
not only pretended to cure the sick, but also professed to procure 
rain and seasons favorable for the fruits of the earth. Their in- 
cantations were often directed to the dispersion of clouds and 
the expulsion of evil spirits from the bodies of the afflicted. 

In the third report of the Bureau of Ethnology it is stated by 
J. Owen Dorsey that “ When the first thunder is heard in the 
spring of the year the Elk people [among the Omaha Indians] 
call to their servants, the Bear people, who proceed to the sacred 
tent of the Elk gens. When the Bear people arrive one of them 
opens the sacred bag and, after remoying the sacred pipe, hands 
‘it to one of the Elk men, with some of the tobacco from the elk 

*2d Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology for 1880-’81 (1883), p. 72. 
+ Voyage to North America, Dublin, 1776, vol. ii, p. 203. 



Indian Rain Ceremonials. nT 

bladder. Before the pipe is smoked it is held toward the sky, 
and the thunder god is addressed. * * * ‘At the conclu- 
sion of this ceremony the rain always ceases, dnd the Bear people 
return to their homes.’ ” * 

Catlin, in his “ Life among the Indians ” (page 78), says that 
he found that the Mandan had ‘ rain-makers” and also “ rain- 
stoppers,” who were respected medicine men “ From the aston- 
ishing facts of their having made it rain in an extraordinary 
drought, and for having stopped it raining when the rain was 
continuing to an inconvenient length.” He adds: 

For this purpose, in a very dry time, the medicine men assembled in 
the medicine lodge, and sitting around a fire in the center, from day to 
day smoking and praying to the Great Spirit for rain, while a requisite 
number of young men volunteered to make it rain. Each one of these, 
by ballot, takes his turn to mount to the top of the wigwam at sunrise in 
the morning, with his bow and arrows in his hand and shield on his arm, 
talking to the clouds and asking for rain, or ranting and threatening the 
clouds with his bow, commanding it to rain. After several days of un- 
successful attempts have passed off in this way with a clear sky, some one 
more lucky than the rest happens to take his. stand on a day on which a 
black cloud will be seen moving up. When he sees the rain actually fall- 
ing he lets his arrow fly, and pointing.says: ‘‘ There! my friends, you 
have seen my arrow go. There js a hole in that cloud. We shall soon 
have rain enough.’? When he comes down he is a medicine man. The 
doctors give him a feast and a great ceremony and the doctor’s rattle. 
When the doctors commence rain-making they never fail to succeed, for 
they keep up the ceremony until the rain begins to fall. Those who have 
once succeeded in making it rain, in the presence of the whole village, 
never undertake it a second time. They would rather give. other young 
men a chance. 

A similar account of the Mandan ceremony is given by Mr 
John Frost, in his book ‘‘ The Indians of North America ” (New 
York, 1845, page 109). He says: 

It was in a time of great drought that I once arrived at the Mandan 
village on the upper Missouri. The young and the old were crying out 
that they should have no green corn. After a day or two the sky grew a 
little cloudy i in the west, when the medicine men assembled together in 
great haste to make it rain. The tops of the wigwams were soon crow ded. 
In the mystery lodge a fire was kindled, around which sat the rain- 
makers, burning sweet-smelling herbs, smoking the medicine pipe and 
calling on the Great Spirit to open the door of the skies to let out the 

* “Qmaha Sociology,’’ op. cit., 1884, p. 227. 

B80hs M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

rain. At last one of the rain-makers came out of the mystery lodge and 
stood on the top of it with a spear in his hand, which he brandished 
about in a commanding and threatening manner, lifting it up as though 
he were about to hurl it at the heavens. He talked loud of the power of 
his medicine, holding up his medicine bag in one hand and his spear in 
the other; but it was of no use, and he came down in disgrace. For 
several days the same ceremony continued, until a rain-maker, with a 
head-dress of the skins of birds, ascended the top of the mystery lodge, 
with a bow in his hand and a quiver at his back. He made a long speech, 
for the sky was growing dark, and it required no great knowledge of the 
weather to foretell: rain. He shot arrows to the sunrise and sundown 
points of the heavens, and also to the north and south, in honor of the 
Great Spirit, who could send rain from all parts of the sky. A fifth 
arrow he retained until it was almost certain that rain was at hand. 
Then, sending up the shaft from his bow with all his might, to make a 
hole in the dark cloud over his head; he cried aloud for the waters to 
pour down at his bidding and to drench him to the skin. He was 
brandishing his bow in one hand and his medicine in the other, when 
the rain came down in torrents. 

Among the Blackfeet Indians, according to W. P. Clark in 
his “ Indian Sign Language” (Philadelphia, 1885, page 72): 

The medicine man has a separate lodge, which faces the east. He fasts 
and dances to the sun, blowing his whistle. He is painted in different 
colors, and he must have no water, and only after dark can he eat, and 
then only the inner bark of the cotton-wood tree. A picture of the sun 
is painted on his forehead, the moon, ursa major, etc, on his body. The 
dance continues for four days, and should this medicine man drink it is 
sure to cause rain, and if it [does not] rains no other evidence of his 
weakness is wanted or taken. He is deposed as high priest at once. 

Mr W. Noble of Indian territory says that ‘The Choctaws, 
during a severe drought, will fasten a fish to one of their num- 
ber, who then goes into the water and remains there every day 
for two weeks in order to cause it to rain.” He adds that ‘In 
wet weather, if they wish the rain to cease, they go to a sand 
bank, put sand in a pan, and dry it over a fire.” 

Among the Moqui, according to Schooleraft : 

There is acharm used for calling down rain. It consists of a small 
quantity of wild honey wrapped up in the inner fold of the husk of the 
maize. To produce the effect desired it is necessary to take a piece of 
the shuck which contained the wild honey, chew it and spit it upon the 
ground which needs the rain. * 

* “ History,’’ ete, vol. iii, p. 208. 

tain Ceremonials in South America. 39 

Captain J. G. Bourke, in his “Snake Dance of the Moqui” 
(page 120) says: 

There was painted on the east wall a symbolical design, or ‘ prayer,” 
representing three rows of clouds in red and blue, from which depended 
long narrow black and white stripes, typical of rain, while from right 
and left issued long red and blue snakes, emblematic of lightning. This 
was a prayer to the god of clouds to send refreshing rains upon the Moqui 
crops. * * * Yellow was used in all prayers for pumpkins, green for 
corn, and red for peaches. 

Among the Zuni, according to Stevenson, medicine sticks were 
supposed to influence rain. These little sticks are found hidden 
beneath the rafters of nearly every house in Zuni.* 

Passing a little further from home we find, in Acosta’s ‘‘ His- 
tory of the Indies,’+ some accounts of rain producing and 
weather making among the Peruvian natives. According to 
him a Peruvian king in his lifetime caused a figure to be made 
wherein he was represented, which they called Huaugue, which 
signifies brother. They carried this image to the wars and in 
procession for rain or fair weather, making sundry feasts and 
sacrifices to it. They also pursued other methods. “ In matters 
of importance they offered up alpacas, hanging the beast by the 
right fore-leg, turning his eyes to the sun, speaking certain words 
according to the quality of the sacrifice they slew ; for if it were 
of color their words were addressed to the god of thunder and 
lightning, that they might want no water” (page 341). If they 
wanted water, to procure rain they set a black sheep tied in the 
middle of a plain, pouring much chica about it, and giving it 
nothing to eat until it rained (page 376). This is practiced (says 
Acosta, 1571-1588), at this day in many places in the month of 


What precedes relates to rain making or stopping. A some- 
what similar series of facts occur among the American Indians 
concerning other elements of the weather, but their energies in 
this direction seem to be expended chiefly in the control of the 

It appears that the Kansas gens of the Omaha are Wind 
people, and to them is especially entrusted the control of the 

*2d Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 371. 
+ Hakluyt Society edition, vol. ii, pp. 312-315. 

40 M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

wind. Mr J. Owen Dorsey says the Kanze (Kansa or Kaw) gens 
of the Omaha tribe, being Wind people, “ flap their blankets to 
start a breeze.”* He adds that when there is a blizzard the 
other Kansa tribe of Indian territory beg the members of the 
Wind gens to interpose, saying, “O grandfather, I wish good 
weather. Cause one of your children to be decorated.” Then 
the youngest son of a Kanze man, say one about four feet high, 
is chosen for the purpose, and painted with red paint. The youth 
rolls over and over in the snow, reddening it for some distance 
all around him. This is supposed to stop the blizzard. 

The following account is from a book entitled ‘‘ The Fourteen 
loway Indians” (London, 1844), and relates to raising wind: 

A packet ship, with Indians on board, was becalmed for several days 
near the English coast. It was decided to call upon the medicine man 
to try the efficacy of his magical powers with the endeavor to raise the 
wind. After the usual ceremony of a mystery feast, and various invo- 
cations to the spirit of the wind and ocean, both were conciliated by the 
sacrifice of many plugs of tobacco thrown into the sea; and in a little 
time the wind began to blow, the sails were filled, and the vessel soon 
wafted into port. 

The Indians also have many associations with thunder. 
Madam Lucy Elliot Keeler, in a paper recently contributed to 
the “American Agriculturist ” for December, 1892, says: 

The Dakotas used to have a company of men who claimed the exclusive 
power and privilege of fighting the thunder. Whenever a storm which 
they wished to avert threatened, the thunder fighters would take their 
bows and arrows, their magic drum, and a sort of whistle made of the 
wing-bone of a war eagle, and, thus armed, run out and fire at the rising 
cloud, whooping, yelling, whistling and beating their drum to frighten it 
down again. One afternoon a heavy black cloud came up, and they re- 
paired to the top of a hill, where they brought all their magic artillery 
into play against it; but the undaunted thunder darted out a bright flash 
which struck one of the party dead as he was in the very act of shaking 
his long-pointed lance against it. After that they decided that no human 
power could quell the thunder. 

In the “ Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-tales,” published by 
George Bird Grinnell, we find the following: 
An old Pawnee Indian said: ‘‘ Up north, where we worshipped at the 

time of the first thunder, we never had cyclones. Down here [Indian 
territory], now that this worship has been given up, we have them.” 

* 3rd Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 241. 

Indian Weather Ceremoniatls. 41 

The Indians in some cases have ideas of controlling the 
weather more generally, and Dablin, in his “* Relation of the 
Voyages, Discoveries and Death of Father James Marquette,’ 
writing in 1671-1675, says: 

It now only remains for me to speak of the calumet, than which there 

‘is nothing among the Indians [7. e., the Illinois] more mysterious or more 

esteemed. * * * They esteem it particularly because they regard it 
as the calumet of the sun, and, in fact, they present it to him to smoke 
when they wish to obtain calm or rain or fair weather. 

Even the control of fog has been attempted, as shown by the 
following quotation from Dorsey’s account of the Turtle sub- 
gens of the Omaha: + 

In the time of a fog the men of this subgens drew the figure of a 
turtle on the ground with its face to the south. On the head, tail, mid- 
dle of the back and on each leg were placed small pieces of a (red) 
breech-cloth with some tobacco. This they imagined would make the 
fog disappear very soon. 

But it is not only the pagan Indians who have tried their 
hand at weather-making. Their christianized descendants have 
also tried to control these operations of nature. In the transi- 
tion times between paganism and Christianity occurred some 
events which throw a curious and instructive side-light on this 
question, and two of these I will now give. 

Mr Parkman says that while the Jesuits labored with the 
Hurons a severe drougth came upon the fields. The sorcerers put 
forth their utmost power, and from the tops of the houses yelled 
incessant invocations to the spirits. All was in vain. A re- 
nowned “ rain-maker,” seeing his reputation tottering under his 
repeated failures, bethought him of accusing the Jesuits, and 
gave out that the red color of the cross which stood before their 
house scared away the bird of thunder and caused him to fly 
another way. On this a clamor arose. The popular ire turned 

against the priests, and the obnoxious cross was condemned to 

be cut down. The Jesuits said: “If the red color of the cross 
frightens the bird of thunder, paint it white.” This was done, 
but the clouds still kept aloof. The Jesuits followed up their 
advantage. ‘Your spirits cannot help you. Now ask the aid 
of Him who made the world.” Heavy rains occurring soon 

* Hist. Coll. of Louisiana, part iv, 1852, pp. 34-55. 
+3d Ann. Rep. Bureau of Ethnology, p. 240. 

AQ M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

after, it is said that many Indians béheved in the white man’s 
Great Spirit and presented themselves to the priests for baptism 
(Alice Elliot Keeler). 

A somewhat similar story is told of Peru by Acosta. It ap- 
pears that the Santa Cruz Indians became Christians because of 

the success of a renegade soldier in making rain. This soldier, 

seeing the native Indians “ In a great extremity for water, and 
that to procure rain they used many superstitious ceremonies, 
according to their usual manner,” said to them that if they 
would do as he said they toad presently have rain, which 
they willinely offered to perform. ‘‘ Then the soldier made a 
ereat cross, which he placed on a high and eminent place, com- 
manding them to worship it and to demand water, which they 
did. A wonderful thing to see, there presently fell such an 
abundance of rain, as the Indians took so great devotion to the 
holy cross as they fled unto it in all their necessities, and obtained 
all they demanded, so as they broke down their idols.” * 

The quotation from Acosta indicates the attitude of the In- 
dians of middle latitudes on this subject. This attitude, as is 
well known to those familiar with the Latin-American countries, 
is preserved unchanged among their descendants. Interesting 
illustrations of it can be picked up any day even as far north 
as Arizona and New Mexico, and every traveller in Latin-America 
has several at his disposal. As.the quintessence of them all I 
present a clipping from the New York Tribune to which my at- 
tention was called by Dr T. C. Mendenhall. Se non é vero é ben 
trovato. The extract runs as follows 

In the department of Castaflas there had been no rain for nearly a 
year, and the people were brought to such a pass that they were actually 
dying of thirst, to say nothing of the total destruction of all crops and 
other agricultural industries. 

“El Pueblo Catélico,’’ of New San Salgadon prints a number of reso- 
lutions promulgated by the principal alcalde of the town and department 
of Castafias. They are as follows: 

‘Considering that the Supreme Creator has not behaved well in this 
province, as in the whole of last year only one shower of rain fell; that 
in this summer, notwithstanding all the processions, pr ayers and praises, 
it has not rained at all, and consequently the crops of Castafias, on which 
depend the prosperity of the whole department, are entirely ruined, it 
is decreed: 

‘‘Article 1. If within the peremptory period of eight days from the 

'* Op. cit., vol. ii, p. 524. 

The Prayer Method reversed. 43 

date of this decree rain does not fall abundantly, no one will go to mass 
or say prayers. : 

‘Article 2. If the drougth continues eight days more, the churches and 
chapels shall be burned, and missals, rosaries, and other objects of deyo- 
tion will be destroyed. 

“Article 5. If, finally, in a third period of eight days it shall not rain, 
all the priests, friars, nuns, and saints, male and female, will be beheaded. 
And for the present permission is given for the commission of all sorts of 
sin, in order that the Supreme Creator may understand with whom he 
has to deal.’”’ 

The most remarkable feature of this affair is the fact that four days 
after these resolutions were passed the heaviest rainfall known for years 
was precipitated on the burning community. 

Il. Fotk-LorE REMNANTS.* 

Among the many curious remnants of folk-lore which we find 
in connection with the subject of weather making none is more 
curious than the idea that birds “call for rain.” Whenever this 
expression is ysed the evident intention is, as is well known to 
those who are familiar with this mode of speech, to express the 
idea that they demand the rain, and that rain is likely to follow 
because of this demand. For instance, the call of the robin, 
heard so frequently, is interpreted to mean, ‘ Bring out your 
skillet, bring out your skillet, the rain will fill it.” In popular 
estimation this is a “call for rain.” This association with our 
American robin is very general. In Maine and Massachusetts 
they are said to “sing for rain” (Miss F. D. Bergen). The 
American quail is also said to “ call for rain,” and its ery is in- 
terpreted to be, “More wet, more wet” (Dr Robert Fletcher). 
The call of the loon is given the same meaning in so widely 
separated localities as Cape Breton, the state of Washington, and 
Florida (Mr C. A.Smith). The same power is attributed, gener- 
ally in the Old World, to many other birds, as ducks, geese, 
crowsand ravens. From Pennsylvania (William Schrock) comes 
the quaint conception expressed in the following rhyme : 

The goose and the gander 
Begin to meander ; 

The matter is plain, 

They are dancing for rain. 

* This series of associations of natural objects with weather-making, in 
the sense of a weather fetich—a weather maker, not simply a weather 
forecaster—is taken from the collections of weather proverbs made by the 
Signal Service and Weather Bureau. 

7—Nart. Geoa. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

tt M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

But the birds are not only effective in making rain; they can 
exert still greater influence. The kildee, or killdeer plover, is 
said, in Maryland, to call up the wind by his ery of “ kildee, 
kildee!” while to kill him would cause a violent storm (Dr 
Fletcher). The Kiowa of Indian territory attribute to the kill- 
deer the bringing of spring (James Mooney, Washington). 

Another popular association between animals and rain is the 
idea that by certain treatment of some animals definite results 
in the way of, rain-making can be obtained. For instance, on 
Santee river, in South Carolina, it is believed that if you catch 
an alligator, tie him to a tree, and whip him to death it will be 
certain to bring rain (Dr W. W. Anderson). This seems to be a 
fragment of negro folk-lore. In Massachusetts it is said that if 
you see or step on a frog it is a sure sign of rain, while in Maine 
they say, “ Kill a frog and it will rain before morning” (Miss F. 
D. Bergen). This association of rain with the toad is general 
over the United States. Still another folk-lore remnant of the 
same sort relates to snakes. It is a curious fact that among 
many races the snake is supposed to have some relations with 
the weather. Mr James Mooney says, “The belief in a con- 
nection between rain and snakes is quite general among Indian 
tribes. The snake dance is intended to bring rain. The Indians 
of Indian territory turn a dead snake on its back to bring rain.” 
It is a piece of negro folk-lore that hanging a dead snake on a 
tree will bring rain in a few hours. Further northward it runs 
“ Hang up a snake skin and it will bring rain.” This refers to 
the cast-off skin. In northern Illinois the expression is, “ Hang 
up a snake’s cast-off skin on the crab-apple tree and it will bring 
rain.” The snake has played a very important part in weather 
making, and to it has been attributed many other magical 

An interesting series of superstitions with reference to weather 
making are those which are common to sailors, who haye a 
well known half-serious belief that one can raise wind by whis- 
tling. In Newfoundland they say, “ Stick a knife in the main- 
mast and whistle, and it must produce wind.” In Newfound- 
land, also, they have an idea that if a vessel is becalmed wind 
can be produced by throwing overboard a half-penny. Another 
notion, common also to the same sailors, is that if you put the 
end of the sheet overboard it will produce wind, and that if you 
hit it three times across the thwarts it will stop the rain. Mr 

Methods of Wind making. 45 

Kinahan, illustrating the sincerity of the belief in the power of 
whistling in raising wind, says: ‘Ina dead calm you may whis- 
tle for wind, except in a dangerous place. Crossing from Skib- 
bereen to Clear island, county Cork, a friend of mine was very 
nearly getting into a row for inadvertently whistling.” This 
belief is very general. In California sailors say that one may 
whistle softly for a breeze, but that it is dangerous to indulge in 
loud or thoughtless whistling, as it may bring a gale. Here the 
skipper scratches the mizzen-mast for a fair wind. 

Sailors profess great confidence in the ability of the cat to raise 
the wind, and are accustomed to say that the cat carries the 
wind in her tail. Cats have the general reputation of being 
very weather-wise. On shipboard especially, it is considered 
imprudent to provoke a cat, because she is assumed to have a 
certain share in the arrangement of the weather. Imprudence 
of this sort appears, however, to have no terrors for the Soudan- 
ese In western Java, for, when rain is needed, they form in 
procession with gongs and clappers, take their cats to the nearest 
streams, where the animals are sprinkled and bathed. 

Many sailors also have a very curious notion that hen’s eggs 
on board ship produce contrary winds, and on the occurrence 
of such winds they are likely to insist that the eggs must be 
thrown overboard. 

Another of these folk-lore remnants of sailors is the idea that 
there is a distinct relation between the albatross and wind. This 
superstition has been embalmed in most attractive form by 
Coleridge in his “ Lay of the Ancient Mariner.” One stanza 
runs as follows: 

For all averred I had killed the bird 
That made the breeze to blow. 

Oh, wretch! said they, the bird to slay 
That made the breeze to blow. 


In addition to the above folk-lore remnants there are some 
methods which are purely magical. The earliest reference to this 
sort which I have found is the case of Sdpater. He is said to 
have caused a horrible famine in Asia Minor by “chaining the 
winds.” He was put to death by Constantine—probably for this 
reason, as this crime was forbidden by the laws of the Twelve 
Tables as well as later in the Theodosian code. 

* Forbes: Eastern Archipelago, p. 75. 

46 M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

The association of weather making with the witches in Fin- 
land is familiar. Steele, in his “ Medieval Lore,” from Bartholo- 
mew Anglicus (about 1260), referring to the people in Finland, 

The men * * * occupy themselves with witchcraft, and so to men 
that sail by their coasts, and also to men that abide with them for default 
of wind; they prefer wind to sailing, and so they sell wind. They used 
to make a clue [skein] of thread, and they make divers knots to be knit 
therein, and then they command to draw out of the clue to three knots, 
more or less, as they will have the wind more soft or strong; and for 
their misbelief fiends move the air and arise strong tempests, or soft, as 
they draweth of the clue more or less knots; and sometimes they move 
the wind so strongly that the wretches that believe in such doings are 
drowned by the rightful doom of God. 

The elder bush is especially associated with weather making. 
The witches were thought to make bad weather by stirring water 
with branches of the elder. 

Still another remnant of ancient superstition is, according to 
Aubrey (1696), to the effect that ‘‘On Malvern hills, in Wor- 
cestershire, and thereabouts, when they farm their corn and want 
wind they cry ‘ Youle! youle! youle!’ to invite it, which word, 
no doubt, is a corruption of Aolus, the god of the winds” (Dr 
R. Fletcher). 

III. Prystcan Mrerxops. 

What precedes relates to purely psychic methods of control- 
ling the weather or the elements. The collection which it pre- 
sents has been made in no spirit of disrespect, but solely in that 
of the collection and scientific comparison of facts. I have great 
respect for all sincere religious belief and great interest in folk- 
lore remnants—fragements of what have once been great psychic 
structures—ruins about the tombs of the ancients. What fol- 
lows is intensely jfin-de-siccle and treats of the paradoxer in a 
well-developed stage. The paradoxer deserves a respect to be 
measured by the sufficiency of his information and the correct- 
ness of his logic. He is a possible benefactor of the world, a 
potential great man. Galileo was a paradoxer—very unwel- 
come to the Aristotelians of his time. Kepler was a rank para- 
doxer to his contemporaries, and Newton was a paradoxer to 
the Cartesians of his day. 

. The Ways of Paradoxers. 47 

Time will not be spent on rash paradoxers in the field of 
weather making. We shall only consider those who have some 
such guarantee as a patent, an appropriation, or genuine learn- 
ing. As an illustration of the rash paradoxers I will simply 
mention two, one the man who proposed to destroy blizzards hy 
a line of coal-stoves along our northern boundary from Red river 
to the continental divide, and the other a man who proposed 
to ameliorate the weather of New England and the Canadian 
provinces by damming the strait of Belleisle. | 


We pass first to the treatment for tornadoes. M Weyher has 
made laboratory tornadoes of a mild and gentle character, but 
they contain no suggestion as to how to treat this pathologic 
_ phenomenon of the weather. 

A treatment has been suggested which is heroic and may pos- 
sibly be effective. It is, however, a local application, and the 
chief difficulty is to have it ready when and where wanted. The 
method proposed is that of a great explosion in the tornado 
itself. Many plans have been suggested, and two patents have 
been granted. I will consider the first, that of Mr J. B. Atwater, 
of Chicago (number 370,845, 1887). A strong box with a double 
bottom is firmly supported on a pole erected at a suitable point, 
probably a mile or so southwest of the village to be protected. 
The upper bottom is fixed and the space above it is filled with 
an explosive and firmly closed. In holes in the upper bottom 
are inserted fulminating caps and these project below its lower 
surface. The lower bottom slides up and down. Then, if a high 
wind drives the lower bottom against the upper with such force 
as to flash the caps, the explosion follows, and the tornado (if 
present) suffers the effects which a tornado will suffer when a 
powerful explosion occurs in its immediate vicinity. 

What these effects will be we do not yet know. It is said, 
with enough repetition to make it fairly worthy of credence, that 
a cannon fired into a waterspout destroys the latter. If such a 
disturbance destroys the gentler waterspout, it may be worth 
while to try a larger one on the more intense tornado. Perhaps 
it will be effective; we can be more positive when it has been 

Many other schemes have been proposed for the control of the 
elements of the weather. Most of them have an objectionable 

48 M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

side, notably in rain making, which can be pointed out here as 
well as elsewhere. It is this: The phenomenon to be produced 
cannot probably be controlled as to area covered, and may occur 
where it is not wanted. If we are clothing merchants and I 
‘arry over too large a stock of winter clothing into late spring, I 
may order a cold wave to help me reduce my stock. But you may 
have exhausted your winter stock and wish to have warm weather 
to start ygur summer stock. My cold wave affects your trade 
seriously ; I may be sued for damages. Such a state of things is 
said to have actually happened in Kansas, where a rain maker 
was refused payment by his employer because of failure of con- 
tract, and was sued by a neighbor of the employer because his 
crops were washed out of the ground. Should the weather 
maker prosper he will often find himself very much embarrassed 
until our law makers have caught up with our advance in the 
arts, and the volume of the statute books has been materially 

We come now to the subject of rain making, which has at- 
tracted more attention, been more tried, and has more history 
than any other one method of weather making. It has attained 
the dignity of at least two patents and two congressional appro- 
priations. A bibliography of the subject is appended, contain- 
ing 64 titles, two of which refer to books devoted to this subject, 
respectively by Power and Gathman. 

First Method.—To clear the way for the American history we 
may note here as method number one a French method reported 
in the Comptes Rendus for October 23, 1895. M Baudouin sent 
a note to the French Academy of Sciences in which he wrote 
that in Algeria, earlier in that year, he used a kite to obtain 
electric connection with a cloud at the height of about 4,000 
feet. As soon as this connection was made a few drops of rain 
fell and a local fog formed. These disappeared on breaking the 
connection, presumably by withdrawing the kite from the cloud. 
M Baudouin had obtained some rain in Algeria in 1876 by the 
same method. I know of no other experiments in this direction, 
nor do they involve anything in opposition to knowledge already 
-aequired. It is a fair field for experiment, and it is remarkable 
that M Baudouin’s experiments have not attracted more atten- 
tion in the United States. 

Rain making by Fires. 49 

Second Method—A second proposed method of obtaining rain 
is by means of great fires. With this proposal the name of a Penn- 
sylvania meteorologist, James P. Espy, is inseparably connected. 
In 1841 he published a “ Philosophy of Storms,” in which he en- 
larged on this idea previously propounded by him in occasional 

articles dating from 1838. The idea was not new, for Dobrizhoffer, 

a Jesuit missionary in South America, in his “ Account of the 
Abipones” (first published in 1784), says that these Indians 
produce rain by setting fire to the plains. Indeed the idea has 
been and is generally entertained and in the west has ecrystal- 
lized into the weather proverb, “A very large prairie fire will 
cause rain.” To show something of the character of testimony 
on which Espy relied we shall quote the story of George Mackay 
as given in a letter to Espy and printed by him in his * Fourth 
Meteorological Report” (pages 32-34). Mr Mackay says: 

In 1845 I was engaged in the public survey on the Atlantic coast of 
Florida. Some time in April (the time of the dry season there, which 
lasts up to June) I was running a township line between latitudes 26° 
and 27°, about five miles from the sea. The weather was oppressively 
warm that day. There was not air enough stirring to move an aspen 
leaf. We found our line must pass through a saw-grass pond, containing 
about five hundred acres. In ponds of this destription the green grass 
at the top shoots up from five to six feet in height, and when the region 
has not been for some years swept clear by fires the dead and dry growths 
of preceding seasons accumulate under the latest growth, and are often 
found there from two to four feet in depth. They are exceedingly in- 
flammable. When lighted in dry weather they burn with frightfal rapidity 
and violence. Whenever, in our explorations, we came upon a place of 
this description we could only pass our line by cutting away the lofty 
fresh grass and wading (or rather wallowing) through the mud and the 
under rubbish. On the day in question we determined, as it was so hot, 
that, to save ourselves trouble, we would burn our way through. I had 
then no thought of your theory. In order to prevent the flames from 
running over the woods, through which we were obliged to pass, we 
communicated them at once to both sides of the spot we desired to open, 
that they might converge and combine in its center and not scatter later- 
aly. Ina very few minutes an awful blaze swept over the entire sur- 
face which we had marked out for our purpose. We then crossed our 
line. Ere we had proceeded over forty chains a delightful breeze sprang 
up and cooled the atmosphere, and presently a refreshing shower sparkled 
in the bright rays of the sun. All this excited no further observation 
than that it had not rained there before for a long time. I myself did 
not observe any smoke’nor the formation of any cloud. 

Our work went on for some days without a repetition of our short cut 
at pioneering, some objection having been made when another burning 

50 M. W. Harrington — Weather making. 

was proposed, because the first one had rendered it difficult, after crossing 
the lines, to distinguish the white men from the negroes At length, 
however, the pleasant breezes ceased, which had made the weather for 
a while endurable, and the still air and intense heat returned, and with 
them constant murmurs from the men, especially the negroes, whose 
duty it was to cut lines and mark trees. We were now on the confines of 
a saw-grass pond, and a much more formidable one than any we had yet 
encountered. Being surrounded by a cypress swamp, we concluded that 
it had never yet been burned. My assistant, Captain Alexander Mackay, 
who was standing by my side, mentioned his having, in our late con- 
flagration, observed the formation ofa cloud at the apex of the smoke. 
He added that it had frequently since brought to his mind some account 
which he had read of Professor’s Espy’s theory. He suggested that there 
could not be a better opportunity than this to put the theory to the test, 
and, being fond of a joke, he said he would like to astonish the supersti- 
tious negroes and to make them believe that he could call together the 
clouds and bring down rain. So we determined to make the experiment. 

When our party were all gathered at the halting place complaints of 
the extreme heat went round and all unanimously agreed that a more 
confined and oppressive day had never been known to them. To these 
complaints the usual wishes for ‘‘a little breath of air” and ‘‘a few 
drops of rain” succeeded. ‘‘Cut through this pond,” exclaimed the 
captain, ‘‘and I will bring you more than a few drops of rain; I'll give 
you a plentiful shower and a breeze, too, that shall wake you up. Come, 
boys, cut away, and when you’ve done you shall wash off the dust in a 
cold bath from the skies!’’ They stared up and around; not a cloud as 
large as a man’s hand was to be seen, and they looked back at the captain 

with a good-natured grin of incredulity. ‘‘Ho, ho! ha, ha! Captain 

make cloud out 0’ nuffin’; he, he! Captain bring water all dis way from 
de sea? Ho, ho! ha, ha! he, he!” Whereupon the Captain affected to 
be very indignant. To hasten his victory I ordered the grass to be set on 
fire. The flames soared forthwith above the tallest trees; a dense vol- 
ume of smoke mounted upward spirally; the grass soon disappeared; we 
crossed over. As the smoky column broke and the cloud began to form 
the Captain traced a large circle in the-sand around him, and placed him- 
self in its center, making fantastic figutes and forming cabalistic phrases 
out of broken French. Still was the cloud unnoticed. All eyes were 
riveted upon the Captain, who stood gazing at the earth and shaping 
outlines of devils there. At this juncture came a roll of distant thunder. 
Every glance instantly turned upward; a cloud was spreading there; the 
thunders increased ; the lightnings flashed more vividly; the knees of 
the negroes shook together with alarm. Already was the rain descend- 
ing, and in torrents, though the clear sky could be seen in all directions 
under the cloud. The Captain meanwhile maintained his mystical atti- 
tude and continued his wild and extraordinary evolutions. Some of the 
whites, who were in the secret of the hoax, fell upon their knees, and 
were imitated by the negroes, whose fears augmenting as the storm 
grew fiercer, with clasped hands, fastened upon the Captain a stare of 


Espey’s Plan. 51 

awe and deprecation. In short, the scene presented a more complete 
triumph of philosophy over ignorance than I could have supposed it 
possible to have been produced anywhere in the nineteenth century, and 
most especially anywhere in our enlightened Republic. 

We often fired the saw-grass marshes afterward; and whenever there 
Was no wind stirring, we were sure to get a shower; and I say with per- 
fect confidence that we never had a shower in April or May at any other 
time. Sometimes when there was a breeze, it would carry the smoke 
toward the horizon, where there would seem to be a fall of rain. 

Kspy dwelt on this theory with great devotion, and in 1845 
published a special letter addressed “To the Frtends of Science ” 
in which he proposed a plan for practical rain production. As 
the paper in question is now very rare and _ his plan possesses 
some features of interest, I quote it here : 

Let masses of timber to the amount of forty acres for every twenty 
miles be prepared and fired simultaneously every seven days in the 
summer, on the west of the United States, in a line of six or seven hun- 
dred miles long from north to south; then the following results seem 
highly probable, but not certain until the experiment is made: A rain 
of great length north and south will commence near or on the line of 
fires; this rain will travel eastward; it will not break up till it reaches 
far into the Atlantic ocean ; it will rain over the whole country east of 
the place of beginning; it will rain only a short time in any one place; 
it will not rain again until the next seventh day; it will rain enough and 
not too much in any one place; it will not be attended with violent wind, 
neither on land nor on the Atlantic ocean; there will be no hail nor tor- 
nadoes at the time of the general rain nor intermediate ; there will be no 
destructive floods, nor will the waters ever become very low ; there will be 
no more oppressive heats nor injurious colds; the farmers and mariners 
will always know before the rains when they will commence and when 
they will terminate; all epidemic diseases originating from floods and 
subsequent droughts will cease ; the proceeds of agriculture will be greatly 

increased, and the health and happiness of the citizens will be much 

promoted. These, I say, are the probable—not certain—results of the 
plan proposed—a plan which could be carried into operation for a sum 
which would not amount to half a cent a year to each individual in the 
United States ; a plan which, if successful, would benefit in a high degree 
not merely the landsman, but every mariner that plies the Atlantic. If 
this scheme should appear too gigantic to commence with, let the trial 
be first made along the Alleghany mountains; and let forty acres of four 
ten-acre lots be fired every seven days through the summer in each of 
the counties of McKean, Clearfield, Cambria, and Somerset, in Pennsyl- 
vania; Alleghany, in Maryland ; and Hardy, Pendleton, Bath, Alleghany, 
and Montgomery, in Virginia. The ten-acre lots should be, as nearly as 
conyenient, from one to four miles apart, in the form of a square, so that 

8—Nart. Grog. Maa., vor. VI, 1894. 



52 M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

the up-moving column of air which shall be formed over them may haye 
a wide base, and thus may ascend to a considerable height before it may 
be leaned out of the perpendicular by any wind which may exist at the 

Espy's theory was practically the modern convective theory of 
storms, and to this most worthy student of science is due the 
credit of calling effective attention to the part which the con- 
densation of aqueous vapor plays in the mechanism of storms. 

Third Method.—Another proposed method of making rain arti- 
ficially is that of L. Gathman, of Chicago, patented in 1891 
(number 462,795). His method is to “Suddenly chill the atmos- 
phere by rapid evaporation, and it is also advisable to produce 
a heavy concussion in connection with the cooling in order to 
set the different air-currents in motion. It is obvious that sud- 
den and rapid evaporation in the upper regions of the atmos- 
phere could be accomplished in various ways by the evapora- 
tion of various highly compressed gases; but the evaporation 
consequent upon the release of liquefied carbonic acid gas is 
thought to be the most efficient.” He proceeds: 

In accordance, therefore, with my invention, liquefied carbonic acid 
gas is liberated in the upper regions of the atmosphere and will, of course, 
instantly evaporate and spread out in a sheet of vapor of an extremely 
low temperature and produce a cloud. The surrounding atmosphere will 
be chilled by its proximity to the cold vapor and the moisture in the 
atmosphere will be condensed thereby. The condensation takes place in 
large quantities and with great rapidity, so that a cloud is formed that 
will precipitate a rainfall upon the earth. 

The liquefied carbonic acid gas can be confined in a suitable shell or 
casing, said casing also to contain an explosive—gunpowder, dynamite, 
etc—which is thrown or shot into the upper regions of the atmosphere 
and there exploded by a time-fuse. A balloon, moreover, could be em- 
ployed to elevate the shell or casing containing the liquefied carbonic 
acid gas, and the explosion to liberate the gas could be made by an elee- 
tric current controlled by persons upon the earth. 

Mr Gathman also published a little book in which were re- 
produced, with approval, Professor Newcombh’s article entitled, 
“Can We Make it Rain?” and Professor Houston’s “ Artificial 
Rain-making.” In this book we learn that Mr Gathman has 
been occupied with the use of condensed carbon anhydride to 
cool heavy guns, and was led to his theory by the results of his 
experiments with ordnance. He also experimented on his 
method of rain-making, and says (page 38) : 

> =" 

Gathman’s Plan. bo 

In making some experiments last year, a shell filled with liquefied car- 
bonie acid gas was exploded at a height of 600 feet; a cloud was produced 
in the clear sky at once, and, floating along on a current of air, was visible 
for miles. This experiment was made in July, 1890, and since that time 
I have made sufficient other experiments to satisfy myself that I can pro- 
duce rain whenever necessary, or at will. Experiments made in my 
astronomical observatory, at a height of only seventy-five feet, have 
provén that by the evaporation of liquefied carbonic acid gas a rain 
shower on a small scale can be produced with but a small quantity of the 
gas. When completed arrangements have been made, the experiments 
mentioned will be seen to be but a step to the practical illustration on a 
grand scale. 

It appears that in Gathman’s method the explosion plays a 
very subordinate part; but in the method to follow the explo- 
sion is the main, if not the only thing. 

Fourth Method.—The concussion theory is probably an old one, 
though it is not correct to refer it to Plutarch, as is sometimes 
done. In his life of Marius, referring to the battle with the 
Teutons near Aix, in July, 102 B. C., Plutarch says: “ Extra- 
ordinary rains pretty generally fall after great battles; whether 
it be that some divine power thus washes and cleanses the pol- 
luted earth with showers from above, or that moist and heavy 
evaporations steaming forth from the blood and corruption 
thicken the air, which naturally is subject to alteration from the 
smallest causes.”* Here are two distinct suggestions for rain- 
making, but not that of concussion. 

The first elaborate treatment of the concussion theory appears 
to have been by Edward Powers, civil engineer, who published 
in 1890 a book on the relations of battles to rainfall, The first 
edition was printed in Chicago in 1871, but most of the edition 
was destroyed by the great fire in that city, which also destroyed 
the stereotype plates. The latest issue seen by me contains an 
inset of 15 pages devoted to a criticism of Professor Newcomb’s 
article already mentioned. The aim of this book is to prove 
that great battles or heavy cannonading are usually soon fol- 
lowed by rainfall. A fair criticism of the book is that such 
phenomena are not invariably followed by rain. The coinci- 
dences could be explained by the fact that in the season of mili- 

*Plutarch’s Lives, Clough’s revision, Am. Book Exchange edition, 
1881, pp. 590-391. 

54 M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

tary operations rain is usually falling somewhere in eastern 
United States; that in fact it is not clear but that the rain is a 
pure coincidence. The argument is not conclusive. Indeed, it 
is only fair to say that under the conditions involved it could 
not be made conclusive. Mr Powers, however, did not despond, 
but used his utmost endeavors to bring the matter toa test. For 
this purpose he persuaded Senator Farwell, in 1874, to present 
a petition to Congress asking that the theory be tried. This, 
with a previous petition to which he refers, seems to have been 
without response on the part of Congress. 

Later, and apparently independently, the matter was taken 
up by General Daniel Ruggles, of Fredericksburg, Virginia, who 
obtained a patent in 1880 (number 230,067) on making rain by 
explosions in the clouds. His claim runs: 

The nature of my invention consists in sending one or more balloons 
into the cloud-realms, said balloon or balloons carrying torpedoes and 
cartridges charged with explosives, and there to explode or detonate them 
by magneto-electric or electric force through metallic wire, textile cordage, 
or by the fuse, or by mechanical force, in order to precipitate rainfall by 
concussion or vibration of the atmosphere. 

General Ruggles succeeded in bringing the matter before Con- 

egress, but did not succeed in getting an appropriation. His’ 

plan was much discussed in the newspapers at the time, but 
. e 
does not seem to have reached the experimental stage. 
Senator Farwell, however, continued his interest in the matter, 

and in 1890 finally succeeded in obtaining an appropriation, first 

of $2,000, then of $7,000, for carrying on the experiments, some 
of which he had already had made at his own expense. The 
appropriation assigned the conduct of the experiments to the 
Department of Agriculture, and the Secretary selected R. G. 
Dyrenforth for the work. The experiments were carried on in 
the vicinity of Washington and in Texas... A report from Mr 
Dyrenforth was published by Congress in 1892. At the next 
session of Congress another appropriation of $10,000 was made 
for this purpose, of which the sum of $4,913.59 was expended, 
as before, under Dyrenforth’s direction, the remainder having 
been covered back into the Treasury. 

Mr Dyrenforth’s methods were highly ingenious. He used 
a variety of explosives, on the ground and in the air, by great 
single explosions and by volleys. He introduced many novel- 


The Method of Concussions. 55 

ties, among them that of exploding the gas in the balloon itself 
when high in the air. His conclusions, as stated by himself in 
his first report, were (page 59) : 

First. That when a moist cloud is present, which, if undisturbed, would 
pass away without precipitating its moisture, the jarring of the cloud by 
concussions will cause the particles of moisture in suspension to agelom- 
erate and fall in greater or less quantity, according to the degree of moist- 
ness of the air in and beneath the cloud. 

Second. That by taking advantage of those periods which frequently 
occur in droughts, and in most if not in all sections of the United States 
where precipitation is insufficient for vegetation, and during which at- 
mospheric conditions favor rainfall, without there being actual rain, pre- 
cipitation may be caused by concussion. 

Third. That under the most unfavorable conditions for precipitation, 
conditions which need never be taken in operations to produce rain, storm 
conditions may be generated and rain be induced, there being, however, 
a wasteful expenditure of both time and material in overcoming unfavor- 
able conditions. 

His second report has not been published, but I infer that his 
second series of observations were believed by him to confirm 
the results of the first. 

Mr Dyrenforth generally omitted one check which he might 
well have employed, and which I personally urged him to em- 
ploy. Experiments of this sort, made in the free air, with the 
accompanying conditions not under control, should be accom- 
panied with every possible check ; and one self-evident and very 
necessary one is the observation of a physicist familiar with the 
meteorologic side of physics. Such an expert (Mr G. E. Curtis) 
accompanied the party in its first experiments. His report (ex- 
cept the bare meteorologic record made during the experiments) 
does not accompany Dyrenforth’s document. It was presented, 
however, to the Philosophical Society of Washington, and was 
printed elsewhere. Mr Curtis says, substantially, that an explo- 
sion in a cloud brings down a few scattering drops of rain, and 
this may happen even with an explosion on the ground, if heavy. 
Otherwise he says there was no rain-making. It is but fair to 
say that with Mr Dyrenforth’s report are given the reports of his 
assistants, Mr John T. Ellis, Lieutenant 8. A. Dyer, and Mr Eu- 
gene Fairchild, and they were stronger in the expression of a 
belief that rain was successfully made than is Mr Dyrenforth ; 
and there are also many favorable quotations from spectators. 

56 M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

Professor A. Macfarlane, of the University of Texas, was pres- 
ent as an uninvited guest during the elaborate experiments near 
San Antonio on Friday, November 25, 1892, beginning at 4 pm. 
Thesky was from time to time overcast, and the natural con- 
ditions were not unfavorable for rain. Many explosions were 
made without rain until late in the evening, from which point 
I will take-up the story in Professor Macfarlane’s own words, as 
given in a letter to the New York World December 4, 1892: 

At 10.15 a bailoon was sent up and was lost in the darkness; when it 
exploded a very large area of light was seen, as if the explosion had oc- 
curred inside a cloud. There was no fall of rain at the camp, and nobody 
was stationed below the spot where the balloon exploded. 

I consider this the only experiment that was worth making, yet no care 
was taken to observe whether rain did fall. It is conceivable that the ex- 
plosion of a twelve-foot balloon inside a cloud ready to precipitate may 
Jar the particles so as to quicken the dropping of the rain. This was the 
idea of Ruggles. But to test whether some rain can be drawn down in 
this manner from a rain-cloud does not suit the ideas of cranks who wish 
to get a large something out of an absolute nothing. 

At 10.45 a mist became just perceptible. The General issued an order 
to get ready the rain-gauge. The boys hurried up a balloon, which was 
nearly ready, but it had no effect on that mist. 

At 11.40 the mist ceased and the stars appeared in places nearly over- 
head. The General apparently felt that things were going against him, 
for he suggested to the Doctor to put a small piece of dynamite in the 
shells, and also to try the effect of an explosion down at the Springs. 

At 12.30 a 12-foot balloon went well into the cloud, but no rain effect. 

At 1 o’clock, the time when operations were to be suspended for the 
night, it was fair, with some stars visible, and the boys were preparing 
one more balloon. Colonel King remarked that it would be necessary to 
keep up the operations for forty-eight hours. I retired to a room in the 
hotel, from which I could see the operations. 

At 1.30 I heard a slight shout from the balloon boys, and I could hear 
the rain pattering on the roof. The General, who had also retired to the 
hotel, threw open the window and called out : 

“Hurry up, boys.” 

After ten minutes the balloon was exploded, and the rain almost imme- 
diately diminished so as to be scarcely perceptible. When the explo- 
sion occurred I had my head out of the window. The hotel, a frame 
house, shook considerably, but there was no breaking of glass or any of 
the effects produced bya powerful explosion on the solid earth. 

At 1.50 the General went out to observe, and I heard him say : 

‘‘There is a beautiful rain to the north of us and to the west of us.”’ 

At 2 the rain had entirely ceased, and the last of the operations con- 
sisted of two shells fired in succession at 2.05. 

The Test of the Method. 57 

Professor Macfarlane is a competent physicist. He was trained 
in Edinburgh and has, I believe, no such appreciation of humor 
as to make him unconsciously color his report. His conelu- 
sions were adverse to the rain makers. 

Referring in general to the experiments in Texas,one fact has 
been generally overlooked. The rainfall in western Texas is 
always small, but it is subject to its maxima and minima, like 
other regions. Now, there is a rainfall season in July and August 
in Arizona and New Mexico, and this reaches western Texas. 
Thirty percent of the annual rainfall descends in these two 
months along the eastern border of New Mexico and in the 
western angle of Texas. At El Paso this percentage is forty. 
This maximum passes gradually eastward and is found in the 
southeastern part in September. The experiments in the western 
part of Texas in 1891 were in September, fairly in the time of 
thismaximum. ‘There is another maximum of rainfall in Texas 
in November. - This is in the northeastern part of the state. The 
second series of rainfall experiments in Texas was in November, 
1892,at San Antonio. The maximum here occurs in September, 
but there is in November an average (for 24 years) of 2.5 inches, 
or one-twelfth of the annual 30.6 inches. There is a high rela- 
tive probability of rain naturally in September in the region of 
the experiments in 1891, and there is an even chance of it in the 
region of 1892. To test the theory of rain-making in Texas the 
months might have been better chosen. Yet it is but fair to say 
that the rainfall in western Texas is very fluctuating, as it comes 
generally in local storms. 

Fifth Method.—There is another method of rain-making which 
is still a mystery, but which deserves mention because it has 
been submitted to actual test. I have not been given permis- 
sion to use names in this case, and will only guarantee that the 
letter which I quote came from a high official of a railway com- 
pany and is worthy of the credence which an official business 
letter of this sort should carry with it. This gentleman, under 
date of August 22, 1893, wrote to me as follows: 

Dear Sir: Your letter, August 10, * * * has been referred to me. 
In reply thereto, we have no published reports concerning rain-making 
experiments such as mentioned by you. While these experiments have 
been made by a couple of employés of this company, we can say but little 
about them ourselves. These parties claimed to be able to cause rainfall 
_by“artificial means, and we have furnished them with materials, together 

58 M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 

with transportation facilities, more or less all the time since the early part 
of May, they having experimented in some eighteen or twenty different 
locations, and in each case we have had more or less rainfall. In nearly 
every instance we can but feel there is something in their claim. We 
have had from one-half to three or three and a half inches falls of rain, 
covering a section of country from twenty-five to ninety miles in length 
and ten to thirty miles wide, all owing to the direction of the wind, and 
in some cases at times when there was no moisture in sight or known 
until they began operations, and then only throughout the section over 
which their own rainfall extended. ‘ 

I presume the operators themselves have kept a record of their work, 
-and results of same, at each of the different points where they have been 
located, and should you desire I will have them make a statement show- 
ing what they themselves feel they have accomplished. We have been 
slow to believe there was anything in this business, but at the same time 
must admit that they are either very fortunate in reaching the different 
points where they have experimented just in time to have rain-storms, or 
they have certainly hit upon the right thing in the way of rain-making. 

The process I do not know, but a humorous railway man, 
personally cognizant of the matter, told me that the operators 
kept themselves carefully secluded in a freight car with a hole 
in the roof, and when occasional glimpses were caught of them 
they seemed to be cooking over a red-hot coal stove. Probably 
the method employed was that of Frank Melbourne, the Aus- 
tralian, who has most reputation in the west, and who has care- 
fully kept his secret. It is proposed by the company in ques- 
tion to continue the experiments in another field and with 
competent experts accompanying, and another railroad com- 
pany is seriously considering the propriety of entering the field. 


Finally, permit me to complete this sketch by some remarks ;_ 
and, to make them as specific as they can be made, permit me 
to put them in the form of questions and answers. The answers 
are my own. 

Question. Will a noise make rain? Answer. No; there is no 
reason in theory or practice to make us think it will. 

Q. Will a concussion make rain? <A. It will probably jostle 
the droplets in a cloud and may bring a few together, which 
may coalesce and become large enough to cause them to fall to 
the ground—a few scattering drops only. 

Q.. Will smoke or dust released in great quantities produce 

The Author’s Conclusions. 59 

rain? A. Floating particles of spongy texture will absorb the 
moisture hygroscopically. If the air is dry this will make it 
drier and prevent rain. If the air is very moist and near satu- 
ration, any solid particles in the air will facilitate the condensa- 
tion; witness the experiments of Aitken and Barus. Thus, 
when other conditions are very favorable, an addition of much 
dust or smoke to the air might determine a fall of rain. 

Q. Will the expansion of carbon anhydride produce rain? 
A. Mr Gathman says he has tried it and with success. LExperi- 
ments should be made systematically. 

Q. Will electric connection with a cloud aid in rain forma- 
tion? A. M Baudouin says it does. 

Q. Will a conflagration produce rain? <A. Quite probably, 
under favorable circumstances. It acts in the line in which nature 
acts, according to the best of our knowledge. Condensation is 
the result of chilling the air. The theory of chilling by mixture, 
the Huttonian theory, a century old, is now known to be ineffi- 
cient. The chilling in nature seems to be due either to the ascent 
of air and its consequent expansion and loss of heat or the chill- 
ing of one cloud by having the shadow of a higher cloud fall on 
it in sunlight. The chilling by ascent-is the method evoked in 
the Espy plan and appears to be by all odds the most effective 
rain-producer in nature. 

Q. If rain can be made, how much will it cost? A. This 
is truly an American question, and quite appropriate to the 
fin-de-siecle. Mr Powers, who, by the way, says that Mr Dyren- 
forth did not after all really try his experiment, puts the cost of 
one experiment with government aid at $80,000. Gathman says 
he can sprinkle the earth at a cost of from $50 to $90 a square 
mile. Espy proposed to fire the low forest growths at regular 
intervals at a cost less than five mills per citizen per year. The 
method of concussion costs the comfort and peace of all within 
hearing, a cost which a much more certain result would not 

9—Nat. Geog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

60 M. W. Harrington— Weather making. 


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rainfall: 52d Cong., lst Session, Senate Ex. Doe. 45, 8°, Washington, 
1892; 59 pp., 9 pls. 

Van Breper, ANDREW. Rain not produced by Cannonading: Sci. Amer., 
New York, vol. xiii, 1880, p. 405. 

Watton, J. P. Rain-making: Kansas Academy of Sciences, February 
12, 1894, 8°; 3 pp. 

Warp, R. DeC. Artificial Rain. A review of the subject to the close of 
1889: Amer. Metl. Journal, Ann Arbor, vol. viii, 1891-’92, pp. 484— 



, PLS. +6 uth 1 re . Sati % May 23, 1894 

A.D.18a8. ) 


Modeled by HE, E. Howe1t, RELIEF MAP OF TH 

Washington, D.C, 
Horizontal sq 


Ed Lee 





$miles =1 inch, 

VOL. VI, 1894. PL. 4. 

MOUGIbN hy! Ie) Worn, RELIEF MAP OF THE CHATTANOOga~ oDistRicT. Reproduced, by permission 

copyrighted photograph. 

Washington, D.C, Horizontal scale 88 miles = 1 inch, 

VoL. VI, PP. 63-126, PLS. 4-6 MAY 23, 1894 






EMEVOGUGLION:.¢.4.< 2.5... Wiehe Ole ROU Ci SOTA LS. En CETERA OS 64 
prem WEE PTO VIOUS VOLK ws ay.ice0 els sk evel tetas oh scdp ete of 64 
MM emE ORME OTUEU (0 Pal etee nya/ala civ eye wi s-e ble gs ole wt vicele, s witis vinein ye 66 
ieee ro Plemm anc be. Data o's. 5 sods Sak bates «tree alte Wied doe 67 
PART Ehystoorapbhic Development... 2. iis. ej eek wey tleie ee oa 67 
Classification of topographic Features in the Province........ ~~ KOE 
Elevations standing above the Cretaceous Peneplain ........... 68 
Wefommed: Cretaceous Peneplainy.: iui. og. eee else cies ee ces 69 
Conditions of Development..... LU eh A sn She ah 3 Oe ae 08 
yeetermmmrrotmal MyGen ja lis ho.sis ao ase wes tee ee wes ae 70 

Pater ree MRME ING OP Siar! ite, ela gia'd ciate ees bala vice slenty vies seis 71 
Whalley paral en igo ies a Seo ne eos eee 72 
Smoky Mountain Type... 0. s nce see c tee e eee nee ees 73 
elie Wise PIE Whe. cy.) o)sini viele) s diets inieae seis heise eso elelavwleisisls x 7 
Southern marginal Type....... BRS ea pte sw Wick so) aigloval hase 76 
Physiography of the Cretaceous Peneplain ...........--++++++. 77 
Deformation of the Cretaceous Peneplain...............22+-55- 79 
Longitudinal Axes of Elevation..... 1 SS RE AR ace. 80 
Transverse Axes of Oscillation... ......---...eeee eee ee eee 81 

* Published by permission of the Director of the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey. 

10—Nar. Grog. Maa., vor. VI, 1894. {63) 

64 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 


| Deformed “Tertiary Peneplain ss. poss te bee ba eto Ue eae 83 
Wirrrain a AR DES es sickle s - cet boats ana hich ce eeete enc tine een eee tes a 
interior ‘Valley Gyre oir. .2 ela nck tieeve aac are alah ai cee 86 
Deformation of the Tertiary Peneplain........... By enon 88 
Interrelations of the two Peneplains .............-.00000e00e- 89 
Dissection ‘of the Tertiary Peneplain 2.) 3.3. ..0 ees) ee se eee 90 
Relative Dates of the orogenic Movements..............-....-. 92 
Movements inthe Tertiary Cycles: icy. chieeen nods eee 92 
Movements in the present Cycle ..............c ccc eeeneees 94 
Parn II DraineeeWevelopment,. <s\ssd5. sees ap pn eoiecie es ed oem 95 
SubdivisionsorthesProvincen.. secu aceae Gahene ecineld eee 95 
Qutline-of-therpresent Drainage oo). wie ea tak de cee eee 9 
Classification of Drainage.,.......,..5.:.+.. Wee outa as Saree 96 
Cycles\of draimage Developments. 2)... 2. cmst emesis oe eee 98 
Condittionsspreceding Cycle Wing s6 nw vates & Decision ee 100 
(E) Cretaceous’ Cycles i hive stars bec wie Werte eie lat el ctete te telenetel eS ye Reena 101 
Drainagevofl morthern: Vinee, ee toh cee ah mec Ls siete 102 
Drainage of the southern Appalachian Valley.............. 102 
Drainage of central Kentucky and Tennessee........... > lS 
Drainage of the Sequatchie Anticline.................+.... 104 

(2) ertitty Cycles ioe tc ss. Gist bindadeain Sane tortontecene ‘hone sera 105 
Hitects of Uiplitton: the: Axis OSPR ars ies ieee he ee eeenee 105 
Condition of Drainage prior to the Lafayette Depression. ... 107 
Diversion: of the -Ajpalachiana Riviera. woe. mise eee aie eee 109° 
Evidence from the Coosa-Tennessee Divide..... .......... 109 

Evidence from the Volume of Material eroded and deposited. 110 
Evidence from the Character of the Gorge below Chattanooga. 112 

Conditions immediately preceding the Diversion........... 114 

Manner in which the Diversion was accomplished.......... 115 

(3) -Bresembtn@yclere.e ii ec iliecelans Rest cual eee od aaeae al ete ae ere are 119 

Northward Diversion of the Tennessee ve: Solaire Sees 119 

Summary of the Drainage Development and Land Oscillations. . 120 

Parr. LDT—Sediumentany Records. sie. ssn tes. < oats an ose ne ea 123 


The post-Paleozoic history of the Appalachian province has, 
until recent years, been known only in the most general terms. 
That the region has been a land area since the close of Carbon- 
iferous time was known, and it was assumed that, in common 
with other land areas, it had been repeatedly elevated and de- 
pressed, yet the extent and character of these movements, in the 
interior at least, were not only unknown, but no data were sup- 
posed to exist by which they could be measured. Along the 

Researches of McGee and Davis. 65 
margin of the province the subsidences are recorded in the sedi- 
ments deposited as the sea transgressed upon the land, and in 
some cases the amount of subsequent uplift is indicated by the 
recession of overlying deposits. In so far as these oscillations 
have been determined from sedimentary deposits, cach trans- 
gression of the sea was regarded as marking a continental depres- 
sion, and each recession a continental uplift. Within the past 

-few years, however, a complete revolution has been effected in 

the interpretation of the post-Paleozoic history of this region. 
Through the work of a few pioneers in this field the number and 
character of the principal oscillations and their position in geo- 
logic time are now fairly well known. 

The first systematic application of the new methods of re- 
search was made ‘by McGee in the middle Atlantic slope. In 
1885, in a paper on the geology of Chesapeake bay,** he pointed 
out the methods pursued and the importance of utilizing topo- 
graphic forms resulting from degradation, as well as the comple- 
mentary sedimentary deposits in interpreting geologic history. 
In 1888 + he more definitely correlated the principal oscillations 
with the sedimentary deposits, thus fixing their position in geo- 
logic time, and in a subsequent paper { he made the very impor- 
tant generalizations that all elevations have been accompanied 
by seaward tilting of the land, and that along certain axes the 
oscillations have reached a maximum amount, while along others 
both elevation and depression have been at a minimum. 

Davis§ published the results of his studies on the geomor- 
phology of the middle and north Atlantic slope shortly after the 

* The Geology of the Head of Chesapeake Bay, by W J McGee: Seventh 
Annual Report U. 8. Geological Survey, 1888, pp. 545-646. 

+ Three Formations of the middle Atlantic Slope, by W J McGee: Am. 
Jour. Sci., vol. xxxv, 1888. 

{The Lafayette Formation, by W J McGee: Twelfth Annual Report 
U.S. Geological Survey, 1891, pp. 353-528. 

Geology of Washington and Vicinity, by W J McGee: Compte Rendu 
de la Congrés Géologique International, 5th Session, Washington, 1891, 
pp. 219-251. 

2 The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania, by W. M. Davis: Nat. Geog. 
Mag., vol. i, 1889, pp. 183-253. 

The geographic Development of northern New Jersey, by W. M. Davis 
and J. W. Wood: Proc. Boston. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xxiv, 1889, pp. 

The Rivers of northern New Jersey, by W. M. Davis: Nat. Geog. 
Mag., vol. ii, 1890, pp. 81-110. 

66 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

appearance of the first two papers above cited. He has carried 
his observations somewhat further toward the interior and de- 
scribes two well marked baselevel peneplains in eastern Penn- 
sylvania, New Jersey and portions of New England, the formation 
of which, he ascribes to long continued erosion in Cretaceous and 
Tertiary time. A general seaward tilting of the peneplain is 
described, but no attempt is made to locate the axes of their 
deformations. In 1890 Davis published a more comprehensive 
paper,} bringing in review all previous publications on the base- 
levels of the Atlantic slope and discussing the probable continua- 
tion of the peneplains, found in the northern portion southwest- 
ward over the whole of the Appalachian province. 

Thus the broad outlines and to some extent the details of post- 
Paleozoic history of the Atlantic slope and Mississippi embay- 
ment have been determined, but for most of the interior the 
details are still wanting. The present paper is an attempt to 
supply in some measure this deficiency. 


For present purposes the southern Appalachian province is 
regarded as embracing the region south of the Ohio and Potomac 
rivers and limited toward the east, south, and west by the Cre- 
taceous and the later formations of the coastal plain and Missis- 
sippi embayment. One or both of the present writers are per- 
sonally familiar with the greater part of this region, and many 
observations made in connection with the work of the Appa- 
lachian division of the United States Geological Survey are here 
for the first time brought together. The location of the region 
is exceptionally favorable for the study of its geomorphology. 
Surrounded on three sides by Mesozoic and later deposits, the 
relations of land and water which prevailed during post-Paleozoic 
time are fairly well determined. The character of the sediments 
serves to establish correlations between them and their corre- 
sponding erosion features. The intersection of erosion planes 
with deposits of known age serves to fix the date of each erosion 
period within narrow limits. Finally, the absence of glaciation 
and glacial deposits renders the interpretation of topographic 
forms and of drainage systems much easier than in regions 

+The geologic Dates of Origin of certain topographic Forms on the 
Atlantic Slope of the United States, by W. M. Davis: Bull. Geol. Soc. 
Am., vol. ii, 1890, pp. 545-581. 

Baselevel of Erosion. 6 


where glaciation has interfered with their normal development 
or masked their completed form. 


Since the southern Appalachian province, as above defined, 
has stood above sealevel throughout the whole of the period 
whose history is under consideration, that history must be read 
in the topographic forms developed during the process of sub- 
aerial degradation and in the adjustments of drainage to chang- 
ing conditions. 

The fundamental conception, in the interpretation of the his- 
tory of a region from its topographic forms, is the baselevel of 
erosion. The formation of a general baselevel peneplain implies 
the long continuance of certain well defined conditions, so that 
wherever the presence of such a peneplain can be established 
the former existence of these conditions may be safely inferred ; 
also it can be formed only near sealevel; hence by contouring 
the present remnants of a baselevel peneplain the contour at any 
point represents very nearly the algebraic sum of all changes in 
altitude which that portion of the plain has suffered. 

In the southern Appalachian province the more or less per- 
fectly preserved remnants of two baselevel peneplains have been 
mapped and their deformations represented by contours; the 
conditions implied by these baselevels have been inferred ; their 
probable correlations with the contemporaneous sedimentary 
deposits indicated ; and finally the development of the drainage 
has been traced through a complex series of adjustments upon 
the repeatedly deformed surface to its present mature location. 

Parr J—PuystocrRapuic DEVELOPMENT. 

The southern Appalachian province has certain topographic 
features common throughout its entire extent. They are so 
modified by local conditions that their identity in different por- 

_ tions of the province would scarcely be recognized by the casual 
| observer, but to the student of geomorphology they stand out as 
__ the most prominent feature of the landscape and he reads from 
them many chapters in the history of the province during post- 
| Paleozoic time. With our present information we are able to 
| classify these topographic forms and to trace with considerable 


68 Hayes and Campbell— Appalachian Geomorpholog y. 

certainty the more prominent features over the greater portion 
of the province. In. some portions lack of data prevents the 
identification and correlation of these forms, but it is probable 
that further study will show the same features there as in the 
better known regions. The identity and practical continuity of 
certain topographic forms have been clearly proven through the 
major portion of the southern Appalachian province, and by 
other writers across Pennsylvania, New Jersey and the greater por- 
tion of New England, so that the conditions and agencies which 
produced them ane have prevailed uniformly over wide areas. 

In addition to these principal topographic forms, there are 
many minor features which doubtless record brief and local 
conditions, but in most cases the data at hand are not gnats 
for their de anmatacielem, 

Inferences from the observed topographic forms back to the 
conditions under which they were produced necessarily involve 
elements of uncertainty, and the writers are fully aware that 
some of their conclusions are open to question and may be mod- 
ified by further study. 

The classification of the main topographic features of the 
province is as follows: 

1. Elevations standing above the Cretaceous peneplain. 

2. Deformed Cretaceous peneplain. 

d. Intermediate erosion slopes. . 

4. Deformed Tertiary peneplain. 

5. Post-Tertiary erosion slopes. 

Of these five classes the two baselevel peneplains are most 
important to the student of geomorphology, for they render it 
possible to interpret the meaning of the other topographie fea- 
tures and to fix the dates of their origin in geologic time. 



The oldest topographic forms found in the southern Appa- 
lachian province are those portions of the land which were not 
reduced to baselevel during the long period of Cretaceous ero- 
sion. These summits may possibly mark the position of a still. 
earlier baselevel peneplain; but if so, the remnants are so few 
that we are unable to reconstruct the ancient plain. Protected 
by a favorable location with reference to drainage lines or com- 
posed of exceptionally durable rocks, they stood during the 
formation of the Cretaceous peneplain in low relief above the 


Cretaceous Peneplain. 69 

level surface and still remain as isolated peaks, ridges or moun- 
tain groups above the remnants of that plain. The distribution 
and relations of these remnants will be more easily understood 
after the Cretaceous peneplain has been described in detail ; 

-hence their consideration will be deferred and included under 
the physiography of the Cretaceous peneplain. 


The oldest topographic feature that can be identified with cer- 
tainty in this region, one which forms the basis upon which all 
later history has been recorded, is a more or less perfectly pre- 
served baselevel peneplain. The reasons for ascribing its forma- 
tion to Cretaceous time are given in a subsequent part of this 
paper and its Cretaceous age may be assumed for the present. 
Doubtless, at earlier periods the surface of the province had 
been baseleveled again and again, but subsequent erosion has so 
modified these earlier forms as to leave them unrecognizable. 

Conditions of Development.—The condition under which a plain 
of erosion will be formed is long-continued stability of baselevel, 
and as baselevel is usually determined by sealevel, the essential 

condition is that the relative position of land and sea shall re- 
main unchanged for a period long enough to allow the agents of 
erosion to carry their work toward completion and reduce the 
surface of the land to drainage-level, the baselevel of erosion. 

During Cretaceous time the condition of stability prevailed 
in this region for the longest period of which we have any 
record in its history; for, while it is a popular belief that the 
normal condition of the earth’s crust is one of stability, the re- 
verse is. shown to be true of this region. Its history in post- 

‘Paleozoic time is a record of almost continuous orogenic move- 
ment—extremely slow, it is true, but with sufficient time allowed, 
capable of producing the greatest deformations with which we 
are acquainted. 

Throughout this period of exceptional quiet, erosion was in 
progress, reducing the surface toward baselevel—rapidly at first, 
as the land was high and the slopes steep, but at a rate growing 
gradually less and less as the gradient of the streams decreased 
and with it their ability to carry off the waste of the land. As 
the gradient approached its lowest limit the mineral matter 
removed from the land was almost wholly in solution. This 
process continued, reducing to baselevel first the soft and soluble 

70. Hayes and Campheli—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

rocks, and then, less perfectly, the harder rocks; the degree to 
which it was carried depending largely upon their location with 
reference to the margin of the sea or the larger streams. In this 
manner the greater. portion of the province was reduced to an 
almost featureless plain. The surface over hard and soft beds 
alike was smoothed until gentle slopes and low relief replaced 
the sharp declivities and high elevations which marked the early 
stages of the process. 

Following the period of quiescence above described came one of 
epeirogenic activity, and the process of baseleveling was brought 
to an end. The land was elevated and the streams began anew 
the rapid trenching of its surface; but the land was elevated 
unequally, and as it arose the surface was warped and twisted. 
Where the elevation was greatest the erosion was most active 
and quickly destroyed the symmetry of the surface, in some 
places producing a deeply cut mountain region, the summits 
alone marking the position of the former peneplain ; where the 
elevation was slight the surface remained practically unchanged ; 
andall gradations exist between these extremes—on the onehand, 
where the peneplain is wholly destroyed, and on the other, where 
it is perfectly preserved. 

Although the whole province, as stated above, had been re- 
duced to an almost featureless plain, the character of the under- 
lying rocks modified to a very slight extent the character of that 
plain. The soft rocks were somewhat more perfectly reduced 
than the hard rocks. Still the differences were not strongly 
marked. When, however, the nearly perfect plain was elevated 
and the activity of the streams was revived, differences in the 
underlying rocks became all important in determining the degree 
to which the plain would be preserved. Where the rocks were 
soft it was rapidly destroyed, and where they were hard it has 
retained in large measure its original form. Hence the peneplain, 
although originally quite uniform, now shows great diversity 
and presents several distinct types, depending jointly on the 
amount of elevation and the character of the underlying rocks. 

Western marginal Type:—In general around the margin of the 
province this peneplain has been almost entirely obliterated by 
later erosion. Especially is this true in central Tennessee and 
Kentucky, where limestone occupied the baseleveled surface or 
lay beneath a thin capping of sandstone. When erosion was 
revived upon the peneplain by its elevation the streams quickly 

Types of the Cretaceous Peneplain. 71 

sank their channels to the second baselevel and almost com- 
pletely removed the intervening portions. Hence there are 
only a few widely separated outliers of the Cumberland plateau 
whose summits still mark the surface of the peneplain. One of 
the most typical of these outliers is Short mountain, in central 
Tennessee, which rises 1,000 feet above the surrounding level 
plain. It has about the same altitude and is capped by the same 
hard sandstone as the Cumberland plateau, 20 miles distant. 
The intervening low plain is underlain by inestane which, on 
the removal of the sandstone cap, offered comparatively little 
resistance to degradation, so that only a combination of favorable 
accidents has preserved this remnant of the old peneplain once 
continuous over the whole region. 

Plateau Type.—This is very different from the foregoing, chiefly 
in the degree and manner of its preservation. In the great Ap- 
palachian coal basin, south of Cumberland gap, the rocks are 
cqmparatively undisturbed. Along certain lines narrow anti- 
clinal folds have developed, leaving broad basins between. The 
anticlines have been eroded, and the synclinal basins, with their 
flat lying strata, constitute the mountains or more properly the 
plateaus of this region. The form of the level topped plateaus 
has been attributed to the attitude of the strata, especially where 
the surface is formed by the great Carboniferous conglomerate, 
as is the case over most of the region; but close study shows that 
this uniform surface does not always correspond to the geologic 
structure, but isa more or less perfect plain, regardless of the 
attitude of the strata. The few low knobs and ridges which rise 
above this common level are truly monadnocks,* standing out 
in striking contrast to the uniform surface below. They gen- 
erally bear no definite relation to the outcrop of the harder 
beds, but appear to be due rather to the accidents of erosion and 
remoteness from main drainage lines. These features prevail 
throughout the coal basin from central Alabama to Kentucky. 
The plain is well preserved in the southern portion, but becomes 
more deeply dissected toward the north, until near Cumberland 
gap there remain only a few narrow remnants of the once con- 
tinuous surface. The conditions for the study of, this plain are 
nearly ideal in the plateau region, where it was so perfectly 

*A term lately used by W. M. Davis to designate those isolated eleva- 
tions standing above a baseleveled plain as mount Monadnock stands 
above the surrounding plain. 

11—Narv. Geog. Maa., vou. VI, 1894, 

72 Hayes and Camphell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

formed and so excellently preserved. It can be traced continu- 
ously from an altitude of 600 feet in central Alabama to 2,000 
feet at the Tennessee-Alabama line, and thence holding about 
the same altitude, with slight irregularities, to Cumberland gap. 
North of the Kentucky-Tennessee line the identification of this 
peneplain becomes a much more difficult matter, for elevation 
has been greater and erosion more rapid. The rocks are gen- 
erally soft and have been unable to preserve any extent of level 
surface ; hence the plain is almost wholly destroyed. Neverthe- 
less, upon careful study of a wide area, it is seen that along north- 
east-southwest lines there is a marked uniformity in the altitude 
of the summits, and on transverse lines an extremely regular in- 
crease in their elevation toward the interior. ‘This gentle but 
regular slope bears apparently no relation to the structure, and 
there seems no other explanation but to regard this as an almost 
completely dissected peneplain whose surface is represented ap- 
proximately by the summits of the isolated knobs. The alti- 
tudes of these remnants of the plain vary from 1,300 or 1,400 
feet near the mouth of the Big Sandy river to 4,000 feet near the 
central portion of the Virginia-West Virginia line. Above this 
inclined peneplain no summits rise until well toward the interior 
of the region, where their occurrence seems to be due to the same 
causes which produced monadnocks further southward, viz., un- 
favorable location with reference to the main drainage lines. This 
is well exemplified in the Big Black mountain on the state line 
between Kentucky and Virginia. This irregular mountain mass 
near Big Stone gap is composed of upper Coal Measures, and has 
an altitude of 4,100 feet, while Pine mountain, but a few miles 
northwestward, is finely baseleveled at about 2,500 feet. True, 
there is a great difference in attitude of the strata in these two 
mountains, for in Pine mountain the dip is about 30° south- 
eastward, while in Big Black mountain the rocks are horizontal ; 
but the former is made up of 1,200 to 1,400 feet of hard con- 
glomerate, interbedded with shales and sandstones, whilé the 
latter is composed of the ordinary shales and sandstones of the 
upper Coal Measures. Apparently Big Black mountain owes 
its preservation to the presence of Pine mountain on its north- 
western side, which acted as a barrier against erosion from that 

Valley Ridge Type.—In the Appalachian valley the type is more 
uniform throughout the whole extent of the province and con- 

Variations of Types. 73 

sists of the even crested ridges similar to those of Pennsylvania 
which have been so well described by Dayis.* As a rule the 
ridges of the southern Appalachian valley are remarkably even 

crested and are unquestionably the remnants of a plain. In 

many cases, however, more or less wide variations from the type 
are found. In some instances a continuous but irregular ridge 
seems to rise quite above the peneplain, while in others the 
wind gaps have a constant altitude and probably represent the 
old baselevel, while the intervening portions of the ridge rising 100 
to 300 feet higher stand, now as then, as a series of knobs above 
the general level. On the other hand, some ridges composed of 
less resistant rocks or occupying more exposed positions have 
been so reduced by subsequent erosion that no points along 
their crests reach the altitude of the peneplain. In reconstruct- 
ing the peneplain from the valley ridges, careful study is required 
to determine its true position, and in some regions considerable 
uncertainty attaches to the determination. On the whole, how- 
ever, the results obtained from the ridges are surprisingly con- 
cordant with those obtained in adjacent regions where the plain 
is better preserved. 

Smoky Mountain Type.—This type differs altogether from those 
previously described and consists almost wholly of baseleveled 
valleys. They prevail from the vicinity of Roanoke, Virginia, 

to Cartersville, Georgia, giving rise to some prairie-like country 

in the heart of the Smoky mountains. It was in these valleys 
that this peneplain was first recognized. Ina paper read before 
this Society in 1889 Willis described the baseleveled valley of 
the French Broad river as follows : + 

A broad amphitheater lies in the heart of the North Carolina moun- 
tains which form its encircling walls; its length is forty miles from north 
to south and its width ten to twenty miles. At its southern gate the 
French Broad river enters; through the northern gate the same river 
flows out, augmented by the many streams of its extensive watershed. 

From these water-courses the even arena once arose with gentle slope 
to the surrounding heights. . . . But that level floor exists no longer. 
In it the rivers first sunk their channels, their tributaries followed, the 
gullies by which the waters gathered deepened, and the old plain was 
thus dissected. It is now only visible from those points of view from 

* The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania, by W. M. Davis: Nat. Geog. 
Mag., vol. i, pp. 183-253. 

+ Round about Asheville, by Bailey Willis: Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. i, pp. 

74. Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

which remnants of its surface fall into a common plane of vision. This 
is the case whenever the observer stands upon the level of the old arena. 
He may then sweep with a glance the profile of a geographic condition 
which has long since passed away. 

Again, in speaking of its altitude and probable origin, he 
says: * 

We have recognized that dissected plain, the level of the Asheville 
amphitheater, now 2,400 feet above the sea. It was a surface produced 
by subaérial erosion, and as such it is evidence of the fact that the French 
Broad river and such of its tributaries as drain this area at one time com- 
pleted their work upon it, reached a baselevel. 

This baseleveled condition, as described by Willis on the 
French Broad, has been found to characterize nearly all the river 
valleys of the Great Smoky mountains and has been observed 
by the present writers on the Little Tennessee, Hiwassee and 
Ocoee rivers of the Tennessee system and on the Coosawattee 
and Etowah rivers of the Alabama system. The altitudes of 
the baseleveled valleys vary considerably, but on the whole 
show a gradual descent southwestward. Thus the altitude of 
the peneplain is 2,400 feet at Asheville, 2,200 feet on the Little 
Tennessee, 2,000 feet on the Hiwassee, 1,900 on the Ocoee and 
1,600 feet on the Coosawattee. The proportion of the surface 
which was reduced to baselevel also increases southwestward 
and in northern Georgia, in place of the baseleveled mountain 
valleys, most of the surface was reduced and adjacent river basins 
merge with low divides. Thus the upper basin of the Coosawat- 
tee and Etowah present to the eye the characteristic form of 
broad undulating plains partly enclosed by mountains and from 
which rise the gentle slopes of island-like monadnocks. In 
detail these plains are found to be deeply etched by the present 
streams, which flow in narrow recently-cut gorges several hun- 
dred feet below their general level. On the Etowah river and 
southward this enclosed valley type disappears and the pene- 
plain assumes a different form, which will be described later. 

Blue Ridge Type.—The writers are less familiar with the region 
northward from the French Broad river and the data for recon- 
structing the Cretaceous peneplain are less abundant. The 
topographic maps, however, show quite strong evidence of the 
existence of this peneplain in the region in question, though it 

“Op: (elt. ou 297. 

waa? ae eee eS 

] \ 

The Peneplain in Virginia. 7) 

is not so well marked as about Asheville. Considerable study 
has been given to the region just north of this province by Davis, 
who suggests in the paper above cited* the probability of the 
extension of the Cretaceous peneplain over the entire southern 
Appalachians. Though he makes no definite statements as to 
its elevation and attitude, yet he concludes that the summits of 
the Blue ridge, south of the Pennsylvania line, probably repre- 
sent this baselevel. The present writers have searched quite 
carefully for definite evidence as to the existence of the pene- 
plain in this region and so far have been unable to find any- 
thing entirely satisfactory. That the region in question was 
baseleveled is conceded by all who are familiar with its topog- 
raphy, but the present elevation and attitude of the peneplain 
are less certain. Southeast of the Blue ridge there are a few 
outliers or isolated knobs standing above the Tertiary plain, 
and these show a uniform altitude of about 1,000 feet. It 
seems scarcely possible that these outliers should have been 
reduced to so nearly a common level unless that level were the 
baselevel of erosion. Immediately north of the Blue ridge, the 
Massannutten mountain shows traces of baseleveling at alti- 
tudes varying from 2,400 to 2,500 feet, and the valley ridges 
to the northward probably show traces at still greater altitudes. 
The Blue ridge varies greatly in altitude; its crest rises toward 
the south from 1,200 feet at Harpers Ferry to 4,000 feet at the 
Peakes of Otter, in central Virginia, and toward the north to 
2,300 feet on the Maryland-Pennsylvania line. If there were a 
corresponding gradient in the peneplain it would necessitate a 
deformation along a cross-axis, of which there is no trace further 
westward ; also the crest line of the Blue ridge between the points 
mentioned is extremely irregular and bears no resemblance to 
the remnant of a baseleveled plain. The varying elevations of 
the plain, determined on either side of the Blue ridge, agree with 
certain features of the ridge itself and make it decidedly probable 
that the peneplain here is highly tilted eastward; the strike of 
the plain—i. e., the direction of the contours representing the 
restored surface—crosses the ridge at a low angle instead of being 
parallel with it. The result of these complex conditions is that 
no two remnants of the old plain are found along the trend of the 
ridge at the same altitude. and consequently they are extremely 
difficult to recognize. Assuming this attitude of the peneplain 

* Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., vol. ii, 1891, p. 562. 

76 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

as a working hypothesis, traces of a baselevel can be found 
in places that otherwise afford no evidence of its existence; 
a terrace cut here and a wind-gap there serve to locate the 
plain so that it can be restored and contoured with consider- 
able confidence. The restored surface corresponds with the 
summits of the ridges at Harpers Ferry, where proximity to the 
Potomac insured complete reduction to baselevel and afforded 
opportunity for subsequent erosion to almost completely dissect 
the plain. On either side, away from the river, the crests become 
more irregular, and evidently stand above the peneplain, while 
the present wind-gaps show traces of baseleveling, and probably 
correspond in altitude very nearly with the plain. On the east- 
ern side of the Blue ridge throughout North Carolina there is 
but little data available for reconstructing the Cretaceous pene- 
plain. The present writers are personally unacquainted with 
the region and a large part of it has never been mapped with 
contours. At only one point has the phenomenon of baselevel- 
ing been recognized. Kerr has described certain topographic 
features observed in the vicinity of Morganton, North Carolina,* 
and likened them to the Asheville baselevel. His theory as to 
their glacial origin cannot be accepted, but from his description 
it may be inferred that the valley of the Catawba river has been 
baseleveled to about the same extent as the French Broad at 
Asheville, and that the plain has been nearly as well preserved. 
Its altitude here is 1,400 feet, so that it mu&t have a very rapid 
ascent toward the west in order to reach an altitude of 2,400 or 
2,500 feet at Asheville, which is only fifty miles distant. This 
sharp ascent of the Cretaceous peneplain on the eastern slope 
of the Blue ridge dies out rapidly southward, partly through 
the flattening out of the fold in that direction and partly through 
the influence of a cross-axis of depression in the vicinity of 

Southern marginal Type.—In the region southwest from Atlanta 
as far as the Coosa river the present attitude of the peneplain 
differs from that in any other portion of the province. In this 
region the baseleveled plain has suffered but little uplift from 
the position in which it, was formed, and this slight- elevation 
has taken place in very recent geologic time. Hence the pene- 
plain is well preserved and many of the present streams, as the 

* Origin of new Points in the Topography of North Carolina, by W. C. 

Kerr: Am. Jour. Sci., 3d series, vol. xxi, 1881, pp. 216-219. 



The Peneplain in Georgia. 77 

Tallapoosa and its tributaries, are flowing partly on this old 
surface and partly in channels which they have been able to 
sink but a short distance below it, although it now stands from 
1,000 to 1,400 feet above sealevel. In northern Georgia it merges 
into the Smoky mountain type, differing from the latter in the 
greater perfection to which the baseleveling process was carried 
and in the more perfect preservation from subsequent erosion. 
This peneplain is well preserved in Dug Down mountain, south 
of Rockmart, Georgia, and it is from this plain that the historic 
knobs of Kennesaw and Stone mountain stand up so promi- 

When the peneplain was formed it must have extended to the 
margin of the Cretaceous sea which at that time bounded the 
province on three sides; but it is this marginal portion which 
was subjected to the greatest erosion, so that wherever any con- 
siderable elevation took place the peneplain has been wholly 
destroyed. Hence there is a narrow belt within which no data 
are available for reconstructing the peneplain, except by in- 
terpolation from the approximately known position of the sea 
margin and the remnants of the surface still to be found at 
ereater or less distances therefrom. These distances are not 
usually so great as to cause much uncertainty in determining 
the position of the peneplain at any point. 


The existing remnants of the Cretaceous peneplain having been 
described in some detail, a fairly complete view may be gained 
of its physiography at the close of the long period of quiescence 
during which it was formed. Although this is the most perfectly 
baseleveled plain ever developed in the province, and although 
it was exceptional for its extent and regularity, it did not have 
a perfectly horizontal surface; in fact, it was level only where 
erosion acted under the most favorable conditions, either near 
sea margin and along the largest streams or where the rocks 
were easily removed by solution. Where soft and hard rocks 
alternated, the former were quickly reduced, while the latter re- 
mained above baselevel for longer or shorter periods, according 
as they were more or less remote from the main drainage lines. 
Where the location was most favorable for erosion, hard and soft 
rocks alike were perfectly reduced, and the rivers wandered in 
sinuous courses and with sluggish currents, uninfluenced by the 

78 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

character or attitude of the underlying strata. That this was 
rather the exceptional case, however, is inferred from the infre- 
quence of superimposed drainage which can be attributed di- 
rectly to baselevel wanderings. Probably the outcrops of many 
if not most of the hard beds appeared embossed in low relief 
upon the baseleveled plain. The distribution of the unreduced 
areas, so far as they can be determined at the present time, is 
shown in plate 5. It will be seen that these areas coincide in 
position with the present mountain regions. Doubtless many 
points which then stood slightly above the peneplain have been 
so reduced by subsequent erosion that their summits no longer 
rise above its general level. Western North Carolina as early as 
Cretaceous time was the culminating point of the Appalachian 
highlands, a position which it has held unterruptedly from that 
time to the present. At the close of the period of baseleveling 
the mountains here stood at altitudes varying from 3,000 to 3,600 
feet above sealevel, and in some portions of the region they have 
changed in appearance but little from that time to this. Thus, 
in the Asheville region there was then a broad, level valley, over 
whose surface the streams meandered in winding courses. En- 
circling the valley were the same mountains as today with almost 
the same contours. The chief difference is in the altitude of the 
baseleveled valley, which then stood near sealevel, but now has 
an elevation of 2,400 feet, and in the deep gorges which the 
present streams have etched below its surface. The present line 
of the Blue ridge in Virginia was marked by a series of monad- 
nocks, isolated or in groups, but not comparable in extent with 
the mountain mass toward the southwest. 

In the region of the Cumberland mountains, across the Appa- 
lachian valley from the Great Smokies, the map shows some 
areas not reduced to baselevel. ‘These formed a group of monad- 
nocks the highest of which, the Big Black mountains, did not 
much exceed 1,500 feet in altitude. They are composed of rocks 
not specially obdurate and, as suggested above, probably owe 
their preservation from erosion to the surrounding barrier formed 
by the great Carboniferous conglomerate, and also to their posi- 
tion in the interior, away from the main drainage lines. 

In the valley region where the rocks are highly tilted and 
present sharp ¢ontrasts in capacity for resisting erosion, many 
short ridges or linear monadnocks stood from 100 to 1,000 feet 
above the baselevel. These form the higher portions of many 

Nature of the Deformation. 79 

of the present valley ridges, while the present wind-gaps repre- 
sent the former baseleveled intervals between the monadnocks. 
In the plateau rezion south of the Crab Orchard mountains no 
areas of sufficient extent to be represented on the map remained 
unreduced. The peneplain in this portion of the province was 
less perfect than in some others and occasional slight elevations 
remain clearly above its general level. These are sometimes 
due to the attitude of unusually resistant beds, but more often 
to the accidents of erosion acting on tolerably homogeneous 


One of the most important conclusions contained in the pres- 
ent paper, in its bearings upon geomorphology, is the recognition 
of the nature of the deformation found recorded in the present 
attitude of the baselevel peneplains. It is that these ‘deforma- 
tions have been mainly produced by true orogenic movements 
affecting comparatively narrow areas along certain well defined 
axes ; that they were not epcirogenic or continental uplifts such 
as would preserve a peneplain in approximately its original hori- 
zontal position ; nor even, as suggested by Willis,* uplifts which 
broadly arched the surface across the whole expanse of the pro- 
vince; also that orogenic activity has not been continuous along 
any one axis nor always in the same direction, though the total 
effect of the intermittent motion has been to elevate the whole 

Deformations of the baselevel peneplains have been recognized 
in this and adjacent regions by other writers, especially Davis 
and McGee. Thus Davis has shown that the Cretaceous pene- 
plain in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and portions of New England 
is tilted seaward, but he has not located its axis of elevation ; 
also McGee has shown that in the southern Appalachians every 
subsidence has been greatest at the sea margin and every eleva- 
tion greatest in the interior, which implies a cumulative seaward 
tilting. The class of facts from which he derived his evidence 
did not enable him to locate the main axes of uplift, though 
he clearly recognized the transverse Memphis-Charleston axis, 
which will be more fully described on a subsequent page. 

* Topography and Structure of the Bays Mountains, Tennessee, by 
Bailey Willis: School of Mines Quarterly, vol. viii, 1887, p. 252. 

12—Nar. Grog, Maa., von. VI, 184. 

80 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

In order to represent in as graphic a manner as possible the 
present form of this Cretaceous peneplain a contoured map of 
the deformed surface has been constructed. Upon this map are 
assembled all available data derived from a careful comparison 
of the various known remnants of the plain within the province. 
The result appears as plate 5, and although regarded by the 
writers as preliminary, it embodies all the information at present 
attainable. Although imperfect, the map is highly suggestive, 
and it is hoped that it may lead to the construction of similar 
maps of other regions in which equally important results would 

‘undoubtedly be obtained. Different portions of the map repre- 
sent widely different proportions of fact and hypothesis, and 
hence differ in value. Thus in the southern part of the province 
the peneplain, as already described, is well preserved; also the 
map of this portion is based upon a large number of personal 
observations and may be considered fairly accurate. In some 
regions in the northern portion of the province only scanty re- 
mains of the peneplain can be found, and the evidence of its 
existence is so indefinite that while the present map is unsatis- 
factory it is doubtful if anything better can be constructed even 
with fuller field observations. Other portions are based upon 
a study of imperfect topographic maps or railroad profiles and 
verbal descriptions of topography, so that the results are corre- 
spondingly unsatisfactory. a 

As already indicated, the deformations of the Cretaceous pene- 
plain represented by the contour map (plate 5) are not the result 
of a single elevation or a single system of orogenic movements, 
but the algebraic sum of all movements both of elevation and 
depression which have affected the region since the peneplain 
was formed. Not only have the movements been in opposite 
directions and at different periods, but the axes of maximum 
motion have not always been the same nor even parallel; they 
have intersected at various angles, and the surface has been 
warped accordingly. The data are not sufficient for mapping all 
the details and a description of the principal axes only will be 

Longitudinal Axes of Elevation.—There are three principal lonei- 
tudinal axes, and so far as known, these are axes of elevation 
alone, though depression of which no record is left may have 
taken place along them also. They are indicated by broken 
lines on plate 5 and marked by the letters C D, KE Fand G H. 

—_" =e 



Cincimnati-Cape Hatteras Axis. 81 

These are lines of maximum elevation and they have had a 
predominant influence in producing the present topography of . 
the province. They coincide with the present mountains and 
in a general way parallel the great structural features of the 
Appalachian valley. 

Transverse Axes of Oscillation —In addition to the predominat- 
ing longitudinal axes a number of interesting transverse axes 
are brought out by the contours representing the deformed Cre- 
taceous peneplain? In the central portion of the map the con- 
tours swell out on either side, giving a broader and more regular 
profile to the elevation than elsewhere. This is suggestive of a 
transverse line of uplift intersecting the longitudinal axes nearly 
at right angles. If this line be prolonged in both directions it is 
found to connect Cincinnati and cape Hatteras, both of which 
have been recognized as occupying regions of recent elevation. 
As early as 1871 Shaler* described a transverse uplift which he 
concluded had produced the great projection of the coast line at 
ape Hatteras; also McGee has shown that this axis has been 
an important factor in determining the form of the coast line 
during the time represented by the deposition of the coastal 
plain sediments. He describes itt as “an axis of interruption 
or change in epeirogenic movement during every geologic period 
since the Cretaceous.” If this line from cape Hatteras to Cin- 
cinnati be continued across the Ohio river its direction will be 
found to coincide with that of the main or northwestward branch 
of the Cincinnati arch which crosses Indiana to Chicago. A1- 
though, with the information at present available, it cannot be 
asserted that motion has taken place along the southeastern por- 
tion of the line except in post-Cretaceous time, still the coinci- 
dence of the two axes suggests the probability that there was 
orogenic movement in the Appalachian region during the uplift 
of the Cincinnati arch in Ohio and Indiana, and, conversely, that 
north of the Ohio river may yet be found traces of post-Paleozoic 
movements corresponding to the later uplifts in the vicinity of 
cape Hatteras. The probability of such contemporaneous move- 
ment is increased by the fact that in the southern portion of the 
province evidence was found by the writers proving that certain 

* (On the Causes which have led to the Production of cape Hatteras, by 
Professor N.'S. Shaler: Proe. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xiv, pp. 110-121. 

+The Lafayette Formation, by W J McGee: 12th Annual Report (We TSt 
Geological Survey, 1891, p. 403. 

82 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

axes of post-Cretaceous oscillation have also been lines of Paleo- 
zoic movement. 

A second and more clearly defined axis of elevation, O P, is 
found crossing the province in the vicinity of Chattanooga. Its 
trend is nearly due north and south, and it has been traced nearly 
as far north as Cincinnati. If the axis be continued across the 
Ohio river it falls in line With the eastern branch of the Cincin- 
nati arch passing through Findlay and Toledo, Ohio. This also 
may be only a coincidence, but it strongly suggests genetic con- 
nection between the portions of the axis north and south of 

The third and most prominent of the transverse axes crosses 
the southern portion of the province, passing near Atlanta and 
forming a tangent to the great northwestward bend of the Ten- 
nessee river. It was first recognized by McGee in studying the 
sediments of the southern Atlantic coastal plain and Mississippi 
embayment. He describes this ‘ Charleston-Memphis axis” * 

as an axis of maximum subsidence during both low level periods 

(represented by the Lafayette and Columbia formations) and an 
axis of maximum uplift during both high level periods. It is 
represented on the map by the broken line 4 B, haying a nearly 
east-and-west direction ; it intersects the last described north- 
and-south transverse axis as well as the longitudinal axes, and 
since, as shown by the contours, it is at present a line of depres- 
sion the effect of the elevation along the other axes is wholly 
or partially neutralized at their intersections. The oscillations 
on this axis A B have been an important factor in determin- 
ine the drainage of this region and will be again referred to in 
the second part of this paper. 

The probability of orogenic forces having been active upon 
the transverse axes during Paleozoic time was mentioned above. 
In case of the axis A B, there is proof of such activity at two or 
more distinct epochs. In mapping the Paleozoic formations of 
northern Georgia and Alabama it was found that two terranes 
which present strong indications of having been deposited under 
shore conditions terminate abruptly against this line. These 
shore formations are the Birmingham breccia at the top of the 
Knox dolomite and the Oxmoor sandstone occurring in the 
lower Carboniferous. Other stratigraphic changes scarcely less 

* The Gulf of Mexico as a Measure of Isostacy (abstract), by W J McGee: 
Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., vol. ili, p. 503. 

Effect of Elevation. 83 

striking mark this as a line of instability during the whole of 
Paleozoic time and the physiographic evidence shows that the 
= instability has continued down almost to the present. Hence it 
eems at least probable that orogenic activity has been persistent 
, the other axes in pre-Cretaceous or Paleozoic time, and that 
he forces which produced the Cincinnati arch are the same as 
those which have deformed the Cretaceous peneplain. 
Considerable evidence has been collected bearing upon the 
relative age of the oscillations recorded in the deformed pene- 
plain, but since it is closely connected with topographic features 
to be described later its consideration is postponed to a subse- 
quent page. 


The long period of quiescence, during which the Cretaceous 
peneplain was produced, was terminated by a general elevation of 
the larger part of the province. Like most of the oscillations that 

_ have occurred since, it was compound in character, combining 
epeirogenic and orogenic movements; the former affected the 
entire province, carried the coast line considerably beyond its 
previous location and stimulated the streams to increased ac- 
tivity ; but the energies culminated along certain axial lines and 
resulted in pronounced orogenic uplifts that warped and twisted 
the surface as it arose. 

The immediate effect of this elevation was to stimulate erosion, 
and the streams which for a long period had been carrying only 
the finest sediments began the rapid corrasion of their channels 
and quickly trenched the rising land. The process was carried 
on differently in different parts of the province; where the ele- 

* vation was slow, erosion was very moderate in its effects, but 

where elevation was rapid the streams were greatly stimulated 
and rapidly dissected the peneplain. 

The movements which inaugurated this cycle still continued 
to affect the province, not continuously along any one axis, but 
by intermittent and gradually decreasing elevations and depres- 
sions. These oscillations were terminated by a second period of 

quiescence, during which the surface was again reduced to a base- 
level peneplain. 

; The extent of the movements occurring between these two 

periods of baseleveling can be roughly measured by the vertical 

84 Hayes and Campbhell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

distance between the two peneplains. The uplift attained its 
maximum of about 2,600 feet in. northern Virginia and West 
Virginia, and was apparently continuous from the close of one 
period of baseleveling to the inauguration of the other. Asa 
direct consequence of this steady uprising of the land we find 
in this portion of the province the Cretaceous peneplain almost 
completely dissected, and it is extremely doubtful if any of the 
level surface is still preserved. From this maximum the eleva- 
tion decreased in an irregular manner toward the margin of the 
province, where the earlier and later baselevels coincide. 

The period of Cretaceous baseleveling was a very long one—so 
long that over much of the province the rocks, hard and soft 
alike, were reduced nearly or quite to the same level. The period 
of Tertiary baseleveling, on the other hand, was comparatively 
short when measured by geologic standards. Ifsufficed for the 
complete removal of the previous peneplain only about the mar- 
gin of the province, where conditions of erosion were exception- 
ally favorable, and for the cutting of broad valleys upon the soft 
rocks of the interior. Since only the softer rocks were reduced 
to baselevel, there is less diversity in the Tertiary than in the 
Cretaceous peneplain, but when the surrounding erosion slopes 
are considered in connection with the plain, as they must neces- 
sarily be, there is found a great variety of topographic forms, de- 
pending jointly on the kind of rocks, location with reference to 
the margin of the sea or large drainage channels, and amount of 
pre-Tertiary elevation. This peneplain, like the Cretaceous, has 
been greatly modified by late erosion, but even in this the three 
elements named above are the controlling ones and mainly re- 
sponsible for the forms produced. 

Marginal Types.—In the western portion of the province con- 
ditions were favorable for the production of an extensive base- 
level peneplain during this period. The very perfect Cretaceous 
plain was elevated from a few feet at the margin of the Tertiary 
sea to about 1,000 feet at the western line of the Cumberland 
escarpment. The greater part of the rocks thus raised above 
baselevel were limestones, in which the streams quickly lowered 
their channels and by lateral corrasion entirely removed the 
intermediate highlands, with the exception of a few isolated 
monadnocks, of which Short mountain, already described, is the 
type. Owing to the coincidence throughout central Tennessee 

Types of the Tertiary Peneplain. $5 

of the Carboniferous limestone and the Tertiary baselevel, this 
peneplain was formed up to the base of the steep plateau escarp- 
ment and far within the narrow limestone coves which indent 
its border. In the time that has elapsed since the formation of 
this pleneplain the streams have not been able to cut their gorges 
back to the escarpment, so their head-waters are still flowing 
upon that old plain, though at an altitude of from 1,000 to 1,100 
feet. Thus in a belt of country bordering the plateau on the 
west and extending northeastward from Huntsville, Alabama, 
to the Kentucky-Tennessee line the conditions were favorable 
for the production and have since been favorable for the perserva- 
tion of this peneplain. 

Across Kentucky the conditions were similar to those of Ten- 
nessee, except that the hard Coal Measure sandstones were less 
elevated and férmed no plateau, and subsequent erosion, as 
the Ohio river is approached, has been more and more active, 
until in the immediate vicinity of the river the pleneplain is 
recognized with difficulty. The conditions north of the Ohio 
river are at present entirely unknown, and the only suggestion 
the present writers can offer is that probably the two peneplains 
gradually approach each other in that direction until they 
practically coincide. 

About the southern margin of the province the elevation be- 
tween the two periods of baseleveling was so slight that the rocks 
have been practically exposed to: baselevel conditions from 
nearly the beginning of Cretaceous to Neocene time, and as a 
result are deeply decayed and but poorly preserve the records of 
the past. In the Coosa valley the Tertiary peneplain is gener- 
ally distinguishable, although subsequent erosion has cut deeply 
into its surface and, owing to the decay of the rocks, has reduced 
the least resistant members to a still lower baselevel—that at 
which the present streams of the region are flowing. Continuing 
eastward, the vertical interval between the Cretaceous and Ter- 

-tiary baselevels decreases and in the vicinity of Atlanta they 

practically coincide, so that the recognition of the two peneplains 
is almost impossible. The streams have not cut below the old 
peneplains in their upper courses and the tributaries of the 
Chattahoochee and Tallapoosa rivers still flow upon the surface 
of the Cretaceous peneplain. 

On the southeastern margin of the province, throughout the 

85 Hayes and Camphell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

piedmont plain, the Tertiary peneplain is well develoned and 
only occasional monadnocks show the position of the Cretaceous 
plain. Although erystalline rocks are generally regarded as 
offering great resistance to erosion, they are, under baseleveling 
conditions, subject to very deep decay and probably at the close 
of the Cretaceous cycle were softened to a far greater depth than 
at the present time. As the elevation succeeding the Cretaceous — 
period of baseleveling was not great, the streams quickly swept 

away this mantle of residual material down to baselevele Under 

such conditions the Tertiary peneplain was very perfectly devel- 

oped throughout the whole of the piedmont plain. The subse-- 
quent erosion of this peneplain has been comparatively slight 

and in many parts, especially in the vicinity of the James and 

Potomac rivers, it is almost perfectly preserved. 

Interior Valley Type—Asg stated above, this period was not suf- 
ficiently long for hard rocks to be reduced except under pecu- 
liarly favorable conditions. In the interior of the province only 
areas of limestone and shale were lowered to the newly estab- 
lished baselevel. These-rocks formed the surface chiefly in the 
zone of folded rocks known as the Appalachian valley. Upon 
the elevation of the region the streams sank their channels 
mainly within these belts of easily erodible rocks, although in 
some cases their wanderings during the preceding period of 
baseleveling had led them across hard rocks upon which they 
thus became superimposed. The greatly stimulated erosion 
rapidly reduced the soft rocks to baselevel in the immediate 
vicinity of the large streams; the valleys were broadened until 
checked by hard rocks which remained at the level of the, old 
peneplain, either as the valley ridges, the plateaus upon the 
west, or the present mountain valleys upon the east. This 
removal of the soft rocks progressed well toward the head 
branches of most of the rivers within the Appalachian yalley. 
In many cases the divides between adjacent river basins were 
almost perfectly baseleveled, though in some cases (explained in 
Part IL of this paper) the present divides were then crossed by 
large streams whose courses were subsequently changed. The 
Shenandoah valley may be taken as the type of this portion of 
the Tertiary peneplain. Its level floor, cut in the soft limestone 
and shale, is abruptly terminated on either side by steep slopes, 
composed of more resistant strata. The divide between the 

Areas unreduced. 87 

Shenandoah and James is but little higher or narrower than the 
valleys themselves. The same’ is true of the divides between 
the James and Roanoke and the Roanoke and New rivers, and 
their valleys are almost as perfectly baseleveled as that of the 
Shenandoah. In the southern portion of the Appalachian val- 
ley the great Cambro-Silurian limestone becomes very silicious 
and its surface was less perfectly reduced than in Virginia. 
Many rounded ridges of residual chert reach slightly above the 
level ofthe Tertiary peneplain, even in the vicinity of the larger 
streams. _The amount of the erosion, however, was even greater 
than on the Shenandoah and James, for the valley in eastern Ten- 
nessee and northwestern Georgia is considerably wider than in 
northern Virginia. In the New-Kanawha basin the Tertiary pene- 
plain was extensively developed ; conditions of erosion appear to 
have been exceptionally favorable, for not only limestones but 
considerable areas of sandstone and shales were very completely 
reduced. Owing to subsequent elevation this Tertiary plain now 
forms a plateau 2,500 feet above sealevel and the present streams 
have cut their channels 1,500 feet or more below its surface. The 
altitude of the peneplain decreases rapidly westward and in the 
valley of the Ohio corresponds with the highest bluffs, below 
which the river has sunk its bed from 400 to 700 feet. 

Plate 6 shows the portions of the surface not reduced to the 
Tertiary baselevel, and from it more easily than from descrip- 
tions may be obtained a general idea of the physiography of the 
Tertiary peneplain at the end of this baseleveling process. These 
areas are seen to be very extensive on both sides of the Appa- 
lachian valley, while only the narrow ridges remain within the 
latter. The area unreduced to baselevel during this period is in 
round numbers 45,000 square miles, and the ratio of this area 
to that of the entire province then above sealevel is 1:4.7.. Dur- 
ing the Cretaceous baseleveling, on the other hand, the unreduced 
portion is only 8,700 square miles and its ratio to the then exist- 
ing province 1: 22. 

A comparison of these ratios affords some idea of the relative 
duration of the two periods. The reduction of a surface to base- 
level, however, does not vary directly as the time, but rather as 
some highly complex function of the time, being a process which 
decreases in its rate as it approaches completion. Hence the 
comparative duration of the two periods cannot be determined 
without considering other factors whose values are at present 

13—Nart. Groa. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

88 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

unknown. Nevertheless, itseems probable that the earlier period 
was at least eight or ten times as long as the later one. 


Although the second peneplain was less perfectly developed 
than the first, it has been more perfectly preserved, and so can 
be reconstructed with even greater certainty. The same plan of 
representation has been pursued as in the case of the Cretaceous 
peneplain, and the deformed surface is represented by contour 
lines with an interval of 200 feet; also similar qualifications 
should be made here as in the case of the map representing the 
Cretaceous peneplain. Not all parts are equally reliable by 
reason of differences both in degree of baseleveiing and also in 
the quality of maps and other data upon which it is based. 

The deformation is somewhat exaggerated, especially in the 
interior of the province, for the gradient of the baseleveled 
valleys has not been taken into account. This gradient varies 
with the size of the stream, but present knowledge of baselevel 
conditions is not sufficient to warrant definite statements as to 
the altitude of the baselevel in the interior. Probably the error 
in determining the altitude of the peneplain at any point is 
ereater than the error introduced by neglecting its gradient. 

The contours in plate 5 represent the algebraic sum of all 
movements which have affected the province since the comple- 
tion of the Cretaceous peneplain, while the contours in plate 6 
represent movements which have occurred since the close of the 
Tertiary period of baseleveling; hence the contours of plate 5 
represent. all the deformation expressed in plate 6 plus the de- 
formation occurring between the two periods of quiescence. The 
amount of this intermediate deformation or the vertical distance 
between the two baselevels at any point may be found by sub- 
tracting altitudes indicated by the contours on plate 6 from those 
on plate 5. 

The character of the orogenic activity which followed the com- 
paratively long period of Tertiary quiet is much better known 
than that which followed the longer. Cretaceous period. It is 
much nearer the present than the latter, and the evidence for 
deciphering its history has not yet been obliterated. Part of 
this evidence consists of modified physiographic forms, but the 
larger portion is found in the sediments deposited around the 
seaward margin of the province. We are largely indebted to 



Epetrogenic Movements. 89 

McGee for their interpretation and the determination of their 
bearing on Appalachian history. The conclusions will be stated 
briefly without attempting to give the evidence on which they 
are based, although some of it is contained a subsequent page. 

The series of oscillations occurring since the close of the Ter- 
tiary period of baseleveling consists, first, of a depression which 
allowed the waters of the ocean and the Mississippi embayment 
to advance inward far beyond their previous margin.* Fol- 
lowing this came an elevation of the entire province that again 
started the streams in a career of great activity, and the sea re- 
treated probably beyond the present shoreline. These broad 
movements may properly be termed epeirogenic, as they affected 
the entire province, but in every case the movements culminated 
along certain axial lines and produced decided local or orogenic 
warping. In the subsidence the greatest depression was along 
the cross-axis A B, but in the subsequent elevation the greatest 
movement was along the main longitudinal axes. A period of 
comparative quiescence followed, during which the land stood 
somewhat higher than at present and much higher than during 
the Tertiary baseleveling period. It was during this interval 
that the rivers of the eastern coast carved their broad outer val- 
leys, now almost completely submerged beneath the waters of 
the Atlantic, and the Mississippi corraded its broad valley from 
Cairo to the Gulf. 

In very recent geologic time these oscillations have been re- 
peated in the same order and with a similar effect. The land 
first subsided and the Columbia sediments were laid down; then 
it arose to its present position and the modern gorges mark the 
duration of the present high level attitude of the land. 


The greatest divergence in altitude between the two deformed 
peneplains is in the northern portion of the province. This 
great pre-Tertiary elevation is somewhat dome-shaped and at- 
tains its maximum elevation of 2,400 feet about 30 miles north- 
west of Harrisonburg, Virginia; from this point it descends quite 
rapidly in all directions, but shows a partial agreement with the 
axes O Dand E F (plate 5). Toward the west the actual coin- 
cidence of the two plains cannot be determined, but they appear 

*The Lafayette Formation, by W J McGee: 12th Ann. Rep. U.S. Geol. 
Survey, 1890-’91, pp. 508, 509. 

90 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

to be within 200 feet of each other in the vicinity of West Union, 
forty miles east of Parkersburg, West Virginia. On the eastern 
margin of the province the upper peneplain is completely oblit- 
erated, but the two probably coincide in the vicinity of Rich- 
mond, Virginia. Along the axes the descent was much less 
rapid. On the Pennsylvania line the uplift probably did not 
exceed 1,200 feet, while toward the southwest, along the axis EH F 
(plate 5), it extended certainly as far as the Tennessee line. 
South of this line the uplifts were much more irregular and dis- 
tributed over a broader area, so that their general effect has been 
to produce a broad fold extending from Greenville, South Caro- 
lina, to Nashville, Tennessee, and with an altitude not exceed- 
ing 1,000 feet. In this broad uplift can be traced several local 
orogenic disturbances, of which the uplift along the axis O P is 
quite prominent, but the greatest elevation occurred along the 
axis G H (plate 5). Many minor folds both of elevation and 
depression can be distinguished in this region, but their mean- 
ing is as yet obscure and we only know that they are intimately 
associated with the general warping of the surface of the proy- 
ince. In the vicinity of Atlanta the two baselevels are so near 
the same altitude that thejr peneplains cannot be discriminated, 
and the same is true along a line toward the northeast as far as 
Asheville. In the upper portion of the French Broad basin 
only one peneplain can be detected and it is ascribed to Cre- 
taceous time. The streams: have, however, barely sunk their 
channels through the mantle of disintegrated rock, although the 
present altitude of the region renders them extremely active. 
Westward from Asheville the two baselevels diverge under the 
influence of an uplift along the axis G H and indications of the 
two corresponding peneplains are found along the lower course 
of the French Broad river. 


By far the larger part of the erosion of the Tertiary pene- 
plain was accomplished during the period of high level which 
preceded the Columbia depression, The streams were greatly 
stimulated, and where the elevation was considerable they carved 
deep gorges along their lower courses, giving rise to the numerous 
bays and broad-mouthed rivers now indenting the Atlantic coast. 
The distance these gorges were cut toward the interior yaries 
greatly, depending upon the elevation of the land and the char- 







Hrosion of the Peneplain. 91 

acter of the rocks. Where the uplift was considerable the streams 
cut narrow gorges in their rocky floors, but’ where the elevation 
was slight the valleys were widened and present more the ap- 
pearance of corrasion under baseleveling conditions. 

This broad dissection of the Tertiary peneplain is greatest in 
the southern portion of the province, for there the elevation was 
only sufficient for the streams to work upon the decayed rock 
and residual mantle which had accumuiated during the preced-, 
ing period. The streams were almost entirely occupied in broad- 
ening their valleys, so that in the Coosa-Alabama basin probably 
a third of the surface was removed during this period. After 
the Columbia depression this region was once more elevated 
and the streams have deeply trenched their broad valleys. In 
the vicinity of Chattanooga the Tennessee river has lowered its 
channel but 250 feet below the Tertiary peneplain, and this has 
been accomplished gradually, for the contours are generally 
flowing and well rounded, except where the river cuts some un- 
usually hard stratum. Throughout the basin of the Tennessee 
river northeast of Chattanooga the amount of cutting is variable, 
depending upon the amount of deformation of the peneplain. 
Streams located upon the axes of maximum elevation were 
stimulated to a high degree of activity, While those located be- 
tween such axes in areas of minimum uplift received only a 
moderate acceleration. The Clinch and Holston rivers show in 
a striking manner the effect of the warping on the erosion of 
the peneplain. The upper Clinch is located upon the axis K JL, 
plate 6,and has cut a canyon from 500 to 700 feet deep through 
the limestones and calcareous shales, with slopes as steep as such 

material will stand. In striking contrast with this is the broad 

open valley of the Holston, located in an area of minimum 
elevation between the axes K Land M N and about twenty miles 
southeastward of the Clinch river. 

The great gorges cut in the Tertiary peneplain in the New- 
Kanawha basin have been referred to. They indicate clearly 
that the conditions which prevailed here in post-Tertiary time 
have been different from those in any other portion of the 
province. The uplift which elevated the Tertiary peneplain to 
an altitude of 2,500 feet, as shown in plate 6, was confined almost 
entirely to the axis K L. This axis crosses the river in its lower 
course, but the river had sufficient volume to hold its antecedent 
position across the rising fold. In doing so it has cut a narrow, 

92 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

rugged gorge 1,500 feet deep, and is still actively corrading its 
channel. The movement along the axis must have been practi- 
cally continuous from the completion of the Tertiary peneplain 
down to the present. 

The region northeast of New river, in which rise branches of 
the Potomac, the James, the Kanawha and the Monongahela, 
has probably been an area of continuous uplift during every 
period of orogenic activity affecting the province. The Creta- 
ceous peneplain, of which only a few doubtful remnants exist, 
was elevated at least 2,400 feet and -Tertiary erosion was propor- 
tionally stimulated. It succeeded, however, only in reducing 
to baselevel and slightly broadening the valleys of the larger 
streams. A post-Tertiary elevation of 1,600 feet has renewed 
their activity, so that it has been continued with scarcely a pause 
from the close of the Cretaceous ‘period down to the present. 

The result of this almost continuous downward stream cutting 
has been to produce the most sharply cut region in the Appa- 
lachian province. The slopes are steep and generally uniform 
from the highest points, which may represent the surface of the 
earlier peneplain, down to the present streams, with only an 
occasional trace of terracing to mark the Tertiary baselevel. 

The elevation of the Tertiary peneplain along the eastern 
border of the province has been only moderate, and the streams 
have accomplished correspondingly little erosion upon its sur- 
face. The Roanoke, the James and the Potomac have cut rather 
narrow and shallow valleys across the piedmont plain. These 
become shallow gorges in the broad baseleveled valleys west of 
the Blue ridge. 


Before closing this portion of the paper it 1s perhaps advisable 
to review hastily, as far as the evidence will admit, the succes- 
sion of oscillations in post-Paleozoic time. As already stated, 
the determination of the character of these movements is one of 
the most important results derived from this study, since the en- 
tire physiography of the region, including the arrangement of its 
drainage systems, has been modified to a great extent by them. 

Movements in the Tertiary Cycle.—It is not advisable at present 
to go farther back in geologic time than to the close of the Cre- 
taceous period of baseleveling, although there are traces of sim- 

similar movements in the preceding ages of post-Paleozoic time. - 


Dates of Orogenic Movements. 93 

In one portion of the province only has the elevation since 
then been practically continuous. This is in northern Virginia 
and West Virginia and, as shown in plate 5, exhibits an agere- 
gate uplift since the completion of the Cretaceous peneplain of 
4,000 feet. During the Tertiary baseleveling this region was 
necessarily free from movement, but at no other time does there 
seem to have been a complete cessation of the uplift. The axes 
along which it culminated in pre-Tertiary time are C D and FE F 
(plate 5). While the movement along these axes occurred syn- 
chronously and at their maximum reached the same elevation, 
the deformation on the two was quite different. Along the axis 
C D it extended but little south of the Kanawha river, while in 
the opposite direction it passed into Pennsylvania, extending 
probably half way across that state. Along the axis # F' the 
elevation reached only a little north of the Potomac, but con- 
tinued in the other direction as far as Tennessee. These axes 
- are arranged en echelon and the maximum elevation occurred at. 

the point of overlap. Some time during this period the uplift 
extended southwestward along the axis 1 F, but only sufficient 
to raise a low swell a few hundred feet in altitude. This is quite 
intimately connected with a later uplift along the same line and 
‘probably occurred late in the interval between the two periods 
of baseleveling. 

It seems probable that an uplift took place in the Smoky 
mountain region quite early in this epoch, its axis coinciding 
approximately with the state line between Tennessee and North 
Carolina. The reason for assigning this movement to the early 
part of the epoch is that there are traces of an uplift along this 
same line in pre-Cretaceous time, and probably the later uplift 
was but the continuation of the earlier, following immediately 
the Cretaceous period of quiescence. . This late uplift increased 
toward the northeast, reaching 1,200 feet on the southern line of 

Some movement occurred along the Hatteras axis during this 
epoch, reaching its maximum elevation on the northwestern 
side of the province near the Ohio river. The longitudinal 
uplift of the Great Smoky mountain region terminated at this 
transverse line, and their combined forces caused a pronounced 
dome-shaped elevation in the Cretaceous peneplain. 

An uplift occurred at the beginning of this epoch along the 
axis O P, reaching a maximum near Chattanooga, from which it 

94 Hayes and Campbhell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

descended rapidly toward the south and gradually toward the 
north. The continuation of the axis O P beyond the Ohio river 
is quite uncertain, but it probably extended far into Ohio and 
there may have been within that state a development of the 
fold similar to the one near Chattanooga. 

Besides these axes of elevation there are several along which 
depression occurred during this interval. These depressions 
were not pronounced, but sufficient to vary the altitude of the 
Cretaceous peneplain from 109 to 400 feet. One of these is 
located between and parallel with the axes H Fand G H (plate 
5); another is the axis A B, along which some movement occurred 
at this time; and the third probably connected these, lying east 
of and parallel with the axis O P. There is no evidence in the 
physiography of the region to show when these were active, but 
a careful study of the costal-plain sediments will probably de- 
termine the question. 

Movements in the present Cycle—One of the most pronounced 
movements connected with the close of the Tertiary baseleveling 
was subsidence along the axis A B (plate 6). This, as described 
later, occurred during the deposition of the Lafayette formation. 
After this depression there came a period of apparent quiescence, 
during which no movement is recorded along this line.. In the 
time of the Columbia depression this axis was affected in a 
manner similar to the Lafayette depression. 

Uplift along the axis K LZ (plate 6) occurred soon after the 
general elevation of the land following the Lafayette depression. 
The uplift increased from the Tennessee river in Alabama, reach- 
ing a maximum of 2,600 feet at the Virginia-West Virginia line 
south of New river. From this point it gradually decreased 
northward, passing into Pennsylvania with a probable altitude of 
1,500 feet. As before stated, the northern portion of this uplift 
has been practically continuous, but the southern portion has 
probably been intermittent in its activity. — ; 

Early in the present cycle an uplift occurred along the north- 
ern end of the axis MN, and this seems to have been con- 
nected with movement along the eastern portion of the Hatteras 
“axis. According to McGee, the Hatteras axis, from Roanoke to 
the coast, has been the seat of activity since Eocene time. Its 
influence is shown on plate 6, in the eastward trend of the axis 
M N at its northern extremity and the outward swelling of the 
contour lines. About the middle of the present cycle the uplift 

Drainage of the Province. 95 

extended southwestward along the axis M N,so that in very 
recent geologic time the Tertiary peneplain from Asheville to 
Atlanta and southwestward has been elevated to its present 

Movements have occurred along some minor axes chiefly of 
subsidence, but their exact date cannot be fixed. ‘ 

The latest movements which can be detected in the province 
are along the axes K Land OP. That along K L has resulted 
in a slight ponding of the Tennessee river in the vicinity of 
Huntsville, Alabama, while the uplift along O P has affected 
the Cumberland river above point Burnside, Kentucky, in a 
similar manner. 


Geologically, and topographically as well, the southern Appa- 
lachian province falls into four well-marked divisions. These 
are (1) an eastern piedmont plain, sloping gently seaward and 
composed of metamorphic and crystalline rocks; (2) a montanic 
tract, embracing the Blue ridge and the Great Smoky range with 
its many outliers and containing chiefly crystalline rocks with 
sediments which have undergone various degrees of metamor- 
phism ; (3) a central broad valley with numerous parallel ridges 
of Paleozoic sediments ; (4) a western dissected plateau of upper 
Silurian and Carboniferous rocks. 


In the northern portion of the province the water parting be- 
tween the Atlantic and Gulf drainage is westward of the Appa- 
lachian valley. The Potomac heads upon the edge of the plateau 
and flows eastward across the Appalachian valley, the montanic 
tract and the piedmont plain. From the western point of Mary- 
land the divide passes nearly due southward, crossing the Appa- 
lachian valley diagonally, so that the James and Roanoke drain 
only the eastern part of the valley, but, like the Potomac, flow east- 
ward across the montanic tract and the piedmont plain. South 
of these streams the divide follows near the eastern margin of 
the montanic tract to its southern extremity, only the eastern 
slope being drained by streams crossing the piedmont plain to- 

14—Nart. Grog. Maa., vou. VI, 1894. 

96 Hayes and Camphell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

ward the southeast. The westward-flowing streams in the north- 
ern portion of the province drain only the plateau region. Far- 
ther southward New river heads well toward the eastern side of the 
montanic tract and flows northwestward across the Appalachian 
valley and the plateau to the Ohio. Between New river and the 
Tennessee-Georgia line most of the montanic tract and the Ap- 
palachian valley are in the drainage basin of the Tennessee, 
whose many branches flow northwestward across the former 
region and southwestward within the latter to Chattanooga, 
where the river turns abruptly and enters the plateau region. 
It crosses first the Walden plateau through a deep canyon, and 
after flowing seventy miles in Browns valley, parallel to its former 
course, again enters the plateau and flows northwestward to the 
nee: n corner of Mississippi, the margin of the former 
Mississippi embayment. Here it makes another abrupt change 
in its course, flowing directly northward to the Ohio. South of the 
Tennessee-Georgia line the Appalachian valley, with the adjacent 
portions of the montanic tract, are drained by the Coosa-Alabama 
river, which flows directly to the Gulf. The greater part of the 
plateau region lying between the New-Kanawha and Tennessee 
rivers is drained toward the northwest by streams flowing into 
the Ohio. The most important of these are the Kentucky and 


Applying to the streams of the southern Appalachian proy- 
ince the accepted principles of classification, representatives of 
all the main divisions are found. - 

A few show indications of following, in part at least, antecedent 
courses in which they have persisted through all the vicissitudes 
the region has suffered. The most striking example of this class 
is perhaps the New- Kanawha, which seems to hold the course 
occupied antecedent to the development of the present structure 
of the region. To the same class belong probably the eastern 
tributaries of the Tennessee and Alabama systems which cross 
the montanic tract from its eastern border northwestward to the 
Appalachian valley; also the streams of the plateau flowing 
into the Ohio river may be placed in this, although there are 
some grounds for placing them in the next class. 

A few of the streams are directly consequent upon the structure 
of the region, flowing in synelines where their position has been 

An Anomalous Course. 97 

determined by the flexures of the strata. To this class belong 
portions of the Tennessee and Coosa tributaries, generally rather 
small streams which in the process of drainage adjustment have 
been robbed of the greater part of their original basins by others 
more favorably situated. 

Many of the stream courses are directly dependent upon the 
structure, but occupy positions which they have acquired by a 
process of adjustment subsequent to the deformation of the 
surface. This class of maturely adjusted subsequent streams 
includes most of those within the area of folded rocks of the 
Appalachian valley.. Their courses are on or near the axes of 
anticlines, positions manifestly impossible in early stages of the 
folding or before a long process of adjustment had taken place. 

A few streams show superimposition, probably not from a 
superjacent horizontal terrane, but by wandering during the 
later stages of a very complete baseleveling period. Examples 
of this are seen in the course of the Clinch river where it crosses 
Lone mountain, and of the Ocoee where it crosses the point of 
Beans mountain. 

Finally some streams appear to have become adjusted to cer- 
tain past conditions of slope and baselevel, so that their courses 
are not such as they would seek under the influence of condi- 
tions now existing. A most striking example of such an anom- 
alous course is that of the Tennessee river. Portions of it may 
be regarded as inherited from conditions to which they were 
adjusted in the past, but which have wholly or_in part disap- 

By a study of the drainage, especially streams of the latter 
class, a tolerably definite idea of these conditions may be reached. 
The present river courses indicate the changes in altitude and 
attitude which have taken place within recent geologic epochs. 
The history of the same period, interpreted from the topographic 
features of the province, has been presented in Part I. Evi- 
dence was found of an almost continuous succession of orogenic 
oscillations, separated by well marked epochs of tranquillity. 
These periods, both of tranquillity and orogenic activity, have 
left an unmistakable impression upon the topography, and it 
seems reasonable to suppose that they should have produced an 
equally marked effect upon the drainage. There is a third 
method of interpreting this history, which until recent years has 
been considered the only one available; this consists of a study 

98 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

of the sediments derived from the waste of the land during the 
interval and deposited as a fringe around its margin. 

That the conclusions reached by these three methods of in- 
vestigation should agree is manifest, and our confidence in them 
may be in proportion to their concordance. It remains to be 
seen whether the conclusions already reached can be verified by 
the study of the drainage and by the sediments deposited in the 
surrounding seas. 


The evolution of the drainage of this region began with the 
earliest emergence of Paleozoic sediments from the sea and the 
consequent increase of the eastern continental area toward the 
west. This process of emergence is believed to have begun in 
Cambrian time and to have continued at intervals to the close of 
the Carboniferous. ‘The character of the drainage is much better 
known since the final emergence of the entire province than 
during Paleozoic time. Its modifications can be traced much 
more definitely because the surrounding conditions are better 
understood, and hence the history of the drainage development 
which can be read with any degree of certainty may be consid- 
ered as beginning with the close of Paleozoic time. This de- 
velopment has not been a continuous process, but has been at 
times rapid, and then again for long periods almost stationary. 
This recurrence of similar conditions in the life history of a 
river may be termed cycles of drainage development. First 
comes a general elevation of its drainage basin, by which the 
stream is rejuvenated. The elevation ceasing, the stream in the 
course of long ages accomplishes its life-work and sinks into the 
sluggish-inactivity of old age. This is followed by an uphft and 
the cycle of events is repeated. 

Two such cycles are represented on the accompanying diagram, 
figure 1. The heavy line represents the position of the surface 
with reference to present sealevel, and hence its changes in alti- 
tude, by the slow process of degradation and the more rapid 
process of orogenic movement. The horizontal spaces are roughly 
proportional to the duration of the periods which constitute a 
cycle. The first of these cycles was extremely long, reaching 
from the final emergence of the western half of the province to 
near the close of the Cretaceous period. It includes the most 
extensive period of baseleveling known to have affected this 



Oscillations of the Land Sui 

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: te U ) 

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"g o]0AD "Z a]ohQ "TL apaAO 

= - 

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|ovsseeseeess eee citrh Bees Aone > 
Seeeaeeuis oe AE eek nt een eee T 
et PO Actn aes 
Ya a eS -=- 
2 *SUT[AAO| 
AlvI}A9 J, snosovjery SsnoddvqaIV-alg 

recent gorge cutting. 
and gorge cutting. 

Lafayette depression and 

Columbia depression and 

Post-Lafayette elevat 

100 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

region. The second cycle was much shorter, but the time was 
sufficient for the warping of the Cretaceous peneplain and the 
reduction of considerable portions of its surface to a second 
baselevel. The region has barely entered upon its third cycle, 
which has thus far been a period of elevation and active erosion, 
and a peneplain is again in process of formation. 


Present knowledée of the physiography of the Appalachian 
province prior to the beginning of this cycle is extremely vague ; 
but the conditions which then prevailed are so intimately con- 
nected with the subsequent drainage, having determined the 
location of the ancestors of the present streams, that they should 
briefly be considered. As far back as the history of the proy- 
ince can be traced, from near the beginning of Paleozoic time, a 
continental land area existed to the eastward of the present 
Appalachian valley. How far this land extended eastward is 
not known with any certainty, but it probably reached some- 
what beyond the present Atlantic coast line. The process is 
not well understood by which the land included in the present 
Appalachian valley was added to this old continent. It has 
been generally supposed that the folding of the region and its 
elevation above sealevel occurred wholly in post-Carboniferous 
time. Recent investigations, however, afford ground for the 
theory that folding occurred at various epochs in the Paleozoic, 
and that during many of these periods of folding the land area 
was materially increased and the coast line of the interior sea 
was pushed further and further westward. 

Streams flowing westward from the portion of the continent 
now included in the southern Appalachian province bore down 
the materials eroded from the land and spread them out over 
the bottom of the Paleozoic sea. These rivers were certainly 
the early representatives of the present streams and a few may 
have persisted in their original courses to the present. The 
effect upon these streams of the additions to the land area was 
probably less marked in the northern than in the southern por- 
tion of the province. Thus in northern Virginia the drainage 
was westward, though by what stream or streams is not known, 
from the time of the first emergence of Paleozoic sediments until 
the entire province was raised above sealevel; in central Vir- 
ginia the New-Kanawha occupied much the same position as at 


Earliest Drainage of the Province. 10] 

present ; while farther southward some axial drainage may have 
been developed before the beginning of cycle 1, as defined above. 
This axial drainage was at first consequent upon the folded sur- 
face and afterward became subsequent by the process of stream 
adjustment, but how far the process had gone previous to the 
beginning of cycle 1 is not known. 


In the post-Paleozoic history of stream development the first 
cycle was long and complex—probably very much longer than 
all the time which has elapsed since its conclusion. It began 
with the final emergence of the western part of the Appalachian 
region above sealevel, near the close of the Carboniferous, and 
ended with the production of the Cretaceous baselevel peneplain 
which has already been described in Part I. It covered a period 
of elevation, deformation and erosion, but the products of this 
erosion were carried far beyond the margin of the sea as located 
in succeeding epochs and deeply buried beneath the later sedi- 
ments; hence we are deprived of the evidence which might be 
afforded by the character of the material, as to the relative eleva- 
tion and slope of the land. It is not known how many partial 
peneplains may have been formed during this time, but it is in- 
ferred that it was in general a period of rapid degradation and 
correspondingly rapid sedimentation. 

As stated above, little is known of the process by which the 
Appalachian valley and the western portion of the province 
was added to the Paleozoic continent—whether the folding and 
emergence took place at the same or at different periods. If the 
corrugation was extremely slow the larger streams may have 
been and probably were able to cut their channels through the 
rising folds and for a long time hold their original or antecedent 
courses toward the northwest. On the other hand, if the folds 
rose rapidly the streams must have been ponded and most of 
them diverted to entirely new courses in the synclines; but by 
the process of river adjustment the final result would be the same 
in either case. The difference would be that if the folding were 
very slow the drainage would be first antecedent and then subse- 
quent, while if it were rapid it would be first consequent and then 
subsequent. Since there is no evidence in this region, so far as 
known, that lakes formed by corrugation ever existed, only the 
first hypothesis—that of slow and long-continued folding—need 

102 Hayesand Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

be considered. Local diversion of small streams may very likely 
have taken place by folding, but the drainage at the close of the 
Cretaceous cycle was essentially the result of spontaneous ad- 
justment of the streams to the structure surface revealed by 
erosion. The chief difficulty in deciphering the record of this 
drainage development is to determine how much of the adjust- 
ment took place within this cycle and how much before its 

Drainage of northern Virginia—In the northern portion of the 
province the main streams held their westward courses across 
the rising folds and found an outlet in the shrinking mediter- 
ranean sea. At some time during the early part of the cycle a 
depression occurred in the present piedmont plain, in which the 
Newark sediments were subsequently deposited. This depres- 
sion was different from the purely Appalachian type of synclinal 
fold, more nearly resembling those uplifts described in Part I— 
slight orogenic movements by which the surface was somewhat 
broadly arched or depressed, but unaccompanied by any per- 
ceptible folding of the rocks. This eastward tilting produced a 
decided effect upon the drainage of the northern portion of the 
province. ‘The headwaters of the former streams were soon re- 
versed by the pronounced eastward slope and the divides were 
forced back some distance from the margin of the Newark ‘sea. 

Thus the Potomac, the James and the Roanoke had their birth 
in the subsidence which preceded the deposition of the Newark 
formation, and presumably in the very earliest stages of this 
cycle. ‘The influence of this eastward tilting evidently dimin- 
ished toward the south, for the Potomac drains more of the Ap- 
palachian valley than the James,and the James more than the 
Roanoke, while the New-Kanawha holds its original westward 
course, unaffected by any tilting which may have occurred about 
its headwaters. 

Drainage of the southern Appalachian Valley—South of the New- 
Kanawha basin the main streams also doubtless persisted across 
the rising folds for a short time after the beginning of the cycle, 
although in this region the chances of diversion to synclinal 
troughs were much greater than farther northward, even with ex- 
tremely slow folding. As soon as the folds had risen sufficiently 
high so that erosion upon their flanks and summits became active 
and beds of varying hardness were exposed, southward flowing 
axial streams, aided by the general southward pitch of the axes, 

Karly Drainage Adjustments. 103 

began a career of conquest and the original streams were succes- 
sively diverted to southern courses. There are indications in 
the extreme southern portion of the province that the drainage 
was more immediately turned to and longer held in consequent 
courses by the folding than elsewhere. This may have been due 
to the occurrence of -broad synclinal troughs whose axes have a 
decided southward pitch. There are at present a few synclinal 
streams in this region and during the Cretaceous cycle the num- 
ber and size of such must have been considerably greater; but 
even here the drainage had probably become so far adjusted 
that the main streams had subsequent courses upon the anti- 
clinal axes. In the central portion of the province the Cum- 
berland river probably drained a portion of the Appalachian 
valley in southwestern Virginia, holding its antecedent course 
through Cumberland gap and flowing into the extreme end of 
the Mississippi embayment. 

The conquest of axial over transverse streams progressed at 
a diminishing rate toward the northeast as far as the New- 

_Kanawha, which had sunk its antecedent channel sufficiently 
deep for its own protection. 

Thus at the close of the cycle nearly the whole of the Appa- 
lachian valley southward’ from the New-Kanawha constituted 
a single drainage system whose main trunk was a large river 
flowing southwestward into the Cretaceous sea and occupying 
very nearly the present position of the Coosa river. The present 
writers propose the name Appalachian river for this Mesozoic 
stream, since it was almost entirely limited to the Appalachian 
valley and drained more than half the area of the valley within 
this province. 

Drainage of central Kentucky and Tennessee—In most of the 
region west of the Appalachian river basin the strata are so 
nearly horizontal that stream adjustment produced but little 
modification in the original drainage. The rivers of central 
Kentucky and Tennessee haye shifted their channels under the 
influence of more recent surface warping, but at the close of the Cre- 
taceous cycle they probably flowed directly down a gently sloping 
surface toward the Mississippi embayment. Many of them were 
the beheaded lower courses of those streams which originally 
flowed from the highlands on the east, but had been robbed of 
their upper drainage basins by the subsequent Appalachian 

15—Nart. Geog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

104. Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

Drainage of the Sequatchie Anticline—The Walden plateau syn- 
cline must originally have been occupied by a consequent south- 
ward flowing stream, since the axis pitches in that direction and 
the fold reached the margin of the Cretaceous sea. The lower por- 
tion of this stream still holds its original position and is now the 
Black Warrior river. . 

West of Walden plateau the Sequatchie anticlinal fold brought 
soft limestones above the Cretaceous baselevel and so afforded 
ample opportunity for stream adjustment to act. That the 
Walden synclinal stream did not migrate westward to the anti- 
clinal axis was probably due to the southward pitch of the 
latter in northern Alabama by which the hard Carboniferous 
conglomerate was brought down to baselevel around the point 
of the anticline; but a stream flowing northwestward in nearly 
the position of the present Tennessee appears to have been 
able to capture the drainage of the Sequatchie anticline at 
some time during the Cretaceous cycle. It is quite possible 
that the southern portion of the anticline now forming Browns 
valley was for a time in the Black Warrior drainage; but 
that the westward diversion. occurred rather early in the cycle 
is apparent from the imperfect development of the Cretaceous 
peneplain about its southwestern end, tvhere a subsequent stream 
flowing into the Black Warrior must have escaped from the 
anticline, while, on the other hand, the country was very per- 
fectly reduced to baselevel in the vicinity of the present westward 
outlet. It was shown in Part I that the axis A B, plate 5, has 
been the locus of oscillations from very remote geologic time 
down nearly to the present, and it appears probable that the 
location of the diverting stream was determined by this axis. 
The altitude of the Cretaceous peneplain relative to the geologic 
structure shows that this was a zone of relative elevation during 
a portion at least of the cycle, and consequently was a line of 
weakness which erosion would most readily follow, since the soft 
limestone was there brought nearest the surface. 

At the close of the first cycle, then, the whole province, except 
the few residual areas shown on plate 5, was reduced to an 
almost featureless plain, over which the streams, as sketched 
above, flowed with sluggish currents in meandering courses. 
Their transporting power was greatly diminished,.so that the 
land was being degraded almost wholly by solution and the 
surface was covered by a heavy mantle of residual material, 

Drainage Conditions. 105 

resulting from a long period of subaeial rock decay. The divides 
were low, slopes gentle, and’ the drainage systems delicately 

adjusted among themselves. 


The first cycle was brought to a close and the second cycle 
inaugurated by an uplift of the province. As explained in Part 
I, the maximum uplift was along certain axial lines which pro- 
duced a warping of the previously formed peneplain. The first 
effect of elevation was to revive the streams, so that they began 
active erosion of their channels. If the uplift had been uniform 
over the province the streams would simply have persisted in 
their old courses, but the warping gave some streams a decided 
advantage over others and the process of adjustment to new 
conditions produced some decided changes in the drainage. 
Owing to the delicate interadjustment which the streams had 
reached during the preceding long period of baseleveling, they 
were peculiarly susceptible to change, and the first slight warp- 

_ing, after the baseleveling, was productive of greater changes than 

that which occurred later. 

Effects of Uplift on the Axis O P.—The first decided movement at 
the beginning of this second cycle appears to have taken place 
along the axis O P, shown on plate 5. The effect which it pro- 
duced upon the drainage had so direct a bearing on the subse- 
quent diversion of the Appalachian river to the present course 
of the Tennessee that a somewhat detailed account of its effects 
will be given. 

It must be borne in mind that at the beginning of this cycle 
the most of the Appalachian valley was occupied by southward 
flowing streams, which discharged their waters directly into the 
Cretaceous sea; that the Sand mountain syncline south of the 
Tennessee gorge was occupied by a consequent stream also flow- 
ing southwestward to the Cretaceous sea, and that the Sequatchie 
anticline was held by a subsequent stream flowing, in its lower 
course, northwestward to the Mississippi embayment. The 
Cumberland river was at the same time a vigorous stream, prob- 
ably flowing nearly due westward along the present Kentucky- 
Tennessee line to the upper end of the Mississippi embayment. 
The plateau region was almost completely reduced to baselevel 
and the streams nicely balanced against each other. Under such 
conditions the slight uplift occurring along the line O P checked 

105 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

some streams and started others upon careers of conquest. Only 
the larger streams continued across the axis, and the courses of 
these were shifted by the uplift. Thus the axis became a well 
marked divide between eastward and westward flowing streams. 
It crossed the present Tennessee gorge about midway from 
Chattanooga to the Sequatchie valley and determined the posi- 
tion of the divide against which streams of the Appalachian and 
Sequatchie systems worked during the whole of the second eycle. 
Northward from the Tennessee gorge it diagonally crossed Wal- 
den plateau, the Sequatchie anticline and the Cumberland 
plateau to the western escarpment of the latter, diverting to the 
eastward Appalachian system the heads of many streams which 
had previously flowed westward. The uplift on this axis was 
greatest in the vicinity of Chattanooga, from which it decreased 
in either direction. Toward the north the pitch of the axis was 
quite rapid, producing a marked effect upon the course of the 
Cumberland river. 

That stream, as stated above, probably flowed due westward 
near the present Kentucky-Tennessee line. It was too large to 
be diverted eastward to the Appalachian system, but it was so 
checked by the rising fold that a tributary crossing the axis 50 
miles further northward, where the uplift was less, had sufficient 
advantage over the main stream to carry off its headwaters to 
the more favorable position. 

As indicated above and shown upon plate 4, the streams of 
Sand mountain south of the Tennessee gorge flow westward 
from the extreme eastern edge of the plateau and have cut deep 
notches in its western side, in some cases even beyond the center 
of the basin. In Walden ridge, a continuation of the same 
plateau north of the Tennessee gorge, all the streams flow east- 
ward, heading in some cases only a few hundred yards from the 
western escarpment. These have cut deep notches in the eastern 
side of the plateau. This peculiar drainage is due chiefly to 
the axis of uplift O P, described above, but also in part to local 
conditions which continued from the preceding cycle. In the 
first place, the anticlinal valley west of the plateau was formed 
by a southward flowing stream, so that its southern portion was 
first excavated and erosion progressed toward the north ; hence 
the streams flowing from the plateau into the southern part of 
the valley had lower outlets, and so cut more rapidly than those 
toward the north. East of this southern part of the plateau is 

Drainage Adjustments about Chattanooga. 107 

an anticlinal and synclinal fold—Lookout valley and moun- 
tain—of which the latter was probably not reduced entirely to 
the Cretaceous baselevel, and hence afforded a protecting bul- 
wark against erosion upon the eastern side of Sand mountain. 
North of the present Tennessee gorge the conditions were exactly 
reversed. The western side of the plateau was protected from 
erosion by the Sequatchie anticline, the eastern limb of which, 
composed of heavy conglomerate, had probably remained some- 
what above the Cretaceous baselevel, turning the drainage east- 
ward to the Appalachian rivers, whose valleys were rapidly 
lowered upon soft rocks early in the Tertiary cycle. These 
streams cut deep notches in the eastern side of the plateau as far 
south as Chattanooga, beyond which the eastern side was pro- 
tected by the Lookout mountain syncline of hard sandstone, as 
already explained. As a result of these peculiar conditions the 
plateau was attacked by streams on both its eastern and western 
sides only within a strip a few miles broad, where the Tennessee 
river now crosses. Here deep notches were cut on opposite sides 
of the plateau and the capping sandstone removed on several 
lines entirely across. So long as the uplift on the axis O P con- 
tinued the divide was held stationary and neither set of streams 
encroached upon the territory of the other, but the cols were 
reduced nearly to the valley level on either side, and the way 
thus prepared for the diversion of the Appalachian river, later 
in the cycle. The uplift along this axis probably continued 
with diminishing force through the first half of the Tertiary 
cycle or possibly longer. During the same period variable 
amounts of uplift occurred in other portions of the province, 
which was thus brought to an altitude from 109 to 1,000 feet 
higher than that held at the close of the Cretaceous cycle. — Prob- 
ably other stream adjustments similar to those described in the 
Chattanooga district were brought about by this unequal uplift ; 
but in general the streams simply sank their channels below the 
surface of the peneplain, following the same courses as in the 
preceding cycle. Wherever these courses were located upon 
soft rocks the rivers were quickly lowered to the newly estab- 
lished baselevel and began to widen their channels, forming a 
second peneplain. 

Condition of Drainage prior to the Lafayette Depression—Thus 
toward the close of the Tertiary cycle the streams flowing west- 

108 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

ward had cut broad baselevel valleys, described in Part I, in 
the soft horizontal limestone of the plateau region and in some 
of the folded rocks immediately eastward. The greater part of 
the Sequatchie anticline had thus been reduced to a peneplain 
continuous with the more extensive one through the plateau to 
the westward. Cumberland river had cut deeply into the old 
Cretaceous peneplain and again baseleveled its valley in the soft 
limestones of the plateau region. It also probably baseleveled a 
small area of folded rocks in the Appalachian valley—the pres- 
ent basin of Powell river which then flowed westward through 
Cumberland gap. The New-Kanawha had cut an extensive 
peneplain in the Carboniferous limestone on the eastern side of 
the West Virginia coal field, and also in the folded Cambro- 
Silurian limestone of the valley region. The latter limestone is 
less soluble and homogeneous than the former, so that its out- 
crops were less perfectly reduced, forming a rolling surface in- 
stead of a level plain. 

In the southeastern portion of the province the uplift of the 
Cretaceous peneplain was so slight that the streams were scarcely 
at all accelerated, and in the vicinity of Atlanta deepened their 
channels not more than 100 feet throughout the whole Tertiary 

From the New-Kanawha southwestward to the margin of the 
Tertiary sea the Appalachian river and its tributaries had cut 
deeply into the Cretaceous peneplain and reduced all areas of 
soft rocks, more or less completely, to the new baselevel. The 

-physiography of this Tertiary peneplain has already been de- 
scribed in some detail. The plain was very perfectly developed 
over areas of pure limestone, while silicious limestones, shales 
and sandstones formed a rolling surface or ridges of varying 
heights, in proportion to their induration or capacity for resist- 
ing erosion. 

It seems probable that the great Appalachian river was formed 
by two main branches which flowed in nearly parallel courses 
to their junction west of Rome, Georgia. The western branch 
followed the present course of the Clinch and Tennessee to 
Chattanooga, and thence of the Chickamauga and Chattooga 
to the junction of the latter with the Coosa; the eastern branch 
followed the course of the Holston and continued southward 
from Knoxville along the base of the Great Smoky mountains 


Extent of the Peneplain. 109 

to the Coosa at Rome, and thence to its junction with the western 


It is stated above that the drainage of the Appalachian valley 
was southwestward, from the New-Kanawha basin to the sea 
margin, until the close of the Tertiary baseleveling period. 
Since the date of diversion of this drainage is an extremely im- 
portant point in the history of the region and since the above 
statement is hable to be questioned, the grounds on which it is 
based will be given in some detail. The evidence is derived 
from (1) the perfectly baseleveled divide between the Tennessee 
and Coosa river basins; (2) a comparison of the volume of ma- 
terial eroded from the Appalachian valley with that of the 
Tertiary sediments in central Alabama; and (3) the immaturity 
of the Tennessee gorge through the plateau below Chattanooga. 

Evidence from the Coosa-Tennessee Divide—As already stated, a 
peneplain, extending from the Cumberland plateau on the north- 
west to the Great Smoky mountains on the southeast, stretches 
from the head of the Holston and Clinch rivers to the edge of 
the Tertiary sediments in central Alabama. This peneplain is 
well shown in the photograph of the relief map of this region 
reproduced as plate 4. It is as perfectly developed across the 
Coosa-Tennessee divide as elsewhere, and shows no perceptible 
variation in the two basins except the gradual southward de- 
scent shown in plate 6 and due to subsequent differential eleva- 
tion. It extends across the Appalachian valley from Pigeon 
mountain to the base of the Cohutta mountains, a distance of 
40 miles, interrupted only by the valley ridges of hard sand- 
stone or by low knobs of silicious Knox dolomite. Since the 
peneplain is developed only on soft rocks, it is possible that the 
divides might have been cut down to their present altitudes 
by backward erosion of headwaters while the streams occupied 
their present courses; but while the altitude of the divides is 
not conclusive evidence that the main streams have flowed 
across them, the breadth of the valley upon the divide materially 
strengthens the evidence. By the backward cutting of streams 
at their headwaters a characteristic dendritic, inosculating drain- 
age is developed, and it seems improbable that the divides should 
have been maintained in their present position throughout the 
Tertiary cycle without producing this characteristic surface, 
which is conspicuously absent. 

110 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

It should be remarked that while the writers formerly regarded 
the character of the divides between these drainage basins as 
conclusive evidence that large streams flowed across them until 
the close of the Tertiary period of baseleveling, they have recently _ 
found reasons for modifying this conclusion. A study of the 
divides between drainage basins throughout the Appalachian 
valley from Pennsylvania southward shows that most of them 
are quite perfectly reduced to the altitude of the Tertiary pene- 
plain in adjacent basins, although not generally so broadly cut 
as the one in question. There is no reason, so far as known, for 
supposing that the divides between the Potomac and James or 
the James and Roanoke basins have shifted during the Tertiary 
cycle, yet they are nearly as inconspicuous as those between the 
Tennessee and Coosa. On the other hand, the divide between 
the New and Holston basins has the form of a narrow col, 
such as would be expected to characterize all long-maintained 
divides. | 

Kvidence from the Volume of Material eroded and deposited—The 
second line of evidence bearing on the date at which the Appa- 
lachian drainage was diverted to its present westward course is 
derived from a comparison of the volumes of Tertiary erosion 
and Tertiary sediments. It is comparatively easy to compute 
the volume of the material which was removed by the rivers 
during the Tertiary cycle, when the vertical distance between 
the previously existing peneplain and the one developed during 
the Tertiary cycle is known, together with their lateral extent ; 
also a tolerably safe estimate may be made of the volume of 
sediments deposited by each of the rivers during the Tertiary 
cycle. If the drainage during the whole of the cycle was essen- 
tially as it is at present, then the volume of sediments which 
would naturally be deposited by the present streams and the 
volume of the material eroded by those streams should show a 
practical agreement. The formations laid down during the Ter- 
tiary cycle are regarded as including (1) the Ripley—sands and 
sandy clays overlying the Rotten limestone and marking the 
uplift which terminated the preceding cycle; (2) Lignitie; (8) 
Buhrstone ; (4) Claiborne; (5) White limestone *—a series de- 
creasing in coarseness and increasing in amount of calcareous 

*The Tertiary and Cretaceous Strata of the Tuscaloosa, Tombigbee and 
Alabama Rivers, by Eugene A. Smith and Lawrence C. Johnson: U. S. 
Geological Survey, Washington, Bull. 43, 1887, 189 pp., 21 pls. 

ee ee ee ee Se Se eee 


Comparison of Evosion and Deposition. 111 

matter contained. The sediments brought down by a Tertiary 
stream, corresponding in location to the present Alabama river, 
were spread over the adjacent sea bottom, mingling on the east 
with the sediments brought down by the Chattahoochee and on 
the west with those brought down by the Tombigbee. It is 
probable that more sediment was brought down by the Alabama 
than by the streams on either side, since it occupies the axis of 
uplift where the greatest erosion took place. Hence if a line be 
drawn midway between the Alabama and Chattahooche on the 
east and between the Alabama and Tombigbee on the west the 
area included would certainly not be wider than the deposition 
area of the axial river. The area included by these lines and 
by the limits of the Ripley and White limestone formations is 
about 6,500 square miles. The thickness of the sediments in 
this area, down to the bottom of the Ripley, varies from 0 at 
the northern edge to 1,900 feet at the southern edge, and their 
volume is about 1,170 cubic miles; but these formations extend 
under the covering of later, deposits, thinning out seaward, and 
while it is impossible to determine their extent or thickness in 
that direction, it seems a conservative estimate to regard the 
volume of the sediments in the seaward extension of the forma- 
tions as equal to that of the actual outcrops. This estimate 
would make the volume of the sediments which may be at- 
tributed to the stream whose lower course occupied the present 
position of -Alabama river during the Tertiary cycle about 
2,340 cubie miles. 

Turning now to the volume of material eroded from the Cre- 
taceous peneplain during the Tertiary cycle by the Alabama 
and its tributaries, the basis for an estimate is somewhat better 
than in the case of the sediments. The greater part of the ero- 
sion has been in the valley of the Coosa and comparatively 
little in that of the Tallapoosa—first, because the vertical dis- 
tance between the baseleyels is greater in the former than the 
latter river basin, and, second; because the rocks are softer and 
hence have been more perfectly reduced. Throughout most of 
the Coosa basin the two peneplains are sufficiently well pre- 
served so that a definite estimate can be made of the material 
removed during the Tertiary cycle. The amount of .elevation 
and distortion which the Cretaceous peneplain suffered at the 
close of the Cretaceous cycle may be determined from a compar- 
ison of plates 5 and 6. It varies from 900 or 1,000 feet at the 

16—Nar. Grog. Maa., vor. VI, 1894. 

112 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

Tennessee-Georgia line to 0 where the two plains coincide in 
southern Alabama. <A careful estimate shows that the volume 
of material removed by the Alabama and all its tributaries dur- 
ing the Tertiary cycle is about 622 cubic miles. The great dis- 
parity between this and the volume of sediments laid down 
during. this cycle by a river occupying the position of the Ala- 
bama leads us to seek farther for the source of the great mass of 
material. Manifestly this source is in the Appalachian valley 
north of the Coosa basin and at present drained by the Tennessee 
toward the northwest. The volume of material remoyed from 
the Tennessee basin above Chattanooga during the Tertiary cycle 
combined with that removed from the Alabama basin is about 
2,500 cubic miles. Comparing this with the 2,340 cubic miles 
of sediments deposited during the Tertiary cycle by the Alabama 
river, the agreement is so close that the conclusion seems to be 
inevitable that the drainage of the Appalachian valley was south- 
ward until near the end of the Tertiary cycle. 

Evidence from the Character of the Gorge below Chattanooga.—A 
third line of evidence bearing on the date at which the Appa- 
lachian drainage was diverted to its present westward course is 
derived from an examination of the Tennessee gorge below Chat- 
tanooga and a comparison of this gorge with other portions of 
the Tennessee valley formed under analogous conditions. 

The winding course of the Tennessee river through Walden 
plateau has been considered as evidence that this portion of its 
course was determined during a. period of baseleveling when the 
present summit of the plateau stood near sealevel; that with 
subsequent uplift the river continued to flow in its sinuous 
course, acquired under baselevel conditions, cutting its present 
gorge below the surface of the old peneplain. If this explana- 
tion of its winding course is correct, it follows either that the 
Tennessee is here flowing in an antecedent course or that it was 
diverted some time before the close of the Cretaceous cycle; but 
this conclusion is at variance with that reached by the two lines 
of evidence given above, as well as by a consideration of the gorge 
itself. The character of the gorge is shown on plate 4. Its sides 
are extremely steep from the cliffs at the plateau summit to the 
water’s edge. In most places there is scarcely room for a wagon 
road between the abrupt slope and the river, and only a few 
narrow strips of flood-plain occur throughout its entire length. 
On the hypothesis of diversion in the Cretaceous cycle, the river 

Walden Gorge and Tennessee Valley. 118 

has oceupied this narrow gorge throughout the entire period 
during which the enormous erosion of the Appalachian valley 
was accomplished. That a peneplain should have been devel- 
oped from 20 to 40 miles in breadth and from central Virginia 
to northern Georgia by the same river in the same time that the 
insignificant strips of flood-plain in the gorge were being cut is 
quite improbable. It is true, the conditions of erosion in the 
two cases were not the same. The Tertiary peneplain in the 
Appalachia valley is developed only on areas of soft rocks 
which are generally steeply inclined ; but, even allowing the 
greatest possible weight to the different conditions of erosion, 
the discrepancy in amount of erosion requires some further ex- 
planation, if the time were the same in both cases. 

While a direct comparison cannot be made between the Wal- 
den gorge and the upper Tennessee valley on account of differ- 
ence in conditions, such a comparison can be made between the 
gorge and a valley in northern Alabama, extending from Scotts- 
boro southwestward to the mouth of Flint river. <A portion of 
it is shown on plate 4. It is nowhere less than six miles broad, 
and its floor is very regular, forming a portion of the Tertiary 
peneplain. The age of this valley is easily determined; it is 
carved in the Cretaceous peneplain ; therefore it is more recent 
than the Cretaceous; it is continuous with the Tertiary pene- 
plain, and hence was completed at the close of the Tertiary base- 
leveling period; and at the close of that period it was deserted 
by the stream which carved it. The conditions under which 
this valley was cut are practically the same as those now pre- 
vailing in the gorge through Walden plateau. In both cases 
the rocks are nearly horizontal, heavy sandstones capping the 
plateau, with easily erodible Carboniferous limestones beneath. 
Such conditions are highly favorable for rapid corrasion of a 
river channel. The sandstone cap is undermined and its débris 
rolls down and forms a talus on the lower slopes. The rate at 
which the cliffs recede depends largely on the rate at which the 
sandstone talus is removed from the slopes and the limestone is 
exposed to erosion. No conditions could be more favorable for 
this rapid removal of the protecting débris than those now present 
in the Walden gorge, where the base of the slope is washed by a 
stream competent to remove all talus from the cliffs above, the 
coarsest as well as the finest. Certainly the conditions in the 
gorge are fully as favorable as they were in the valley west of 

114 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

Scottshoro when that was being cut, and the stream which flowed 
in that valley was probably smaller than the present Tennessee ; 
therefore, if under the same conditions a smaller stream than 
the present Tennessee could cut so broad a valley as it did in 
northern Alabama during the Tertiary cycle, the conclusion 
seems inevitable that the present gorge through Walden plateau 
has been occupied a very much shorter time, and hence the 
Appalachian drainage was not diverted to its present westward 
course till after a part or the whole of the Tertiary cycle. The 
explanation of the manner in which the writers believe the 
present winding course of the Tennessee tarough the plateau 
was acquired will be given in describing the process by which 
the diversion was accomplished. 

Conditions immediately preceding the Diversion—During the 
rapid elevation which inaugurated the Tertiary cycle and the 
much slower uplift which occurred near the close of the base- 
leveling period, the land area was enlarged by the addition of 
successive narrow belts of newly emerged sediments. In most 
cases the streams pushed their way across these belts by the 
shortest line to tidewater. The stream draining the Sequatchie 
anticline flowed westward through the plateau of northern Ala- 
bama by the broad valley already described; from the mouth 
of Flint river its course coincided with that of the present Ten- 
nessee to the Mississippi ine. From this point it flowed south- 
westward to the Mississippi embayment very nearly in the pres- 
ent position of Black river, crossing the Cretaceous sediments as 
they were exposed at the close of the Cretaceous cycle and the 
successive belts of Tertiary sediments as they slowly emerged 
during the latter part of the Tertiary cycle. 

The Tertiary cycle was marked near its close by a depression 
which effectually stopped the baseleveling process. This de- 
pression was not uniform, but lke the preceding elevation was 
accompanied. by warping of the surface. As indicated by the 
contemporaneous sedimentation, the depression was very slight 
at the present Gulf coast, 25 feet more or less at Mobile, increas- 
. ing northward to 650 feet or more on the Memphis-Charleston 
axis (A B, plate 6). Northward from this axis the depression 
decreased, passing into a pronounced uplift in the northern por- 
tion of the province. In other words, the southern portion of 
the province was tilted northward, decreasiny its seaward gra- 
dient, while a portion at least of the interior was tilted south- 

Deposition of Lafayette Gravels. 115 

ward, increasing its slope.. There was also some warping on the 
lateral axis, so that the depression on A B was less in the Appa- 
lachian valley than on either side. As the first result of this 
depression, the sea, which had retreated beyond the present Gulf 
coast during the Tertiary, advanced past the inner limits of Ter- 
tiary and Cretaceous sediments, while the Mississippi embayment 
became a broad, shallow gulf and a portion of the Sequatchie 
valley a narrow tidal estuary. During this depression the La- 
fayette formation was deposited. The previously baseleveled 
streams, by the warping of the land, were accelerated in the in- 
terior and brought down vast quantities of detrital material 
which had accumulated during a long period of subaerial rock 
decay. This was spread out mantle-wise over the submerged 
border of the province and along the lower courses of the streams 
where their currents were checked. These gravels are found on 
the remnants of the Tertiary peneplain about Chattanooga, 250 
feet above the present river; they are also found on the Tertiary 
peneplain in Sequatchie valley, 150 feet above the river, but so 
far as known they are entirely absent from the divide between 
the Tennessee and Coosa rivers. These gravels have the same 
character on both sides of Walden plateau, being composed of 
quartzite and vein quartz, of which the latter at least must have 
been brought from far to the eastward ; therefore it appears cer- 
tain that the Appalachian drainage was diverted from the present 
Tennessee-Coosa divide westward to its present course through 
the Walden gorge very early in the period of Lafayette depres- 
sion. Following this period of depression came one of uplift, 
when the streams of the province were stimulated to renewed 
activity and began cutting the present river channels. That the 
Appalachian drainage was diverted to its present course before 
this uplift is quite certain, for no channels are cut in the Tertiary 
peneplain across the Coosa-Tennessee divide. 

Manner in which the Diversion was accomplished.—Having fixed 
its date in geologic time with a fair degree of certainty, the pro- 
cess by which the diversion was effected may now be described 
in detail. The conditions which prevailed in the region between 
Chattanooga and Sequatchie valley during the Tertiary cycle 
have been already described. With the uplift at the beginning 
of that cycle the main southward flowing streams rapidly sank 
their channels on the soft limestone, while their tributaries began 
an active contest for the intervening territory. The axial uplift 

116 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

on the line O P determined the location of the divide between 
the contending streams and held it stationary for a long time, 
neutralizing the advantage which local conditions would have 
given one or the other system and preventing consequent en- 

Figure 2 represents a restoration of the drainage as it probably 
existed when the Tertiary cycle was well advanced. The present 
course of the Tennessee river is represented by broken lines and 
the present relief by dotted contours. A rather large tributary, 
M M, joined the Sequatchie where that river now joins the Ten- 


Z 2 x 5 ¢€ 

Figure 2.—Sketch Map of the Tennessee Gorge, showing the present Course of 
the Tennessee River through Walden Plateau and the probable Arrangement of the 
Drainageimmediately preceding the westward Diversion of the Appalachian River - 

nessee. It had numerous branches on the east heading against 
the divide along the axis O P. Flowing into the Clinch-Appa- 
lachian river on the east, the principal stream was LZ LZ, with the 
branches F, G, Hand K, also heading against the divide O P. 
At the points a and 0b streams were cutting backward toward 
the same part of the divide from opposite directions, and as the 
process continued the heavy sandstone capping the plateau was 
removed and deep cols formed on the limestone. Under such 
conditions the divides may have been cut very low at these points 

. ,. 

Process of Diversion. 117 

without appreciable shifting. That the col at a was reduced 
nearly to its present altitude by erosion during the Tertiary 
cycle appears from a comparison of the amount of cutting which 
has since taken place in the most favored localities along the 
rivers and in the least favored localities on the divides. In 
the former the post-Tertiary erosion has been from 150 to 
300 feet, and 100 feet seems a liberal estimate of the erosion in 
the same period upon the divides; but 100 feet added to the 
present altitude of the col at a would still leave the divide in 
soft shale or limestone. Since the divide at b is the one through 
which the contending streams finally forced a passage, it is not 
unreasonable to suppose that it offered some advantage which 
the divide at @ did not possess. This was doubtless its altitude, 
which was in all probability considerably less than that of the 
divide at a. At the same time the divides e and h, between the 
streams G, H and K, had been similarly reduced, although the 
streams belong to a single drainage basin. On the above hy- 
pothesis it appears that the conditions were quite favorable for 
diversion of drainage, since the heavy conglomerate had been 
removed not alone from the main divide at >, but also from a 
series of connecting channels occupied by the streams G, H 
and K. 

A careful study of the Tertiary peneplain in this region shows 
it to be higher on the eastern than on the western side of Walden 
plateau. In the vicinity of Chattanooga its altitude is nearly 
900 feet, while in Sequatchie valley it is somewhat less than 800 
feet; hence there appears to be a difference of at least 100 feet 
in the altitude of these two neighboring peneplains formed dur- 
ing the same period of baseleveling. A corresponding difference 
in the altitude of the Lafayette gravels was noted above. The 
probable explanation of this difference in altitude is found in 
the fact that the Sequatchie river had during the Tertiary cycle 
a more direct outlet to the sea than the Appalachian river, and 
also was flowing on softer and more homogeneous rocks ; hence 
its valley was more perfectly baseleveled, and indeed it seems 
probable that under the exceptionally favorable conditions there 
prevailing the Sequatchie river may have reduced its gradient 
southward from the Tennessee line almost to zero. If the Appa- 
lachian river on the opposite side of Walden plateau were 100 
feet higher than the Sequatchie it would have a descent of LOO 
feet in about 400 miles, or a fall of 3 inches per mile. Consider- 

1i8 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorpholoyy. 

ing the nature of the rocks over which it was flowing, this rate 
would seem quite consistent with the formation of an extensive 

This difference in altitude of ine drainage on opposite sides 
of Walden plateau gave the streams flowing westward a very 
decided advantage over those flowing eastward. So long as the 
uplift continued on the line O P this advantage was not suffi- 
cient to push the divide eastward beyond that line. Before the 
close of the Tertiary baseleveling, however, this uplift probably 
ceased and the westward streams then bezan a career of conquest 
which resulted in changing the course of the entire drainage of 
eastern Tennessee. 

The process by which this conquest was accomplished is prob- 
ably somewhat as follows: The advantage which the westward 
drainage possessed by reason of its more rapid descent enabled 
the stream N to push the divide from 0 to c, capturing a portion 
of the drainage area of the eastward flowing stream G. The 
contest was thus transferred to the divides cande. The large 
volume of water coming from the plateau northward apparently 
determined the location of most rapid cutting at e, for while the 
divide ¢ was pushed back only a short distance to its present 
position at d, the stream ef was reversed and the headwaters of 
H diverted westward, f and h thus becoming the actively con- 
tested divides. As in the previous case, cutting was most rapid 
at h, and while the divide f was pushed ‘back to its present posi- 
tion at g, the branch h i was reversed and the headwaters of K 
diverted to the westward drainage. How far this process ‘had 
gone before the end of the Tertiary baseleveling it is impossible 
to say, but it was probably well under way. The warping which 
accompanied the Lafayette depression gave the westward streams 
a still further advantage, and early in that depression the divide 
i was pushed eastward, reversing the flow, first, of the stream K, 
and then Z to the junction of the latter with the Clinch-Appa- 
lachian river. Although the latter was a comparatively large — 
river, the advantages possessed by the westward stream were 
sufficient to overbalance the advantage of size, and the Clinch- 
Appalachian river was captured and led off westward through 
the newly cut gorge. The capture of the western fork of the 
Appalachian river was probably followed shortly after by that 
of the eastern fork. This was accomplished by a tributary of 
the former working backward from Kingston to Loudon. Thus 

Effect of Land Warping on Drainage. 119 

the drainage of the Appalachian valley assumed practically the 
form which it has today. 

As indicated in the above discussion of drainage adjustment, 
the present writers have reached the conclusion that an ex- 
tremely important factor in the process is the slow and gentle 
warping of the surface which has accompanied every epeirogenic 
movement of which there is any record. We believe this factor 
is only less important than the great structural features of a 
region, and in some eases, of which the Tennessee is a notable 
example, the structure of the region has played a secondary 
part in determining the drainage courses. This gentle warping 
of the surface has hitherto been recognized only in a general 
way and few attempts have been made to locate axes; conse- 
quently the manner in which it influences drainage has not yet 
been discussed. The writers have in preparation a paper in 
which an attempt will be made to formulate the laws of this 
action and to show much more fully than the limits of the 
present paper will permit to what extent it has determined the 
courses of the Appalachian streams. 


Northward diversion of the Tennessee River—The Lafayette de- 
pression, with its accompanying deposition of coarse sediments 
about the border of the province, occupied the closing epoch of 
the Tertiary cycle. The next, which may properly be termed 
the Present cycle, was inaugurated, like the two preceding, by 
uplift, and the uplift was accompanied by warping of the surface. 
The southern portion of the province was tilted northward, prob- 
ably somewhat beyond the Memphis-Charleston axis. The 
rivers whose lower courses had been rendered sluggish or even 
submerged by the preceding depression were stimulated to 
renewed activity and began a rapid trenching of the lately de- 
posited Lafayette formation. The land area was extended con- 
siderably beyond its present limits, and the rivers throughout 
their lower courses cut deep gorges, forming notches in the 
present submerged continental shelf. The uplift along the 
southern border of the province was so rapid that only the larger 
streams or those favorably located upon soft rocks were able to 
keep their channels down near baselevel. The Alabama river, 
although only the shrunken representative of the once powerful 
Appalachian river, had its lower course located on sqft Tertiary 

17—Nar. Grog. Maa., von, VI, 1894, 

120 Hayes and Camphell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

limestones, sands and clays, so that it was able to keep pace 
with this uplift and retain its southward course unchanged to 
the Gulf. The Mississippi, by reason of its greater volume, was 
also able to keep near baselevel, and as the land rose cut a deep 
gorge through the Lafayette and well into or through the under- 
lying Tertiary and Cretaceous formations. 

The westward flowing stream which had diverted the Appa- 
lachian drainage occupied in its lower course about the position 
of Black river, and it probably continued in this course a short 
time after the post-Lafayette elevation began—long enough, at 
least, to cut through the mantle of Lafayette gravel down to the 
Grand gulf, which is the most indurated of all the Mississippi 
embayment formations. While the lower course of this river 
was thus held in check: by the elevation of the indurated beds, 
northward flowing streams were greatly stimulated by the tilt- 
ing of the surface in that direction. Small streams flowing north- 
ward to the Ohio along the strike of the easily erodible Creta- 
ceous beds therefore had a double advantage over those flowing 
westward or southwestward, and by cutting backward were able 
to capture and divert the Tennessee river to a northward course. 

After a comparatively short period of elevation the province 
was again depressed, though not so much as during the Lafay- 
ette epoch, and this depression was in turn followed by elevation 
to the presentaltitude. The record of these oscillations is found 
chiefly in the deposits and erosion forms of the region border- 
ing the Appalachian province, and hence is somewhat beyond 
the scope of this paper. The time was too short for permanent 
records to be inscribed on the land surface in the interior. Minor 
stream adjustments doubtless occurred, and the rivers sank their 
channels within the surface of the Tertiary peneplain, in some 
regions deeply dissecting that surface, as already described in 
Part I) 


It is seen from the foregoing that the present course of the 
Tennessee river is extremely complex, and that a history of its 
development is practically a history of the province in post- 
Paleozoic time. Different portions of the river course furnish a 
record of the various vicissitudes through which the province 
has passed, or at least confirm the record found in other physio- 

Tistory of the Tennessee River. 121 
graphic features. We haye seen that most of the eastern tribu- 
taries are very old, having occupied approximately their present 
positions while the western portion of the province was still 
covered by the great inland sea. From the eastern highlands 
they brought down the vast Paleozoic sediments and built the 
floor of the future continent. As successive belts of these 
sediments were lifted to form dry land and the sea margin 
migrated westward, the streams extended their lower courses to 
the shrinking sea. Then during the long period of Appalachian 
folding and the longer period of degradation these westward- 
flowing streams were diverted to southward courses and collected 
in a single great stream, the Appalachian river. In the early 
part of this long cycle the southern portion of the province 
stood relatively higher, so that until the close of the Jurassic 
the materials carried down by the Appalachian river were swept 
to unknown distances and deeply buried beneath the later 
Mesozoic sediments. Early in the Cretaceous the land was tilted 
seaward and the water advanced to the present inner margin of 
the Cretaceous sediments. At the close of the cycle the Appa- 
lachian river wandered over a broad and nearly featureless plain. 
The second cycle began with uplift of the land, and broad valleys 
were cut by the streams nearly to their headwaters. Then came 
the Lafayette depression, accompanied by warping, which gave 
so great advantage to the streams flowing westward along the 
axis A B that the upper Appalachian drainage was captured 
and led off to the Mississippiembayment. The great river was 
scarcely adjusted to its new position before the tilting of the 
surface again changed it northward to its present cotrse into the 
Ohio. Thus the lower portion of the Tennessee river dates from 
the present cycle. The portion in northern Alabama and across 
Walden plateau was occupied at the close of the Tertiary cycle ; 
that in the Appalachian valley was adjusted during the long 
Cretaceous cycle; and, finally, the tributaries flowing from the 
present Smoky mountains have inherited their courses from the 
early Paleozoic continent. 

In conclusion, a graphic representation of this history will 
be given, in order to bring together the conclusions contained in 
the preceding portions of this paper. The oscillations of the 
surface have been so variable, accompanied by such diverse 
warping, that the relations of the surface of the whole region to 
sealevel cannot be represented diagramatically ; but if a single 

122. Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

point on the surface be taken its relations to sealevel may be 
so represented. A point on the present site of Chattanooga has 
been selected as fairly representative and where the various alti- 
tudes can be well determined. These relations are represented in 
the diagram, figure 1, page 99. The vertical lines divide the space 
into five time divisions. These divisions are only approximately 
proportional to the time, the late divisions being much too large 
and the earlier divisions too small. Taking the horizontal line 
at the base of the diagram as sealevel, the full line represents 
the altitude of the main stream channels and the dotted lines 
their altitudes at former periods marked by the remnants of 
baselevel peneplains still existing. The upper dotted line L in 
the diagram indicates the position of the original land surface 
with reference to sealevel. Its distance above the present land 
surface at the right of the diagram corresponds with the thick- 
ness of strata removed by erosion from the point taken, which 
is on an anticlinal fold and hence upon rocks low in the series. 
The thickness of the rocks eroded is only represented approxi- 
mately, since the original thickness of the Carboniferous is not 
known. The line K represents the altitude of the land surface 
slowly approaching sealevel by degradation during the long 
cycle of Cretaceous baseleveling. It is scarcely probable that 
the land remained stationary during this long period. There 
were doubtless minor oscillations, but these have left no record 
upon the surface and hence cannot be represented. Atthe close 
of the Cretaceous cycle came the elevation of the surface shown 
by the rise in the line K at the beginning of the second time 
division. With the elevation, the line K ceases to represent the 
stream level which is indicated by the heavy line 7, diverging 
from K at first rapidly and then slowly, the peneplain being 
developed during the Tertiary cycle. Since this cycle was not 
so long as the preceding and the baseleveling not so complete, 
the line T does not approach so near sealevel as the line K. 
During the third period, which was one of depression, the lines 
K and 7 remain parallel, since little, if any, erosion was taking 
place at Chattanooga at that time. With the elevation at the 
end of the Lafayette depression the line 7'in turn ceases to rep- 
resent the stream level which is indicated by the line P, and this 
diverges continually to the present except during the Columbia 
depression. Thus the various lines at the right of the diagram 
indicate the position of various plains of erosion with reference 

Character of Sediments. . £23 
to each other and to present sealevel, but not to sealevel in past 
time. The lowest line, P, the present flood plain of the Ten- 
nessee river, is 650 feet above sealevel ; the second, 7, the Ter- 
tiary peneplain, is 250 feet above the present river; the third, 
K, the Cretaceous peneplain, is about 1,100 feet above the Ter- 
tiary ; and, last, the original land surface is about 5,000 or 6,0Q0 
feet above the Cretaceous baselevel. 

Part ITI—Sepimentary Recorp. 

The variation in character of sediments deposited on the 
southern border of the Appalachian province during Cretaceous 
and later time has been briefly referred to, and also the correla- 
tion between kind of sediment and attitude of land. The con- 
clusions reached by other lines of evidence are so fully borne 
out by a consideration of the sediments that the subject merits 
a somewhat fuller treatment. The character of sedimentary 
rocks is usually regarded as indicative of the depth of water in 
which they were formed, and while this is in a measure true, a. 
more important element is probably the character and attitude 
of the adjacent land from which the sediments were derived. 

High land is subjected to active degradation, especially if it 
has been recently elevated and is covered by a heavy mantle of 
residual material. Its streams have rapid fall and are supplied 
with an abundant load of coarse mechanical sediment which 
they carry in great volume to the sea. Under such conditions of 
rapid erosion the deposits formed are gravels, sands and clays, 
generally highly colored from the complete oxidation of the re- 
sidual mantle before transportation. Solution is at the same time 
going on, butethe volume of material removed by that means is 
small in comparison with the mechanical sediment, and the pro- 
portion of calcareous matter is correspondingly small in the de- 
posits formed. As the cycleadvances the gradients of the streams 
decrease, and with it their carrying capacity. Hence the pro- 
portion of matter in solution is increased by the diminution in 
the absolute amount of mechanical sediment and the deposits 
become correspondingly more calcareous. In the final stages of 
baseleveling, chemical agents are more active than mechanical ; 
the sluggish streams are able to transport only the finest silt in 
suspension and the resulting deposit is a more or less pure 
limestone. The character of the sediments derived from the 

124 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

southern Appalachian region during the long period of degrada- 
tion which it has suffered ought to show gradations from arena- 
ceous to calcareous, corresponding with the stage of develop- 
ment of the cycle in which deposition dccurred, coarse sands 
and clays when a surface subjected to a long period of subaerial 
decay and rock disintegration was elevated so as to stimulate 
stream transportation, and calcareous shales and limestones 
when the surface had been so far reduced to baselevel that only 
fine sediment in suspension or matter held in solution was 
carried by the streams. Since the geomorphy of the interior 
proves the existence of several of these cycles of continental 
development, one should expect to find cycles of sedimentation 
corresponding in geologic age and degree of completeness. 

The record of sedimentation in the Gulf region from the Tus- 
caloosa (probably late Jurassic or early Cretaceous) to the close 
of the Vicksburg or White limestone (late Eocene) is fairly con- 
tinuous and complete. Arranging the formations intervening 
between these limits in their proper order and assigning to each 
a space, not in proportion to its thickness, but to the prob- 
able time occupied by its formation, the curve shown in figure 
3 is derived, in which the horizontal coordinates represent 
relative time, and the vertical coordinates relative coarseness 
or fineness of the sediments. Thus the curve expresses imme- 
diately the variation in character of the sediments carried into 
the sea by the southern Appalachian rivers during Cretaceous 
and Tertiary time and, by inference, the altitude of the land over 
which the rivers flowed. The character and amount of material 
carried off by these streams during the long period of degrada- 
tion preceding the Cretaceous can only be inferred from the 

‘known character and amount of rocks removed for the sedi- 
ments were carried to an unknown distance seaward and con- 
cealed by overlap beneath the subsequent formations. The 
accessible record begins with the Tuscaloosa, a thick deposit of 
sands and clays marking rapid erosion and great carrying power 
of the streams, and hence a considerable altitude of the land 
surface. Through the Eutaw and into the Rotten limestone the 
sediments show a decrease in coarseness and an increase in cal- 
careous matter, and the curve approaches the horizontal axis, 
continuing approximately parallel with it throughout nearly the 
whole of the Rotten limestone. This marks a long period dur- 

. sero, sete | et 


Conclusions from the Sedimentary Record. 125 

ing which the transporting power of the streams was gradually 
diminishing and the surface approaching baselevel at a con- 
stantly decreasing rate. This great mass of calcareous sediment, 
part of which is a mechanical deposit, points to erosion of ex- 
tensive limestone areas which must have been in the Appa- 
lachian valley; hence the character of the formation siipports 
the conclusion reached from other evidence, that the drainage 
of that region was southward during the whole of the Cre- 

-taceous cycle. Passing the Rotten limestone, the curve leaves 

the horizontal axis, and in the Lignitic reaches its farthest 
distance therefrom, marking a period of high land or steep slopes 
and rapidly cutting streams. From this point it rapidly de- 
scends through the Buhrstone and Claiborne to the Vicksburg 


2 #4 3 
= Cate 
=o os 2 
i < 2 L 
iS) : Oo) = Pa 
Bays wires) og : oH ne Z 
eo) ail ais 5) ai ea = 
‘4 — ~ . - 
es o @ = 2 = B = id 
4S = 8 = 2 = 2 = 5 
> = io! 5p 2, ‘SI rr =) n 
4 cy S = = ° te) =) =] 
> Oo 4 ia] =| oS co A 

Eocene. Cretaceous. 

Fiaure 3.—Diagram showing variation in Character of Cretaceous and Tertiary 

Sediments in Alabama. 

limestone, showing a rapid decrease in carrying power of the 
streams and a near approach to baselevel in the valleys. . 

It is thus seen that during the time covered by the sedimentary 
record in southern Alabama there were two periods in which 
the land stood high and the streams were rapidly degrading the 
surface, and that these alternated with two periods in which 
the land was low, approximately at baselevel, and the streams 
carried little sediment, but were degrading the surface by solu- 
tion. Hence two baselevel peneplains separated by a considera- 
ble uplift are to be sought in the region from which the sedi- 
ments were derived. The two already described fulfill all the 
theoretical conditions, and the correlation of these peneplains, 
from other considerations, with Cretaceous and Tertiary time is 

126 Hayes and Campbell—Appalachian Geomorphology. 

greatly strengthened. On the Atlantic slope the data are not so 
complete. Almost all of the sediments were derived directly 
from the granitic rocks of the piedmont plain, and hence show 
less differentiation in character than the rocks of the Gulf coast. 
So far as known there is nothing in the character of the Atlantic 
coastal plain sediments which will conflict with the conclusions 
giver above, but exact correlations cannot at present be made. 
Thus the same history of the province which was read in the 
forms of the land surface and in the location of the streams is 
also found recorded in the sediments derived from its erosion. 
The three lines of investigation outlined at the beginning of this 
paper are found to lead to harmonious results and each to sup- 
plement the others. While many details remain to be worked 
out, the main features of post-Paleozoic history of the southern 
Appalachians as given above seem fairly well determined. 

. ; Washington, D. C. 











= ninety miles 

One inch 



VOL. VI., 1894. PL. 5. 

_ mx 
ia J 
Catt rn tf IX. 
- Ms 

showing the deformed 


and the areas not reduced to 
C.Willard Hayes” Marius R.Campbell 



ot 90 89 68 a 86 Ee 
H To S 
| H 
i H 
| Gielnndts 
(/ ss | 
ff | 
Z | 
yd | 
1) oudsvile | 


One inch = ninety miles 


a a9 


VOL. VI. 1894. PL 5, 

62 3 80 
j L Nee 
/ Yt 
] AS 
Z Li 
Z ; 
oy SB 
a} % f 
y é ae ZY y 
il LACIE | y 
Ly : —_t. 
le \) 
1+ LEIA Abbtiaros 


Nl MAP — 
PPA p 
‘ apmnern APPALACH UG, 
Ny S showing the deformed S 




and the areas not reduced to 

Ry CWillard Hayes Marius R.Campbell Dalh 
—— ZZ es aa 
ai 20 5 75 ‘5 —— 








me = 
. “ 
Tee} ; 
k ~ 
i .) 

ha 5 
f _. 
\ = 

\ SY NERCAN ee / 
PTA a teh Wy 

VOL. VI.,1894. PL.6. 

apne f 
3° showing the deformed S 


and the areas not reduced to 
C.Willard Hayes Marius R.Campbell 




VOL. VI., 1894. PL6. 


91 80, 80 68 1 87 86 85 = ; _ 5 — = _ ~ 
! i f ) Papier ag | X 
i { A | an 
| Z CNG Mbt UN 
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z y SSAA 32 
a Hi ee ca a ( H Savahnoh’ 
; ry yf : (? and the areas not reduced to 
x y 
a By 
F ; SCALE hao) } hy C.Willard Hayes" Marlus R.Campbell ae 
One inch ~ ninety miles H . p AREAS NOT REDUCED 
1 i Voie ee. = | 
68 87 36 85 ot Be ar 20 73 78 77 6 

Feel he 


ney a.) f 
lesy: PLS. 7, 8 : JUNE 22, 1894 



Pusiisuep pY Tar National Groarapuic Society 


Price 25 cents. 

Ae Brose omy el we 

o— € 


NAT. GEOG. MAG. VOL. VI, 1894. PL. 7. 


1. Wattle-work at summit. 3. A masonry dam. 
2. Spronted wattle dam. 4. Reforestation of denuded mountain side. 

VoL. VI, PP. 127-148, PLS. 7, 8 JUNE 22, 1894 





(Presented before the Society December 15, 1893) 

The earth is a potential forest. Given time, freedom from 
geologic revolutions and from interference by» man, and tree- 
growth must finally dominate everywhere, with few excepted 

Its perennial nature and its elevation in height above all other 
forms of vegetation, together with its remarkable recuperative 
powers, assure to the arborescent flora this final victory over its 

So impressed was Dr Asa Gray with the persistence of indi- 
vidual tree life that he questioned whether a tree need ever die: 
‘For the tree [unlike the animal] is gradually developed by the 
successive addition of new parts. It annually renews not only 
its buds and leaves, but its wood and its roots; everything, 
indeed, that is concerned in its life and growth. ‘Thus, like the 
fabled Aison, being restored from the decrepitude of age to the 
bloom of early youth, the most recent branchlets being placed 
by means of the latest layer of wood in favorable communica- 
tion with the newly formed roots.and these extending at a cor- 
responding rate into fresh soil, why has not the tree all the 


18—Nar. Goa. Maa., von. VI, 1894. (127) 

128 B. Eb. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

conditions of existence in the thousandth that is possessed in 
the hundredth or the tenth year of its age? 

“The old and central part of the trunk may, indeed, decay, 
but. this is of little moment, so long as new layers are regularly 
formed at the circumference. The tree survives, and it is diffi- 
cult to show that it is liable to death from old age in any proper 
sense of the term.” * 

However this may be, we know trees succumb to external 
causes. Nevertheless they are perennial enough to outlive aught 
else, ‘‘ To be the oldest inhabitants of the globe, to be more 
ancient than any human monument, as exhibiting in some of its 
survivors a living antiquity compared with which the moulder- 
ing relics of the earliest Egyptian civilization, the pyramids 
themselves, are but structures of yesterday.” The dragon trees, 
so called, found on the island of Tenerife, off the African coast, 
are believed to be many thousand years old. The largest is only 
15 feet in diameter and 75 feet high. Our sequoias are more 
rapid growers and attain in 3,000 to 4,000 years, which may be 
the highest age of living ones, more than double these dimensions. 

While this persistence of life is one of the attributes which in 
the battle for life must count of immeasurable advantage, the 
other characteristic of arboreal development, its elevation in 
height above everything living, is no less an advantagé over all 
competitors for light, the source of all life. Can there be any 
doubt that in this competition size must ultimately triumph and 
the undersized go to the wall? 

Endowed with these weapons of defensive and offensive war- 
fare, forest-growth, through all geologic ages during which the 
earth supported life, has endeavored and no doubt to a degree 
succeeded in gaining possession of the earth’s surface. 

As terra firma increased emerging in islands above the ocean, 
so increased the area of the forest, changing in composition to 
correspond with the change of physical and climatic conditions. 

As early as the Devonian age, when but a small part of our 
continent was formed, the mud flats and sand reefs, ever increas- 
ing by new accumulations under the action of the waves and 
currents of the ocean, were changed from a bare and lifeless 
world above tidelevel to one of forest-clad hills and dales. 

*Longevity of Trees: ‘‘Scientific papers of Asa Gray’’ (selected by 
Chas. Sargent), vol. 2, 1889, p. 71. 

Types of early Flora. 129 

Not only were such quaint forms as the tree rushes or Cala- 
mites, Lepidodendra and Sigillaria present, but the prototype of 
our pine, the Dadoxylon, had made its appearance. 

The same class of flowerless plants known as vascular crypto- 
gams, with the colossal tree ferns added, became more numerous 
and luxuriant in the Carboniferous age, as well as the flowering 
Sigillaria and coniferous Dadoxylon. This vegetation probably 
spread over all the dry land, but the thick deposits of vegetable 
remains accumulating in ne marshy places under dense jungle 
growth and in shallow lakes with floating islands, were finally 
in the course of geologic revolutions, turned into the great coal 

In those and subsequent geologic times some of the floral 
types vanished altogether and new ones originated, so that at the 
end of Mesozoic times a considerable change in the landscape 
had taken place. 

In addition to coniferous trees, the palms appeared, and also 
the first of angiosperms, such as the oak, dogwood, beech, poplar, 
willow, sassafras and tulip tree. Species increased in numbers, 
adapted to all sorts of conditions; the forest in a most varied 
and luxuriant form climbed the mountain sides to the very 
crests, and covered the land to the very poles with a flora of 
tropical and semi-tropical species. 

Then came the leveling processes and other changes of post- 
ak ertiary or Quaternary times; the glaciation of lands in north- 
ern latitudes, with the consequent changes of climate, which 
brought about corresponding changes in the ranks of the forest, 
killing out many of the species around the north pole. Only 
the hardier races survived, and these were driven southward in 
a veritable rout. 

When these boreal times subsided in a degree, the advance of 
the forest was as sure as before; but the battle order was some- 
what changed to suit the new conditions of soil and climate. 
Only the hardiest tribes could regain the northernmost posts, 
and these found their former places of occupancy changed by 
fluvial and lacustrine formations and the drifts borne and depos- 
ited by the 1 ice-sheets, while some by their constitution were en- 
tirely unfitted from engaging in a northern campaign or found 
insurmountable barriers in the refrigerated east-west elevations 
of Europe and western Asia. 

In addition, there had come new troubles from volcanic erup- 

130 B. HE. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

tions, which continually wrested the reconquered ground from 
the persistent advance guards of the arboreal army, annihilating 
them again and again. : 

Finally, when the more settled geologic and climatic condi- 
tions of the present era arrived and the sun arose over a world 
ready for human habitation, man found what we are pleased to 
call the virgin forest—a product of long continued evolutionary 
changes—occupying most, 1f not all the dry land, and ever intent 
upon extending its realm. 

This prehistoric review of the battle of the forest cannot be 
left without giving some historic evidences of its truth. 

Not only have paleobotanists unearthed the remnants of the 
circumpolar flora, which give evidence that it resembled that of 
present tropic and semi-tropic composition, but they have also 
shown that sequoias, magnolias, liquidambars and hickories ex- 
isted in Europe and on our own continent in regions where they 
are now extinct. We have also evidences of the repeated suc- 
cesses and reverses of the forest in its attempts to establish itself 
through long geologic transformations. 

One of the most interesting evidences of these vicissitudes in 
the battle of the forest is represented in a section of Amethyst 
mountain in Yellowstone National Park, exhibiting the remains 
of fifteen forest-growths, one above the other, buried in the lava. 
Again and again the forest subdued the inhospitable excoria- 
tions; again and again it had to yield to superior force. 

Among these petrified witnesses of former forest glory, mag- 
nolia, oak, tulip tree, sassafras, inden and ash have been iden- 
tified, accompanying the sequoia in regions where now only the 
hardiest conifer growths of pines and spruces find a congenial 

As the forest formed and spread thus during the course of 
ages, so does it form and spread: today, unless man, driven by 
the increasing needs of existence, checks its progress and reduces 
its area by the cultivation of the soil. This natural extension 
of the forest cover or afforestation takes place readily wherever 
soil and climate is favorable, but it is accomplished just as 
surely, though infinitely slower, in unfavorable situations. On 
the naked rock, the coarse detritus and gravel beds, on the purely 
siliceous sand deposits of river and ocean, or in the hot dry 
plains, the preliminary pioneer work of the lower vegetation is 
required. Algze, lichens, mosses, grasses, herbs and shrubs must 


The Army of Pioneers. 13 

precede to cultivate the naked rock, to mellow the rough gravel 
beds, to make the soil, to increase the soil moisture by shading 
the ground and gradually render it fit for the abode of the 
forest monarch. The army of soil-makers and goil-breakers, the 
pioneers, as it were, of the forest, are a hard y race, making leas 
demands for their support than those that follow. They come 
from different tribes, according to the soil conditions in which 
they have to battle. As soon as they have established them- 
selves they begin their cultivatory activity, which consists in 
withdrawing from the rock or soil and from the air the nutritive 
elements, returning them to the soil when they die and decay, in 
a form much more suitable for the support of the higher plants. 
The nutritive elements and the physical properties of the soil 
are improved and augmented by the repeated growth and decay 
of these pioneers, in that the soil is deepened and made mellow 
and its capacity for moisture increased. The waters charged 
with carbonic acid derived from the decay of the vegetal 
humus hasten the decomposition of the underlying rock, and 
the fertile soil layers increase until more fastidious plants can 
subsist. The humblest workers, alge, lichens, cacti and mosses, 
are followed by sedges, dry grasses, herbs and shrubs, or in the 
drier climates by agaves and yuccas. Then come the succulent 
grasses and herbs, gradually covering the soil with a meadow or 
prairie, the shrubs become more numerous, by degrees closing 
up, shading the ground and overshadowing the grasses, and 
finally the time is ripe for the arborescent flora. Nor does then 
the forest appear at once in its fullness and variety of form. 
Single trees, stragglers or skirmishers in small numbers, and 
shrub-like and stunted forms first arrive, gradually increasing 
in number and improving in form. These by their shade and 
by the litter formed from the fall and decay of their foliage im- 
prove the soil for their betters to follow. 

The aspen (Populus tremyloides) is one of these forerunners, 
which, thanks to its prolific production of light feathery seed, 
is readily wafted by the winds over hundreds of miles, readily 
germinates and rapidly grows under exposure to full sunlight, 
and even now in the Rocky mountains and elsewhere quickly 
takes possession of the areas which man has ruthlessly destroyed 
by fire. This humble and ubiquitous but otherwise almost use- 
less tree is nature’s restorative, covering the sores and secalds of 
the burnt mountain side, the balm poured upon grievous wounds. 

132 B. EH. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

Though short-lived, with its light summer foliage turning into 
brilliant golden autumn hues, it gives grateful shade and pre- 
serves from the thirsty sun and wind some moisture, so that the 
better kinds may thrive and take its place when it has fulfilled 
its mission. 

One of the shrubs or half trees which first take possession 
of the soil in the western mountain country is the socalled 
mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius) covering the bared 
slopes after the fire has killed the old timber. 

In other regions, as on the prairies of Iowa and Illinois, hazel 
bushes; or in the mountains of Pennsylvania and the Alle- 
ehenies in general, ericaceous shrubs like the laurel and rhodo- 
dendrons or hawthorn, viburnum and wild cherry are the first 
comers, while along water-courses alders and willows crowd 
even the water into narrower channels, catching the soil which 
is washed from the hillsides and increasing the land area. 

One of the most interesting soil-makers, wresting new territory 
from the ocean itself, is the mangrove along the coast of Florida. 
Not only does it reach out with its aerial roots entangling in 
their meshes whatever litter may float about and thus gradually 
building up the shore, but it pitches even its young brood into 
the advance of the battle, to wrestle with the waves and gain a 
foothold as best it may. 

Not less interesting in this respect is that denizen of the 
southern swamp, the bald cypress with its curious root excres- 
cences known as cypress knees, which, whatever their physiologic 
significance, are most helpful in expediting change of water into 
land sufficiently dry to be capable of supporting the more 
fastidious species in regard to moisture conditions. 

In passing, the remarkable adaptation to diverse conditions 
of some of the tree species should be noticed, as it gives them 
significance as geographic factors. The trees of the swamp, or 
at least many of them, seem to indicate their independence of 
moisture conditions by the range of climate and soil in which 
they are found. In fact, they grow in the swamp, not because 
that is their most suitable locality, but because they can do 
so to the exclusion of other competitors. The bald cypress itself 
will grow in the dry soil and arid atmosphere of Texas and 
Mexico; the oak which associate with it in the swamp will oc- 
cupy almost any soil.-and site; the sweet gum or liquidambar is 
found in similar places of habitat. The juniper or red cedar, 


The Habitat of the Juniper. 183 

which is a large tree in the swamps of Florida, covers also the 
driest ridges of the eastern Rocky mountains, with a enarly 
growth and hard texture, supplying the most lasting poles and 
posts. This latter species is also noticeable as having the widest 
distribution of all American forest trees. In fact, few trees seem 
so indifferent to climatic and soil conditions. From semi-tropical 
Florida to the cold shores of New Brunswick, and from the humid 
Atlantic coast it crosses the continent and the snow-covered 
Rockies to British Columbia and Washington.* It associates as 
well with the oak, hickory and magnolia in the rich river hot- 
toms, or with the cypress, ash and tupelo in the swamps, as with 
the pine on the hot sands and barren mountain sides. ‘Thanks 
to the taste of the birds for its berries, it finds ready dissemina- 
tion within this wide field, forming with the equally frugal aspen 
and cottonwood the very foremost advance guard of the forest. 
On the dry hot mesas and in the arroyos of tlte southwestern 
tier of our states and territories we meet a different set of skir- 
mishers following up the huge cacti and agaves, which together 
with the tree yuccas, penetrate into the very desert. In these re- 
gions the mesquite or algaroba and others of the acacia tribe 
form the second phalanx, as it were, gradually advancing their 
lines in spite of adverse conditions. In other regions the pine, 
satisfied with but scanty favor of soil moisture, and the spruce, 
able to sustain life in shallow soil, and the fir, in the higher, 
colder and wetter elevations, sometimes much stunted, form the 
skirmish line. These improve the soil in its moisture conditions 
by their shade, and by the foliage and litter falling and decay- 
ing they deepen the soil, forming a humus cover. The duff that 
is found covering the rocky subsoil of the Adirondacks is formed 
in this way at the rate of about one foot in 500 years. They are 
soon followed by the birche, maple, elm and ash and in moister 
situations by the oak—first, that hardy pioneer, the black oak 
tribe, and then the more fastidious white oak, with whom the 
slower but persistent hickories, beeches and other shade-endur- 
ing species begin to quarrel for the right of occupancy of the 
ground, until the battle is no longer that of the forest against the 
elements and lower vegetation, but between the mighty con- 
querors themselves. This struggle we can see going on in our 
primeval forests, wind-storms and decay acting as allies now to 

* According to some authorities the juniper found beyond the Rocky 
mountains does not include this particular species, Juniperus virginiand, 

13 B. E. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

one, now to the other side, and thus changing the balance of 
power again and again. 

In this struggle for supremacy between the different arbores- 
cent species the competition is less for the soil than for the light, 
the most important factor of life, especially for tree-growth. It 
is under the influence of light that foliage develops and that 
leaves exercise their functions and feed the tree by assimilating 
the carbon of the air and transpiring the water from the soil. 
The more foliage and the more light a tree has at its disposal, 
the more vigorously it will grow and spread itself. 

Now the spreading oak or beech of the open field finds close 
neighbors in the forest, and is narrowed in from all sides and 
forced to lengthen its shaft, to elevate its crown, to reach up for 
light, if it would escape being overshadowed, repressed and per- 
haps finally killed by more powerful densely foliaged compet- 
itors. ; 

The various species are differently endowed as regards the 
amount of light which they need for their existence. Go into 
the dense forest and see what kinds of trees are vegetating in the 
dense shade of the older trees, and then go into an opening re- 
cently made, an abandoned field or other place, where the full 
benefit of light is to be had by all alike, and one will find a 
different set altogether occupying the ground and dominating. 
In the first case there may be found, perhaps, beech and sugar 
maple or fir and spruce; in the second case aspen, poplar, wil- 
low, soft maple, oak or pine, tamarack, ete. 

All trees thrive ultimately best in full enjoyment of light. But 
some, like those first mentioned, can at least subsist and their — 
foliage functionate with a small amount—they are shade-endur- 
ing kinds, usually having a dense foliage, many leaves, and each 
one needs to do but little work—and exert considerable shade 
when fully developed. Those last named, however, are light- 
needing kinds, and having less foliage, cannot exist long without 
a considerable amount of light. 

To offset this drawback in the constitution of these latter, 
nature has endowed them as a rule with the capacity of rapid 
height growth, to escape their would-be suppressors ; but again, 
what they have gained in the rapidity of development they lose 
in the length of life. They are mostly short lived species, while 
the shade enduring are generally slower growers, but persistent 
and long lived. Some kinds, like most of the oaks, stand be- 



The Struggles for Existence. 135 

tween the two; while exhibiting a remarkable capacity of vege- 
tating in the shade, they are really light-needing species but 
comparatively slow growers and long lived. One and the same 
species behaves also somewhat differently under different soil 
and climatic conditions; for instance, as a rule the light-needing 
species can endure more shade on moist soils and the shade 
enduring require more light on drier soils. 

In the earliest stages of life the little seedlings of most trees 
require partial shade and are quite sensitive in regard to light 
conditions. Some have such a small range of light and shade 
endurance that, while there may be millions of little seedlings 
sprouted, they will all perish if some of the mother trees are not 
removed and more light given; and they will perish equally if 
the old growth is removed too suddenly and the delicate leaf 
structure, under the influence of direct sunlight, is made to ex- 
ercise its functions beyond its capacity. 

Left to itself, as the forest grows up and as the individual 
trees develop, each trying to hold its ground and struggling for 
light, a natural thinning takes place, some trees lagging behind 
in growth and being shaded out, until in old age only as many 
trees remain as can occupy the ground without incommoding 
each other. 

This struggle among the individuals goes on during their en- 
tire life. Some few shoot ahead, perhaps because of a stronger 
constitution or some favorable external cause, and overtower 
their neighbors. These, lagging behind, fall more and more 
under the shading influence of their stronger neighbors until 
entirely suppressed, when they only vegetate until they die. 
The struggle continues, however, among the dominant class and it 
neverends. For as Hercules the unconquerable succumbed to the 
poison that penetrated to his bones, so does the mighty giant of 
the forest fall a prey to the insidious work of rot and fungus and 
insects. When its heart is riddled and weakened, first the dry 
branches crumble and gradually give opportunity for the young 
aftergrowth of shade-enduring kinds, patiently waiting for light, 
to strengthen; then break the large limbs and the dry top, and 
after having weathered the onslaught of the storms for centuries 
and the euerillas of the fungus tribe for decades, finally the giant 
falls, with its decaying substance enriching the soil for future 
generations. Into the breach rush the young epigones, each 
struggling to supplant its progenitor. 

19—Nar. Groac. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

136 B. Lt. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

Thus the alterations of forest-growth take place, oak following 
pine or pine following oak; the poplar, birch and cherry appear- 
ing on the sunny burns, or the hickory, beech and maple creep- 
ing into the shadier pine growths. While in the eastern forest 
under naturai conditions the rotation of power is accomplished 
in at least from 300 to 500 years, the old monarchs of the Pacific, 
towering above all competitors, have held sway 2,000 or more 
years. In this warfare, with changes in climatic and soil con- 
ditions going on at the same time, it may well occur that a whole 
race may even be exterminated. 

I have dwelt thus long upon the formative period of the forest 
in order to make you realize that the virgin forest is a product 
of long struggles, extending over centuries, nay, thousands of 
years. Some of the mightiest representatives of old families, 
which at one time of prehistoric date were powerful, still survive, 
but are gradually succumbing to their fate in our era. 

The largest of our eastern forest trees, reaching a height of 
140 feet and diameters up to 12 feet, the most beautiful and one 
of the most useful, the tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), is a 
survivor of an early era once widely distributed, but now con- 
fined to eastern North America, and doomed to vanish soon 
from our woods through man’s improper partisanship. 

Others, like the TYorreya and Cupressus, seem to haye suc- 
cumbed to a natural decadence, if we may judge from their 
confined limits of distribution. So, too, the colossal sequoias, 
remnants of an age when things generally were of larger size 
than now, appear to be near the end of their reign, while the 
mighty taxodium or bald cypress, the big tree of the east, still 
seems vigorous and prosperous, being able to live with wet feet 
without harm to its constitution, weird with the gray tillandsia 
or Spanish moss. 

Having thus scanned through the traditions of unwritten his- 
tory of the battle of the forest, having seen some of the com- 
batants in the struggle and learned something of their methods 
of conquering the earth and each other, we may take a look at 
the condition of things on the North American continent as it 
presumably was in the beginning of historic times or within 
our century. 

As far as occupancy of the soil by the forest is concerned, we 
find that the struggle had not yet been determined in its fayor 

The Afforestation of the desert Areas. 137 

everywhere. While a vast territory on the Atlantic side and a 
narrower belt on the Pacific toast, connected by a broad belt 
through the northern latitudes, was almost entirely under its 
undisputed sway, and while the back-bone of the continent, the 
crest and slopes of the Rocky mountains, was more or less in 
its possession, there still remained a vast empire in the interior 

Of parts of this territory we feel reasonably certain from strong 
evidences that the forest once occupied them, but has been driven 
off by aboriginal man, the firebrand taking sides with the grasses 
and the buffalo probably being a potent element in preventing 
reestablishment. In other parts it is questionable whether the 
lines along the river courses, the straggling trees on the plateaus 
and slopes, are remnants of a vanquished army or outposts of an 
advancing one. Insome parts, like the dry mesas, plateaus and 
arroyos of the interior basin, and the desert-like valleys toward 
the southern frontiers, it may reasonably be doubted whether 
arborescent flora has more than begun its slow advance from the 
outskirts of the established territory. 

Certain it is that climatic conditions in these forestless regions 
are most unfavorable to tree-growth, and it may well be ques- 
tioned whether in some parts the odds are not entirely against 
the progress of the forest. 

Temperature and moisture conditions of air and soil, determine 
ultimately the character of vegetation, and these are dependent 
not only on latitude, but largely on configuration of the land, 
and especially on the direction of moisture-bearing winds with 
reference to the trend of mountains. 

The winds from the Pacific ocean striking against the Coast 
range are forced by the compression and subsequent cooling to 
give up much of their moistuge on the windward side; a second 
impact and further condensation of the moisture takes place 
on the Cascade range and Sierra Nevada. On descending, with 
consequent expansion, the wind becomes warmer and drier, so 
that the interior basin, without additional sources of moisture 
and no additional cause for condensation, is left without much 
rainfall and with a very low relative humidity, namely, below 50 
per cent. “The Rocky mountains finally squeeze out whatever 
moisture remains in the air currents, which arrive proportionally 
drier on the eastern slope. This dry condition extends over the 
plains until the moist currents from the gulf of Mexico modify 

138 B. E. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

it. Somewhat corresponding, yet not quite, to this distribution 
of moisture, the western slopes are found to be better wooded 
than the eastern, and the greater difficulty of establishing < 
forest cover here must be admitted; yet since the forest has the 
capacity of creating its own conditions of existence by increasing 
the most important factor of its life, the relative humidity, the 
extension of the Same may only be a question of time. 

Temperature extremes, to be sure, also set a limit to tree- 
growth, and hence the socalled timber line of high mountains, 
which changes in altitude according to the latitude. 

If, now, we turn our attention from the phyto-topographic - 
consideration of the forest cover to the phyto-geographic and 
botanical features, we may claim that the North American forest, 
with 425 or more arborescent species, belonging to 158 genera, 
many of which are truly endemic, surpasses in variety of useful 
species and magnificent development, any other forest of the tem- 
perate zone, Japan hardly excepted. In addition there are prob- 
ably nowhere to be seen such extensive fields of distribution of 
single species. 

These two facts are probably explained by the north-and- 
south direction of the mountain ranges, which permitted a rees- 
tablishment after the Ice age of many species farther northward, 
while in Europe and the main part of Asia the east-west direc- 
tion of the mountains offered an effectual barrier to such rees- 
tablishment, and reduced the number of species and their field 
of distribution ; nor are the climatic differences of different lati- 
tudes in North America as great as in Europe, which again 
predicates greater extent in the fields of distribution north and 
south. On the other hand, the differences east and west in floral 
composition of the American forest are greater than if an ocean 
had separated the two parts instead of the prairie and plains. 
This fact would militate against our theory that the intermediate 
forestless region was or would be eventually forested with species 
from both the established forest regions, if we did not find some 
species represented in both regions and a junction of the two 
floras in the very region of the forestless areas. 

In the sand hills which traverse Nebraska from east to west 
there are now found in eastern counties the sand-drowned trunks 
of the western bull pine, and the same pine belonging to the 
Pacific flora is found associated with the black walnut of the 
eastern region along the Niobrara river. 

NAT. GEOG. MAG. VOE: V1; 1894. PENS: 


if ra) 
iS 7 rs 
a Vas 
ice eee , 
WINN S ae 
Ce, VY 8 
\ Wah NY \ 
9 MAP. 
= OF THE>-- 

Subdivisions of the North American Forest. 139 

We may, however, divide the North American forest, according 
to its botanical features, into two great forest regions, namely, 
the Atlantic, which is in the main characterized by broad-leaved 
trees, and the Pacific, which is made up almost wholly of conif- 
erous species. (See plate 8.) 

In the Atlantic forest we can again discern several floral sub- 
divisions, each of which shows special characteristics. The 
southernmost coast and keys of Florida, although several decrees 
north of the geographic limit of the tropics, present a truly trop- 
ical forest, rich in species of the West Indian flora, which here 
finds its most northern extension. There is no good reason for 
calling this outpost sem-tropical, as is done on Sargent’s map. 
With the mahogany, the mastic, the royal palm, the mangrove, 
the sea grape and some sixty more West Indian species repre- 
sented, it is tropical in all but it geographic position. That the 
northern flora joins the tropic forest here, and thus brings to- 
gether on this insignificant spot some hundred species, nearly 
one-quarter of all the species found in the Atlantic forest, does 
not detract from its tropical character. 

On the other hand, the forest north of this region may be 
ealled subtropical, for here the live and water oak, the magnolia, 
the bay tree and holly and many other broad-leaved trees are 
mixed with the sabal and dwarf palmetto. As they retain their 
green foliage throughout the winter, this region is truly semi-_ 
tropical in character, and under the influence of the Gulf stream, 
extends in a narrow belt some 20 or 25 miles in width along 
the coast as far north as North Carolina. 

While this evergreen, broad-leaved forest is more or less con- 
fined to the rich hummocks and moister situations, the poor 
sandy soils of this as well as of the more northern region are 
occupied by pines; and as those, especially the long-leaf pine, are 
celebrated all over the world and give the great mercantile sig- 
nificance to these forests, this region may well be called the 
ereat southern pine belt. North of the evergreen subtropic 
forest stretches the vast deciduous-leaved forest of the Atlantic, 
nowhere equaled in the temperate regions of the world in extent 
and perfection of form, and hardly in the number of species. 
This designation applies to the entire area up to the northern 
forest belt, for the region segregated on the census map as the 
northern pine belt is still in the main the dominion of the 
deciduous-leaved forest. On certain areas pines and spruces 

140 B. E. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

are intermixed, and on certain soils, especially gravelly drifts 
and dry sand plains, as on the pine barrens of northern Michi- 
gan, they congregate even to the exclusion of other species. 
Instead, we can divide this deciduous-leaved forest by a line 
running somewhere below the fortieth degree of latitude, where 
with the northern limits of the southern magnolias and other 
species we may locate in general the northern limit of the south- 
ern forest flora. Northward from here, in what may be called 
the “ middle Atlantic forest,” the deciduous species rapidly de- 
crease and the coniferous growth predominates until we arrive 
at the broad belt of the northern forest, which, crossing from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific and composed of only eight hardy species, 
takes its stand against the frigid breath and icy hands of Boreas. 

Abounding in streams, lakes and swampy areas, the low 
divides of this region are occupied by an open stunted forest of 
black and white spruce, while the bottoms are held by the balsam 
fir, larch or tamarack, poplar, dwarf birch and willow. The 
white spruce, paper or canoe birch, balsam, poplar and aspen 
stretch their lines from the Atlantic to the Pacific over the whole 

On the Pacific side the subdivisions are rather ranked from 
west to east. While the northern forest battles against the cold 
blasts from icy fields, the front of the Pacific interior forest is 
wrestling with the dry atmosphere of the plains and interior 
basin. Here on the driest parts, where the sage brush finds its 
home, the ponderous bull pine is the foremost fighter, and where 
even this hardy tree cannot succeed in the interior basin several 
species of red cedar hold the fort, in company with the nut pine, 
covering with an open growth the mesas and lower mountain 
slopes. Small and stunted, although of immense age, these 
valiant outposts show the marks of severe struggles for existence. 

On the higher and therefore moister and cooler elevations and 
in the narrow canyons, where evaporation is diminished and the 
soil is fresher, the somber Douglas, Engelmann and blue spruce 
and the silver-foliaged white fir join the pines or take their 

With few exceptions the same species, only of better develop- 
ment, are found in the second parallel, which occupies the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada. Additional forces here 
strengthen the ranks, the great sugar pine, two noble firs, a 
mighty larch, hemlocks and cedars vie with their leaders, the 

The Flora of the Pacifie Coast. 141 

big sequoias, in showing of what metal they are made. The 
third parallel, occupied by the forest of the Coast Range, the 
most wonderfully developed, although far from being the most 
varied of this continent, is commanded by the redwood, with 
the tide-land spruce, hemlock and gigantic arborvite joining the 

Broad-leaved trees are not absent, but so little developed in 
comparison with the mighty conifers that they play no conspic- 
uous part except along the river bottoms, where the maple, cotton, 
wood, ash and alder thrive, and in the narrow interior valleys. 
where an open growth of oak is found. Toward the south and 
on the lower levels these broad-leaved trees again become ever- 
green, as on the Atlantic side, but of different tribes, and form 
a subtropic flora. 

- Along the coast we find several species of true cypress, in- 
cluding the well known although rare Monterey cypress which 
clings to the gigantic rocks and braves the briny ocean winds, 
and with its branches twisted landward. Finally, flanking the 
battle order of the Pacific forest, we find another section of the 
army, composed of the northern extension of the Mexican flora- 
mingled with which are species from the Pacific forest on the 
west and from the Atlantic on the east. 

The mesquite and some acacias, the tree yuccas and the giant 
or tree cactus are perhaps the most characteristic and remark- 

*able species of the deserts of this region, while the high moun- 
tains support dense forests of firs and pines. 

So far we have considered the forest only from the geographic 
and botanical point of view,.and have watched the history of 
its struggle for existence against the elements and against the 
lower vegetation and other forces of nature. A new chapter of 
its life history, which we shall have time only to scan very 
briefly, began when man came upon the scene and the economic 
point of view had to be considered. 

For ages man has taken sides against the forest. Not only has 
he contested for the occupancy of the soil, in order to cultivate 
his crops or to make the meadow for his cattle—a most legitimate 
and justifiable proceeding,—and not only has he utilized the vast 
stores of wood accumulated through centuries, for the ten thou- 
‘sand uses to which this material can be applied, and in the ap- 
plication of which he exhibits his superior intelligence, but he 

142 B. BE. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

has also shown a woeful lack of intelligence in the willful or 
careless destruction of the forest without justifiable cause, and 
by just so much curtailing the bountiful stores provided by 
nature for him and his progeny. Not only has he, like a spend- 
thrift, wasted his stores of useful material, but more—he has 
wasted the work of nature through thousands of years by the 
foolish destruction of the forest cover, wresting from it the toil- 
somely achieved victory over the soil. He has destroyed .the 
grasses and even all vestige of vegetation, and has handed over 
the naked soil to the action of wind and water. As the fertility 
and agriculture of the plain is dependent upon the regular and 
equable flow of water from the mountains, such as a forest cover 
alone can secure, he has by baring the slopes accomplished in 
many localities utter ruin to himself, and turned them back into 
inhospitable deserts as they first were before the struggle of the 
forest had made them inhabitable. 

One would hardly believe that certain mountains in France 
had ever seen a luxuriant forest growth, and could during 
historic times have been so utterly despoiled of their vegetal 
cover. Yet axe, fire and cattle have been most successful, and 
the consequences have been felt not only in the mountains, but 
in the valleys below. The waters in torrents have brought down 
the soil and débris, covering out of sight the fertile fields of 
thousands of toiling farmers. They themselves have brought 
this ruin upon them on account of their ignorance of the relation « 
of forest cover to their occupation. Now, with infinite hard 
work and expenditure of energy and money, the slow work of 
restoring the forest to its possessions has begun. The first work 
is to take care of the rain waters, and by artificial breaks turn 
them from rushing torrents over the bare surface into a succes- 
sion of gentle runs and falls by fascine and stone works. This 
work must be begun at the very top of the mountains, at the very 
source of the evil, where the water receives its first momentum 
in the descent to the valley. The fascines or wattles, laid across 
each rivulet at more or less frequent distances from each other 
and fastened down by heavy stones, are made of live willows or 
other readily sprouting species, which in course of time strike 
root and become living barriers. The pockets behind these 
breastworks gradually fill up, and the contour of the mountain 
side is changed from an even and rapid descent into a series of ° 
steps with gentle fall, over which the formerly rushing waters, 

Processes of Afforestation. 143 

gradually and without turbulence, find their way to the valley 
below. Where the incline is too steep and higher breastworks 
are necessary, they are made of masonry, sometimes at great 
expense. At the base of these overflow dams an opening is left 
for the water to drain through, even after the depression behind 
the rampart has filled up with débris and soil has washed down 
from above. Then, when in this way the soil has come to rest, 
forest planting begins, and gradually the torrent is “drowned in 
vegetation.” Sometimes, where on a steep mountain side the 
naked rock alone has been left, it becomes necessary to carry in 
baskets the soil to the trenches hewn in the rock, where the little 
seedlings may take their first hold, until they are strong enough 
to fight their own battle and make their own soil, gradually re- 
storing the beneficent conditions which nature had provided 
before the arrival of man and his senseless, improvident, self- 
destructive greed. By the irrational destruction of the forest, 
first for the supply of timber, then through the careless use of 
fire, by the clearing for unsuitable farm use, by excessive grazing 
of sheep and goat, the mountain sides themselves are not only 
devastated and made useless, but fertile farms for 200 miles from 
the source of the evil are ruined by the deposit of the débris, and 
the population pauperized and driven from their homes. Many 
millions of dollars have been and many more will have to be 
spent before these regions become habitable again. On plate 7 
are shown various views of these processes of afforestation as 
now practiced in France. 

That we are working in this country toward the same condi- 
tions is too well known to need rehearsal. Go to the shores of 
lake Michigan or visit the coast of New England, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, down to the Gulf, and you can see the destructive 
action of the shifting sands set loose by improvident removal of 
the plant-cover. Go to the Adirondacks, the highlands of Mis- 
sissippi, or the eastern slopes of the Rocky mountains, and as- 
pects similar to those derived from France will meet your view, 

Thus McGree graphically describes the formation of the Mis- 
sissippi bad lands :** 

With the moral revolution of the early sixties came an industrial evo- 
lution; the planter was impoverished, his sons were slain, his slaves were 
liberated, and he was fain either to vacate the plantation or greatly to 

*In a paper read before the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, at Washington, in 1891 (not printed). 

20—Nart. Geog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

144 B. E. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

restrict his operations. So the cultivated acres were abandoned by thou- 
sands. Then the hills, no longer protected by the forest foliage, no longer 
bound by the forest roots, no longer guarded by the bark and brush dam 
of the careful overseer, were attacked by raindrops and rain-born rivulets 
and gullied and channeled in all directions; each streamlet reached a 
hundred arms into the hills, each arm grasped with a hundred fingers a 
hundred shreds of soil, and as each shred was torn away the slope was 
steepened and the theft of the next storm made easier. 

So, storm by storm and year by year, the old fields were invaded by 
gullies, gorges, ravines and gulches, ever increasing in width and depth 
until whole hillsides were carved away, until the soil of a thousand 
years’ growth melted into the streams, until the fair acres of ante-bellum 
days were converted by hundreds into bad lands, desolate and dreary as 
those of the Dakotas. Over much of the upland the traveler is never out 
of sight of glaring sand wastes where once were fruitful fields; his way 
lies sometimes in, sometimes between, gullies and gorges, the “‘gulfs” of 
the blacks whose superstitions they arouse, sometimes shadowed by 
foliage, but oftener exposed to the glare of the sun reflected from barren 
sands. Here the road winds through a gorge so steep that the sunlight 
scarcely enters; there it traverses a narrow crest of earth between the 
chasms, scores of feet deep, in which he might be plunged by a single 
misstep. When the shower comes he may see the roadway rendered 
impassable, even obliterated, within a few minutes; always sees the fall- 
ing waters accumulate as viscid brown or red mud torrents, while the 
myriad miniature pinnacles and defiles before him are transformed by 
the beating raindrops and rushing rills so completely, that when the sun 
shines again he may not recognize the nearer landscape. 

This destruction is not confined to a single field or a single region, but 
extends over much of the upland. While the actual acreage of soil thus 
destroyed has not been measured, the traveler through the region on 
horseback daily sees thousands or tens of thousands of formerly fertile 
acres now barren sands; and it is probably within the truth to estimate 
that 10 per cent of upland Mississippi has been so far converted into bad 
lands as to be practically ruined for agriculture under existing commercial 
conditions, and that the annual loss in real estate exceeds the revenues 
from all sources; and all this hayoc has been Wrought within a quarter 
century. The processes, too, are cumulative ; each year’s rate of destruc- 
tion is higher than the last. 

The transformation of the fertile hills into sand wastes is not the sole 
injury. The sandy soil is carried into the valleys to bury the fields, in- 
vade the roadways, and convert the formerly rich bottom lands into 
treacherous quicksands when wet and blistering deserts when dry. Hun- 
dreds of thousands of acres have thus been destroyed since the gullying 
of hills began a quarter of a century ago. Moreover, in much of the up- 
lands the loss is not alone that of the soil, 7. e., the humus representing 
the constructive product of water work and plant work for thousands of 
years; but the mantle of brown loam, most excellent of soil stuffs, is cut 
through and carried away by corrasion and sapping, leaving in its stead 

Economic Value of Species. 145 

the inferior soil stuff of the Lafayette formation. In such eases the de- 
struction is irremediable by human craft—the fine loam once removed 
can never be restored. The area from which this loam is already gone is 
appalling, and the rate of loss is increasing in a geometric proportion. 

What the farmer has brought upon himself here by excessive 
clearing, the lumberer, prospector, miner or hunter prepares in 
the farther west by reckless and purposeless use of fire. Burnt 
mountain sides, where no living thing can subsist in comfort, 
cover not acres but hundreds of square miles in the western 
country. While the first fire only deadens the trees or under- 
mines their constitution, the second or third fire usually is suf- 
ficient to kill what remain alive and even to clean up the fallen 
timber. That these bald spots are not more frequent than they 
are is only due to the short period of our endeavors in disturb- 
ing the balance of nature. 

But as our nation prides itself on the rapidity of its develop- 
ment, exercising to the utmost our constructive energies, so do 
we excel in destructive and wasteful energies and tendencies, and 
we shall come to grief with our resources much sooner than some 
of our happy-go-lucky friends would like to make us believe. 
While these exhibitions of American vandalism are beyond the 
proprieties of legitimate warfare, there is not much more propriety 
or intelligence visible in the manner in which we levy tribute from 
the forest for our legitimate needs. Forests grow to be used, but 
there is a great difference between intelligent and unintelligent use. 
Improvidence and ignorance characterize the present methods 
of using the forest-growth. The value of it is not even known. 
Of the 425 or more species which are represented in the forests, 
not more than 40 or 50 at the most are found in the markets. 
Although, to be sure, many of the species are of but little or of 
no economic value, the number of the truly useful trees is prob- 
ably twice or three times as great as that actually used.  Igno- 
rance as to the true value of them keeps many from little more 
than simply a strictly local use or from their most fit employ- 
ment. The story of the black walnut used for fence rails or fire- 
wood is well known. Six yearsago the red gum or liquidambar, 
now a fashionable finishing material, was despised. Ten years 
ago large hemlock trees were mouldering in the woods after the 
bark had been taken for tanning purposes because the value of 
the wood was unknown. Cypress and Douglas spruce cannot yet 
overcome the prejudice of the market. On the other hand, cot- 

146 B. EB. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

tonwood and tulip poplar, not long ago among the despised or 
only locally used, can hardly now be furnished in sufficient 
quantities, and the long-leaf pine, which had been bled for tur- 
pentine, was considered an inferior material, which, as has lately 
been shown, is nothing but an unwarranted prejudice. 

In a vague empirical way the choice of the useful has been 
attempted and only lately have we begun to systematically study 
our forest resources, to determine the qualities and adaptabilities 
of our timbers, and to find out the conditions under which they 
produce not only the largest amount but the best quality of 

Yet in another direction do the forest users act unintelli- 
gently. As we have seen, most of our forest trees are of a so- 
cial character. With few exceptions, they keep. company with 
other kinds than their own; they appear in mixed forests. 
Hence, except where certain species as the pines and spruces 
become gregarious and form unmixed, pure forests, the axe of 
the lumberer does not as a rule level the entire forest, but he 
selects the kinds which he wishes to use—he culls the forest. 
At first sight this would appear rather an advantage for the 
existence of the forest. So it is from a botanical, geographic or 
landscape point of view, yet from an economic point it is exactly 
the reverse—it is disastrous. 

This can be readily understood if we recall our story of the 
battle of the forest monarchs among themselves, the struggle 
which each species sustains to occupy the ground. Man taking 
sides in the struggle by culling the best, the most useful, decides 
the battle for the least deserving, leaving the advantage to the 
scrubs and inferior tribes; and since these are left to overshadow 
the ground and to spread their own brood over the open spaces, 
the culled forest, while still a forest to the casual observer, has 
lost its economic value not only for the present, but for the 
future also, for it prevents the reproduction of the better kinds. 
The intelligent forester also acts as a partisan; he also uses the 
axe, but to better purpose. Before he utilizes the kinds for 
which he wishes to perpetuate the forest, he culls the inferior 
and leaves the superior—i. ¢., the most useful races; he gives 
direction and assists the most fit in the struggle for supremacy ; 
he substitutes artificial for natural selection, assuring the pro- 
tected survival of the most useful; he hastens the decision of 
the struggle by obviating, if possible, useless expenditure of 

German Method of Forest Management. 147 

energy by timely interference, thereby securing not only a larger 
total and more valuable product for the present, but a repro- 
duction of only the best kinds for the future. 

In the well managed forests of Germany the undeserving spe- 
cies are exterminated and the most useful fostered, just as the 
agriculturist exterminates the weeds and cultivates the crop. 
Not only is the forest there confined to those soils and locations 
which cannot be used to better advantage or which require a 
forest cover in order to protect the soil against detrimental dis- 

Figure 1.—A German spruce Forest under management. 

placement, but it is so managed as to become a more and more 
raluable resource, a crop of increasing importance, under the 
management of skilled foresters, of whom, in a late debate on 
the floor of the Landtag of Prussia, it was said that “ While most 
other productive business has declined, the forest administration 
has steadily improved and yielded increasing revenues.” In fig- 
ure 1 is shown one of these protected German forests of spruce, 
as they grow, not planted, but naturally regenerated by skillful 
management and use of the axe. 

148 B. E. Fernow—The Battle of the Forest. 

The battle of the forest in this country is now fought by man, 
the unintelligent and greedy carrying on a war of extermination, 
without the knowledge that their victory may lead eventually 
to their own destitution ; the intelligent and provident trying to 
defend the forest cover and endeavoring to prevent its removal 
from such lands as cannot serve a better purpose, and to restrict 
the use of the balance to such rational harvest of its material, 
without injurious effects on soil and water conditions, as will 
insure an ever reproducing crop and a permanent national re- 

While man may study the geography of the earth as it exists, 
here is about the only opportunity for him to make geography, 
to shape the surface conditions of the earth, and even to some 
extent influence its climatic conditions. 

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The figures on the border show the numbers of the milestones marking the boundary and their 
distances apart in feet. One mile equals 5,280 feet. 

A = Capitol stone.—South of the White House and west of the south end of the old Capitol. Un- 
dressed and unmarked sandstone, abont 4 feet high, set in 1804, now gone and site unmarked. 

B = Jefferson stone.—South of center of White House and west of center of Capitol. A ‘‘freestone 
obelisk,” set in 1804, 175 feet 844 inches north of the Capitol stone; said to be now used as a hitching 
post at the Reform school. Site now marked by a granite post flush with sod in the Monument lot. 

C = Center of the original District of Columbia.—It is near the corner of Seventeenth and C streets, 
being 1,305 feet north and 1,579 feet west of the Washington monument. 

D = Stake at intersection of “ Sixteenth and northern edge of north I street *»—Set in 1804. Whether still 
in place is not known. 

Meridian Hill—“A freestone obelisk,’ set in 1804, ‘to mark the initial meridian for longitudes in 
the United States.” Stone gone and site unmarked. Stone said to be in use asa carriage step at 
Fourteenth and R streets; also said to be in use as a hitehing post at the Reform school. 

VoL. VI, PP. 149-178, PL. 9 NOVEMBER 1, 1894 





(Presented before the Society March 23, 1894.) 

On the 15th of April, 1791, there was laid, with solemn and 
elaborate masonic ceremonial, the corner stone of the District of 
Columbia. This stone, still standing, though hidden from view, 
forms a part of the foundation wall of the lighthouse at Jones 
point, near Alexandria, Virginia. It is under the gateway in 
front of the south door of the lighthouse. The long and tedious 
discussion which led to the selection of a district, not to exceed 
ten miles square, on the banks of the Potomac, between its Kastern 
branch and the Conogocheague, does not belong to the present 
theme. It suffices to say that selection had been made by act of 
Congress July 16,1790. Under this authority President Wash- 
ington directed a preliminary or provisional survey of the area to 
be taken for the Federal Government. This preliminary survey 
he directed should begin at a point on Hunting creek determined 

21—Nart. Grog. Maa., vor. VI, 1894. (149) 

150 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

-by running a line from Alexandria courthouse southwestward 
half a mile and thence southeastward to the northern shore of 
Hunting creek. From the point so found a tract substantially 
like the District of Columbia as it existed prior to the retroces- 
sion of Alexandria county to Virginia, in 1846, was selected ; 
but this tract included a portion of Maryland lying south of the 
Kastern branch of the Potomac, or Anacostia river, and could 
not be taken under the terms of the act, which provided that the 
Federal territory should le wholly north of the Eastern branch. 
This being reported to Congress, an amended act was promptly 
passed authorizing the boundaries of the District as originally 
laid out. Washington then gave directions for running the de- 
finitive boundary lines. As is well known, Washington was a 
surveyor, and therefore well qualified to draw up instructions to 
surveyors. It is interesting to quote his language: 

Now, therefore, for the purpose of amending and completing the loca- 
tion of the whole of said territory of ten miles square, in conformity 
with the said amendatory act of Congress, I do hereby declare and make 
known that the whole of said territory shall be located and included 
within the four lines following, that is to say: 

Beginning at Jones point, being the upper cape of Hunting creek, in 
Virginia, and at an angle in the outset of forty-five degrees west of the 
north, and running in a direct line ten miles, for the first line; then 
beginning again at the same Jones point and running another direct 
line, at a right angle with the first, across the Potomac ten miles, for a 
second line; thence from the termination of said first and second lines, 
running two other lines of ten miles each, the one crossing the Eastern 
branch aforesaid and the other the Potomac, and meeting each other 
in a point. 

To take charge of the newly created territory, supervise 
its survey, and attend to the business growing out of its con- 
demnation for public use, Washington appointed, January 22, 
1791, three commissioners, Thomas Johnson, Daniel Carroll, 
then a member of Congress from Maryland, and Dr David 

Two months later, March 28, 1791, Washington arrived in 
Georgetown from Philadelphia, and the next day made a tour 
of inspection of the District in company with the three com- 
missioners and two surveyors, Andrew Ellicott and Major Peter 
Charles L’Enfant. The commissioners held their first meeting 
on the 12th of April following, in Georgetown, and three days 


The first Survey of the District. 151 

later, namely, the 15th of April, 1791, as already mentioned, the 
corner stone at Jones point was laid with solemn masonic cere- 
monial, in the presence of a large gathering of citizens, chiefly 
from Alexandria. The survey then proceeded, and in Septem- 
ber following the commissioners decided upon the name which 

was to be given to this new Federal territory and the city to be 

created within it. They ordered that the title of the map pre- 
pared by Major Ellicott should be “A map of the city of Wash- 
ington, in the Territory of Columbia.” Before this time the 
future city was referred to as the Federal city. 

How the boundaries of the District were run I do not know, 
but suppose that it was done with transit and chain. As the 
country was timbered, and as the boundary crossed the Potomac 
twice and the Eastern branch once, it will be seen that the task 
was not a perfectly simple one. It appears that the work of 
measuring and staking out the outline of the District was com- 
pleted in 1791; that during the following year the line was 
cleared of timber to the width of 20 feet on each side; and that 
in this 40-foot lane through the woods stone mileposts were 
erected. These posts are two feet high and one foot square. 
They are marked on the District side, “JURISDICTION of the 
UNITED STATES,” followed by an inscription showing the dis- 
tances from that corner of the District from which they are num- 
bered, such as “Miles 3,” “Miles 6 & zo P.,” etc; on the opposite 
side, “Maryland” (or “ VIRGINIA”); on the third side. the year 
“7792” (except the Virginia stones, marked “z797”); and on 
the fourth side, the variation of the compass. The stones are 
numbered from 1 to 9 on each line, from south to west, west to 
north, ete.* 

About ten years ago the Coast Survey executed a triangula- 
tion for the purpose of determining the geographic positions of 

* Since the foregoing was written I have personally visited and inspected 
most of the boundary monuments of the original District of Columbia, 
set in 1791 and 1792. Though this inspection is still incomplete, it is 
deemed advisable to print here the following table, showing the condi- 
tion of the monuments so far as inspected, and especially to print the 
variation of the compass recorded upon them. ‘These variations are the 
earliest ones observed and recorded for the District of Columbia, and 
the only record of them known to me is upon these boundary monu- 
ments. These monuments are of Aquia creek sandstone and were sawed 
out. Through abuse and exposure to the weather the inscriptions are 
becoming obscured, a few being already totally lost. 

152 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

the corners of the original 
District, as well as some other 
points. The work was done 
by Mr C. H. Sinclair, of the 
United States Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey. To his courtesy 
and that of the Coast Survey 
office I am indebted for the 
following facts respecting the 
boundary line. The District. 
is not an exact square or 
spherical quadrilateral. Its 
distortion, much exaggerated, 
is shown in figure 1. The 
northern point is not exactly 
north of the southern point, but bears 5’ 19”.7 west of north of it. 

Figure 1.—District of Columbia. 

Bounpary MoNuMENTS OF THE DistRicr oF COLUMBIA. 

Erected in 1791-92. Condition in 1894. 

Monu-} Varia- Monu-} Varia- 

Condition, ete. Condition, ete. 

tion; open field. 0° 24’ E. | Erect; good condition. 

ment. tion. ment. tion. 
S. ? Invisible; built into L. N. 1° 2?” KE. | Fair condition; erect. 
H. wall. N. E.1 | 1° 06’ E. | Fair condition ; leaning. 
S. W. 1 | 0°30’ W. | Erect; good condition. 2|1°12’ KE. | Fair condition; erect. 
BN 2 Stone gone. 3 | 0° 18’ W. | Fair condition; erect. 
3 |? ? E.| Very bad ‘condition; 4 | 0° 25’ W. | Good condition; erect 
figures illegible. 5 | 0° 22’ K. | Leaning; fair condition. 
Aled thos eene yesced HocsSeibeg ice eee ean eae 6 | 0° 51’ E. | Erect; very good condi- 
I3) I cnoedosspeasadal | eacennccaSeaeccsbacoce cheacamcmcoosos tion. 
GME eee Me see mow euuele clacton es eerie Sena 7 |1°08’ BE. | Erect; seamed; in 
7 | 0°05’ BE. | Leaning; bad condi- woods. 

8 0° 19’ E. | Poor condition; erect. 
W. : 0° 10’ E. | Ereet; good condition. 
N.W.1 Lal tess abaccceus| checesseedceesssebecedecccet seeeeeenee 
-2 Erect; bad condition; 2 | 0° 04’ EB. | Erect; excellent condi- 
in woods. tion. 
3 Broken down by army 3 | 0° 08’ W.| Bad condition. 
wagon ; very bad con- 4 ¥ lilegible ; very bad con- 
dition. | dition. 
4 | 0° 03’ W.| Erect; fair condition; 5 | 0° 21’ KF. | Ereet; fair condition. 
in woods. 6 | 0° 18’ E. | Erect; excellent condi- 
5 | 0° 42” W.| Erect; fair condition. tion. 
6 2 Illegible; bad condi- 7 | 0° 25’ E. | Buried nearly out of 
tion; at roadside. sight. 
7 | 0° 59’ E. | Erect; good conuition; 8 | Q° 34 E. | Partly buried inswampy 
in meadow. thicket. 
8 | 0° 29’ E. | Erect; fair condition ; 9 | 0° 37’ E. | Leaning; atriver edge; 
in young timber. fair condition. 
9 | 2°00’ E. | Hreet; fair condition; 
in thick woods. 
Variation in 1792, teste Ellicott, mean of 27 ValUeS.........ccccceceeeeeeseeeee 0° 25’ BE. 
Variabionyimy 1894 (aSSunredi)iss.ste. ccevececcssssrsereccerese re ce reee rece ee ee eae 4° 25’ W. 
Change in 102 years.............. = wpe 42 50! 

Change Wy Vy Oars es. atesc ces ve sedencedes ocesde verevetsuecteeebaeescteeeee ence oe 0° 2/.8 

The Shape of the District. 158 

It is therefore 116 feet west of the meridian through the southern 
corner. The lengths of the four sides, intended to be exac tly te n 
miles long. are found to be in fact as follows: 

Southwestern side is 10 miles plus 230.6 feet long. 

Northeastemn “ “ 10 « GOB o 4 « 
Southeastern “ “10 “ aS (ta 
Northwestern “ “10 ‘* To a 

Thus the District is approximately a rectangle, the north- 
eastern and southwestern sides exceeding ten miles by about 245 
feet, and the southeastern and northwestern sides each exceeding 
ten miles by about 65 feet. If a more critical examination be 
made, it will be found that the distances between the various 
mileposts differ quite sensibly from miles, and it will be found 
further that the stones are not in line. . The actual lengths of 
these supposed miles may be seen on plate 9. 

As to direction, consider line number 1, or the southwestern 
line. It is intended to bear 45° west of north. Its actual direc- 
tion, as now appears from the Coast Survey determinations 
already referred to, is 44° 59’ 24”.6 west of north, or about half 
a minute less than intended. ‘The second, or southeastern line, 
which was to bear north 45° east, is found actually to bear north 
45° 1’ 45.6 east, exceeding the intended value by 

Site of Washington before 1790.—How did the site of Washing- 
ton and the District of Columbia look beforé 1790? No contem- 
porary map, so far as I know, exists to answer this question. 
Still, scattered bits of information here and there, diligently and 
patiently collected by Dr J. M. Toner, have enabled a map to be 
made which in part answers the question. Twenty years ago 
Messrs E. F. M. Faehtz and F. W. Pratt, authors and publishers 
of a real estate directory of Washington, published a book en- 
a “Washington in Embryo,” in an they include a m: ay 

“compiled from the rare historical researches of Dr J. M. T oner. 
This map shows the drainage, farm outlines, etc, of the tract on 
which Ellicott laid out a great city in 1791. Within this tract 
existed one real and two paper towns. Georgetown was the real 
town, and had been in existence some 35 or 40 years, while 
Carrollsburg and Hamburgh existed on paper only. 

Carrollsburg was a tract of 160 acres on the northern bank of 
the Anacostia, just east of the Arsenal grounds. Before its sub- 
division into 268 town lots it was known as Duddington manor 

154 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

or Duddington pasture. The town laid out in the latter part of 
1770, near the deepest water of the Eastern branch, was doubtless 
named after Daniel Carroll, an extensive land owner on Capitol 
hill. The subdivision was made under a deed of trust recorded 
at Marlborough, Maryland, November 2, 1770. 

Hamburgh is or was the name of a town surveyed and laid 
off in town lots by its owner, Jacob Funk, whose plat is recorded 
at Marlborough, Maryland, October 28, 1771. The tract em- 
braced 120 acres and was divided into 287 lots. The town was 
located with reference to deep water in the Potomac, and occu- 
pied in part the site of the old Naval Observatory. It was some- 
times called Funkstown, after its owner. 

The L’ Enfant and Ellicott Maps.—Preceding and during the 
surveys already described, a French engineer, Major Peter 
Charles L’Enfant, was engaged under Washington’s direction in 
planning the future capital. The map which he prepared may 
be called a paper map—that is, it was a project in which the 
city was laid out on paper. This, the first map of Washington, 
is now in the custody of the commissioner of public buildings 
and grounds, in the War Department. Having become much 
faded and worn with use, it was a few years since sent to the. 
Coast Survey office, where it was very carefully traced and a 
photolithographic copy of it prepared. 

After the approval of L’Enfant’s plan, the next step was to lay 
out the streets, parks, reservations, etc, upon the ground. This 
work was entrusted to Major Andrew Ellicott, and his map 
appears to have been first engraved in 1792. The manner in 
which the city was laid out is told in a note upon the map itself, 
‘which is as follows: 

In order to execute this plan, Mr Ellicott drew a true meridional line 
by celestial observation, which passes through the area intended for the 
Capitol; this line he crossed by another due east and west, which passes 
thfough the same area. These lines were accurately measured and made 
the base on which the whole plan was executed. He ran all the lines by 
a transit instrument and determined the acute angles by actual measure- 
ment, and left nothing to the uncertainty of the compass. 

Near the intersection of North Capitol and R streets is, or till 
recently was, a monument, which I have not seen, said to be 
some fifteen feet high, on land owned by a Mr Beall. I have 
been unable to secure definite information as to the purpose of 
this monument orits use. Itseems probable that it was a mon- 

The government Survey of Vacancies. 155 

ument erected by Mr Ellicott as an azimuth mark, and its recent 
destruction is therefore regretable. 

The boundary line, as has been seen, was run out in 1791. It 
was cleared of timber and most of the milestones set during the 
following year, 1792, and it is probable that during this same year 
Ellicott produced the general topographic map of the entire Dis- 
trict, the date of publication of which is uncertain. The only 
eopy of this map of the District known to me is in the Library 
of Congress, entitled “ Territory of Columbia, drawn by Andrew 
Ellicott.” Its conjectural date, added in pencil, is 1793. This 
map was republished in 1852, the republication being seemingly 


a facsimile in all respects, except the omission of the phrase 
“drawn by Andrew Ellicott.” Reduced copies of it have been 
several times published. Down to the publication of Boschke’s 
map of the District at the outbreak of the war, this topographic 
map of the District by Ellicott is apparently the only one ever 

Land Office Surveys—In the surveying division of the General 
Land Office is a not very large package of papers relating to sur- 
veys by the United States of public lands in the District of 
Columbia. The ragged and yellow label, written in a large, fair 
hand, runs thus: “ Papers relating to applications to appropriate 
certain lands in the District of Columbia under the provisions 
of the joint resolution of Congress of February 16, 1839,” ete. 

This package contains all the papers in the General Land 
Office relating to public land surveys in the District of Columbia, 
the history of which is briefly this: After the settlement of the 
District of Columbia had progressed for some years or decades, 
it was found that here and there errors had been madé by sur- 
veyors in staking out or marking the boundaries of lots, farms, 
and estates. In some cases a tract might by the terms of its 
description be counted in two adjoining tracts, and so two people 
might claim the same tract. In other cases tracts supposed to 
adjoin were found not to touch, and there would thus bea tract 
lying between which had ne private owner. This tract then 
belonged to the United States. The person discovering this error 
naturally wished to acquire possession of this now valuable land. 
That he might do so, congressional authority was necessary. 
Accordingly, on February 16, 1839, a joint resolution was passed 
by Congress permitting purchase under the old Maryland law of 
1801, which provided for the sale of “ vacancies ”’—7. ¢., un- 

156 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

occupied or unclaimed land. Under this provision the General 
Land Office acted as the local land office for the District of 
Columbia, and whenever vacancies were discovered and reported 
a request for survey was presented. A deposit of three shillings 
and six pence per acre, Maryland money, was required, and an 
additional charge of four shillings was afterward required to 
complete the purchase, which thus cost the purchaser seven 
shillings and six pence, or one dollar, per acre. It is interesting 
to note that under this law the General Land Office has received 
applications for and has made surveys of about 60 tracts in the 
District of Columbia. Perhaps the most noteworthy case was 
that of the Kidwell bottoms, or Potomac flats, as we now call 

The Boschke Maps.—Albert Boschke was a German employed 
in the Coast Survey before the war. He conceived the idea of 
making a very accurate map of Washington and of the District 
of Columbia, with the hope of selling to the Government. 

He was at the time employed in the drawing division of the 
Coast Survey, and while so employed organized a corps of sur- 
veyors at his own expense to do the fieldwork. This gradually 
absorbed his time and thought, led to irregular attendance at the 
office, and finally to his enforced resignation from the survey. 

Two maps resulted from his work, one a map of the whole 
District, the other a map of the city. The map of the District 
is usually spoken of as the Boschke map. It was engraved upon 
copper by Mr David McClelland, and was just about to be pub- 
lished—indeed, a few copies or proofs had been printed—when, 
the war breaking out, the Government seized the map and plates. 

The map of the city was produced first and published in 1857. 
It is interesting from the fact that the houses were drawn from 
actual tape-line measures in the field and drawn with scrupulous 
painstaking. It is also interesting as being one of the early 
pieces of work of the well-known firm of lithographers, Bien & 
Company, of New York. . 

The field-work of the District map was based primarily upon 
a line from the dome of the Capitol to the Naval Observatory. 
The data was taken from the Coast Survey Report for 1851, and 
the position of the observatory as there given was assumed by 
Boschke to refer to the transit circle. 

It subsequently appeared that it referred to the station on the 
roof from which angles had been measured, and his base line 

The Confiscation of Boschke’s Map. 157 

was thus in error by about eight feet. This small error is still in 
the map. 

The roads were meandered by two parties, one with transit 
and chain, the other with a level. Their results being platted, 
the plats were taken to the field and the contours and other 
details sketched in. 

The Virginian part of the District, it will be remembered, had 
been ceded back to Virginia in 1846. Boschke’s map did not, 
therefore, include any of the topography in Alexandria county. 
That which now appears on the so-called Boschke map was 
added by two Coast Survey officers, Messrs Dorr and Rockwell, 
in the first year of the war. At ae outbreak of the war Ne 
United States had no topographic map of the District, the only 
topographic map existing being the manuscript produced by 
Boschke. He sold his interest in it to Messrs Blagden, Sweeney, 
and McClelland. Mr McClelland is an engraver, now seventy- 
four years old, living in Le Droit park. Heengraved the Boschke 
map, which was executed on two plates. With his partners, he 
agreed to sell the manuscript and plates to the Government for 
$20,000. Secretary of War Stanton, not apparently understand- 
ing the labor and expense of a topographic map, thought that 
$500 was a large sum. There was, therefore, a disagreement as 
to price. After some negotiations, Mr McClelland and his part- 
ners offered all the material, copper-plates and manuscript, to 
the Government for $4,000, on condition that the plates, with 
the copyright, should be returned to them at the close of the war. 
This offer also was refused. There then appeared at Mr McClel- 
land’s house in Le Droit park a lieutenant, with a squad of 
soldiers and an order from the Secretary of War to seize all the 
material relating to thismap. Mr McClelland accordingly loaded 
all the material into his own wagon and, escorted by a file of 
soldiers on either side, drove to the War Department and left the 
material. While the war was still in progress, after further con- 
ference, Secretary Stanton agreed to refer the question of pay- 
ment for this property to the Committee on War Claims. That 
committee recommended a payment of $8,590, and the owners, 
regarding this amount in cash as worth more than future uncer- 
tainties, decided to accept it. Thus all the material became 
Government property at a cost of $8,500, and the plates, two in 
number, are now in possession of the War Department. Electro- 
plate copies of them are also in the possession of the Coast 
. 22—Nar, Geog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. > 

158 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

Survey. A subsequent claim for the difference between $8,500 
and $20,000, the price asked, was presented to Congress, which 
decided that the acceptance of the $8,500 settled the claim, and 
no more has ever been allowed. 

United States Geological Survey Map—In 1885-’86 the United 
States Geological Survey made a contour topographic map of 
the District and surrounding country in Maryland and Virginia. 
This map is a part of the general topographic map of the United 
States which that survey hasin hand. The hill forms are shown 
by means of contours with intervals of twenty feet. The scale is 
one mile, approximately, to oneinch. Existing maps were used 
in its preparation so far as they were available, and for the rest 
the work was done in the field. The method followed was 
largely that of traversing, the traverse lines being controlled by 

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Map.—A very elaborate 
and detailed topographic survey of the District of Columbia was 
instituted in 1881. In the District of Columbia appropriation 
bill for the fiscal year 1880-’81 there was inserted an item appro- 
priating $5,000 “for surveys of the District of Columbia, with 
reference to the future extension of various avenues to the Dis- 
trict line.” Under the authority thus given, topographers from 
the Coast Survey were detailed to execute the work. It was 
arranged that the map should be on ascale of 1:4800, or 400 feet 
to an inch. This is a scale of about 15 inches to the mile. The 
work was planned to be most accurate and detailed, and the 
relief was to be expressed in contours, with a five-foot interval. 
The survey thus planned and begun is now completed, and 
covers the entire District outside the original limits of Washing- 
ton and Georgetown—that is, it covers an area of 48.2 square 
miles. Work was in progress during the ten years, 1881-1891, 
in which there was specifically appropriated for it $65,600. The 
resulting map sheets are not yet published. Some photolitho- 
graphic sheets have been issued from time to time, but they do 
not cover the entire area. The work is being engraved upon 
copper and printed in four colors—black for culture, blue for 
water, brown for hill forms, and green for woodland. A few such 
sheets have been issued, each sheet covering about one square 
mile. It will be seen that this survey is one of the most de- 
tailed, elaborate, and careful pieces of topography that has been 
executed in this country up to date, and its publication is 


The first Meridian. 159 

awaited with interest.* It is proposed to number the sheets con- 
secutively from 1 to 100. If the original District of ten miles 
square be subdivided into 100 square miles there will be one 
atlas sheet to each square mile. Beginning at the northern 
corner of the District and running southeastward, the sheets will 
be numbered 1, 2,3, etc, up to 10; thence returning to the north- 
western side, the next row will be numbered 11, 12, 13, etc, to 20, 
and so on to complete the entire District. 

The First Meridian.—Old residents of Washington and some of 
the modern ones also know the term Meridian hill. The story 
of this name is a story of surveying and thus a part of our theme. 
A hundred years ago it was the custom of various nations to 
reckon longitude from their own capitals—a bad custom not yet 
quite dead. Our grandsires, proposing to follow this practice, 
gave early attention to establishing a first meridian. Joined to 
it was the idea of a national observatory and American ephem- 
eris, to the end that the young republic might in these respects 
as well as in all others be quite free from dependence on foreign 
nations. The complete story of this first meridian seems to be 
still unwritten. 

On L’Enfant’s plan for the Federal city the letter b appears 
on the site of the Emancipation statue in Lincoln park, about a 
mile east of the Capitol. A marginal note indicates the plan 
proposed for this place, to wit: 

An historic column; also intended for a mile or itinerary column, from 

whose station (a mile from the Federal house) all distances of places 
through the continent are to be calculated. 

This appears to indicate that L’Enfant planned to have the 
primary meridian of the United States pass through a point ex- 
actly one mile east of the Capitol. Still this is not certain, as 
the only evidence discovered is the marginal note just cited. On 
the same map the longitude of the Capitol is given as 0° 0, 7. e., 
according to this note the first meridian was to pass through the 
Capitol, or Congress house, as it was then called. As a first 
meridian could not at the same time pass through the Congress 
house and a point one mile east of the Congress house, it seems 
likely that the eastern one never got beyond the suggestion or 
proposal on the original plan. 

*Since this was written and while this article is in press the Coast 
Survey has issued a map of the District of Columbia in five sheets. It is 
a black photolithograph ; scale, 1:9600, or 800 feet to an inch. 

160 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

When in 1791-92 Ellicott laid off the streets, avenues, reser- 
vations (or appropriations, as they were then called), he began 
by drawing “a true meridional line by celestial observation, 
which passes through the area intended for the Congress house ; 
this line he crossed by another due east and west, which passes 
through the same area. These lines were accurately measured 
and made the bases on which the whole plan was executed.” 

This line of Ellicott’s is probably, perhaps surely, the first 
meridian laid down on the ground in the District of Columbia, 
and may have been designed for two purposes: first, to serve 
locally as a reference or base-line from which to lay out the then 
imaginary city, and second, to serve as a first meridian from 
which to reckon longitudes in the very young and very patriotic 

Now Meridian hill is not north of the Capitol, but north of the 
White House, at the head of Sixteenth street, and so we have 
another meridian to consider. 

In the State Department is a letter from Nicholas King, S.C. W. 
(which I take to mean surveyor city of Washington), to the 
President of the United States (Jefferson) relative to a meridian 
line through the President’s house. It is dated October 15, 1804, 
and uponit are two endorsements. The first is “ Nicholas King. 
15 Oct’. 1804. Meridian Line through the centre of the Presi- 
dent’s house.” The second is “ King Nich*. Surveyor’s office 
Oct. 15, 04. rec*. Oct. 15. to be filed in the office of state as a 
record of the demarcation of the 1“. meridian of the U. 8.” 

This is an important letter,* and as it appears not to have 
been published, I have appended a copy of it to this paper. 

It appears that Mr King, under the direction of a Mr Briggs, 
laid out a meridian line along Sixteenth street in 1804. Who 
ordered this work done I do not know; but as Mr King, who 
ran the line, made a report to President Jefferson, and as this re- 
port was sent to the State Department and endorsed to be filed 
as a record of the demarcation of the first meridian of the United 
States, I infer that the work was done at the instigation of Presi- 
dent Jefferson and for the purpose of marking the initial me- 
ridian line from which longitudes were to be counted in the 
United States. 

*T am indebted to the courtesy of Mr Fred L. Harvey, formerly secre- 
tary of the Washington National Monument Association, for calling my 
5 Secliceal -, : 
attention to and furnishing me with a copy of this letter. 

The Survey of the first Meridian. 161 

Thus I infer that L’Enfant planned to have the first meridian 
pass through a point exactly one mile east of the Capitol; that 
President Jefferson planned to have the first meridian pass 
through the President’s house, about one and one-half miles 
west of the Capitol, whereas the meridian afterward adopted 
by Congress was that of the Capitol itself. 

The meridian through the President’s house was, as already 
indicated, run out in 1804 by Nicholas King. Setting up his 
transit at the northern door of the White House and pointing to 
the star “in the tail of the constellation Ursa Minor at its eastern 
elongation,” he then depressed the telescope to sight a mark at 
the intersection of Sixteenth and north I streets. This mark 
was an Argand lamp placed on a very low stand. Over the 
lamp was a tin cylinder with a slit init. The offset or distance 
from this mark westward to the true meridian line was then 
calculated and very carefully measured, and the meridian “line 
marked on the head of a post firmly driven into the ground” 
at the intersection of Sixteenth street with the northern side of 
north I street. No surface marks now show the place of this 
historic post. Is it or its decayed remains still in place beneath 
the pavement or was it removed long ago? The telescope was 
now elevated and pointed due north “to the top of a hill near 
two miles north of the President’s house, on the lands of Mr 
Robert Peter, where temporary posts were fixed and the line 
marked upon them.” 

Early in September of 1804 Mr King, with the consent of Mr 
Peter, “planted a small obelisk of freestone, prepared by Mr 
Blagden, on the height where the stakes (or posts) had been 
fixed.” The apex of this stone was in the true meridian from 
the center of the northern door of the White House. 

The line was extended southward across Tiber creek and two 
stones planted near the site of the future Washington monu- 
ment. It was planned to set a stone exactly south of the center 
of the President’s house and exactly west of the center of the 
Capitol. The surveyor, on reaching this spot and finding the 
Capitol invisible, prolonged the line and set a stone at the inter- 
section of the meridian and a line due west from the southern 
end of the old Capitol. This stone was standing when I came to 
Washington, some twenty years ago; I have seen it many times. 
It was a rough brownish sandstone or freestone about 10 inches 
square and 3 to 4 feet high. I do not remember any marks or 

162 AM. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

inscription upon it. It was always pointed out to me as the 
center of the District. In the recently published centennial 
history of Washington this is called the Capitol stone. It is now 
gone and its site is unmarked. 

After establishing the Capitol stone Mr King measured back 
toward the White House 175 feet 83 inches, a distance just one- 
half of the length of the Capitol as it then existed, and here 
erected a monument. Of the spot and its mark he says: 

It is on the south bank of Tyber creek, and marked by the erection of 
a small pier, covered by a flat freestone, on which the lines are drawn. 

Ex-Commissioner Webb, in his centennial history of Wash- 
ineton, already mentioned, page 28, calls this the Jefferson stone 
or Center stone and describes it, as also its removal in 1872 by 
order of General Babcock, who seems not to have been aware of 
its character or history. 

It seems probable that this Jefferson stone was removed when 
grading was in progress and the Capitol stone carefully preserved ; 
that later the relation of these stones, as has been described 
above, became known to the engineers, who then set a new stone 
in place of the removed Jefferson stone, and then removed the 
Capitol stone. 

The more or less exact site of the Jefferson stone is now 
marked by a cut granite stone (or post) planted nearly flush 
with the ground and marked by a deep cut across, north and 
south by east and west. It may be seen on the green lawn on 
the eastern side of and near to the driveway west-northwest from 
the Monument. 

Recapitulating, then, we find that along the meridian line 
through the White House, run in 1804, were three stone monu- 
ments—Meridian stone, Jefferson stone, and Capitol stone, and 
a wooden post at I street north. The Meridian stone is gone 
and its site is unmarked. The Capitol stone is gone and its site 
isunmarked. The Jefferson stone is gone, but its site is marked, 
Some suitable label or inscription would, however, add greatly 
to the interest of this mark, which is, as it now stands, meaning- 
less to most people. And, lastly, the forgotten post on I street. 
Of this we have no present knowledge. 

A word now about the stone on Meridian hill. It will be re- 
membered that Commodore (afterward Admiral) Porter had a 
mansion on the old Peter place, at the head of Sixteenth street. 
Its main entrance was due north of the main entrance to the 


The present location of the Meridian Stone. 163 

White House. Exactly in line between these doorways, on the 
lawn south of the house, stood a low sandstone block, on which 
was placed a brass sun-dial. The stone was carved in cylindrical 
form on its northern side. This stone, so the story goes, was 
removed when Sixteenth-street hill was cut down some twenty 
years ago, and is now doing duty as a carriage step at the corner 
of Fourteenth and R streets. On talking with the owner of the 
place at Fourteenth and R streets, however, he denied vigorously 
that this was the Meridian stone. He described the Meridian 
stone as similar to the Capitol stone; and Mr King, who set the 
Meridian stone and the Capitol stone in 1804, also describes them 
as similar. I infer, therefore, that two stones at the head of 
Sixteenth street have been called Meridian stone. The original 
one, stili extant, is said to be now serving as a hitching post in 
front of the Reform school. The carriage step at Fourteenth 
and R streets is probably a later stone set up asa base or support 
for a sun-dial, and came to be known as the Meridian stone to 
the exclusion of the original freestone obelisk. 

The Center of the District—It is commonly stated and believed 
- that the Jefferson stone was established at the exact center of 
the original District, and that the Washington monument, which 
is less than 200 feet therefrom, practically marks such center. 
Unless I am mistaken, this is an error, and the center of the 
original District is nearly half a mile (2,048 feet N. 502° W.) 
northwest from the monument. ; 

When Ellicott marked out the District boundary he had to 
find a true meridian line astronomically. This he did at Jones 
point, but I do not know of anything to show that he ran this 
“true meridional line” through the present Washington. It is 
stated in the recent centennial history that he did, but on what 
evidence does not appear. It is also stated that this line ran 
exactly through the middle of the White House and up Sixteenth 
street, but the surveys now available show that the meridian of 
Jones point passes west of the State, War, and Navy building 
and nearly along Highteenth street. 

Itseems to have been assumed that because Ellicott determined 
the meridian at Jones point that he ran that meridian through 
Washington, and that the terms Meridian stone, Meridian hill, 
Meridian hill farm, ete, are derived from his work, whereas the 
facts seem to show that these names are due to the work of 
another surveyor, working thirteen years later, under different 

164. M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

instructions, on a different problem, and for a quite distinet 
purpose. In short, the Sixteenth-street meridian, established in 
1804, is quite independent of the center of the District and quite 
independent of Ellicott’s survey. 

The location of the center of the original District is one proof 
of this. This central point is at the intersection of the diagonals. 
The latitudes and longitudes of the four original corners and of 
the Washington monument enable us to make the following 
comparison : 

Longitude west 

Latitude north. | o¢ Greenwich. 

CenteriofoWistrictaeet anes: see ens 38° 53’ 34/7.915 | 77° 027 27/7. 749 
Washington monument............... 38° 53/ 22/7.02 | 77° 027 0777.78 

MDitierencessee eee eee 12/7.895 19/7.965 

It thus appears that the center of the District is 12”.895 or 
1,305 feet farther north and 19”.965 or 1,579 feet farther west 
than the monument. This locates it on or near C street north, 
between Seventeenth and Highteenth streets west. This is the 
center of the original District. 


Surveyor’s Orricr, 15th Octr., 1804. 

Str: Being requested by Mr Briggs to assist him in running a true 
meridian line which should pass through the center of the President’s 
house, and to perpetuate the same, as also the point of intersection by a 
due west line drawn from the center of the Capitol by fixing permanent 
marks thereon, and as the pressure of other official engagements pre- 
vented his attention to more than ascertaining the meridian line and 
marking it temporarily, it devolves on me to describe the mode pursued 
in ascertaining the line and the required intersections, that others may 
know what dependence is to be placed on their accuracy. 

In running the meridian line I acted only in the capacity of assistant, 
conforming entirely to the instructions of Mr Briggs, and executing with 
all the care in my power the marking of his temporary line, agreeably to 
his signals and instructions, in giving which I believe he used all the 
accuracy of which the instrument was capable. 

The Survey of the Meridian Line. 165 

With a new transit instrument, executed by Voigt of Philadelphia, he 
ascertained the place of the star, in the tail of the constellation Ursa 
Minor, on its greatest eastern elongation, and, continuing the vertical 
circle to the surface of the ground by the instrument, he determined the 
bearing, in the line of which on a very low stand was placed one of 
Argand’s lamps covered by a tin cylinder, in which a small slit was made 
for a sight, and the line from the light toward the instrument was drawn 
upon the stand. Knowing the radius of the circle described by the star, 
or half the angle formed by its greatest elongations, east and west, and 
the altitude of the pole, he by calculation deduced the horizontal angle 
made by two vertical circles, one of which is the meridian passing through 
the pole; the other through the star’s place when farthest east. This 
horizontal angle being found, and the base line measured from the place 
of the instrument (the north door of the President’s house) to where 
it is intersected by an east-and-west line from the place of the light 
or sight used (the north side of north I street), afforded the necessary 
data for calculating the distance to be measured west from the place of 
the sight to the true meridian line, which offset was very carefully made 
and the line marked on the head of a post firmly driven into the 
ground. The meridian being thus fixed and a point found due north 
from the place of observation, the line was continued by the instrument 
at one sight and tested by reversing the telescope at an intermediate sta- 
tion in the line to the top of a hill nearly two miles north of the Presi- 
dent’s house, on the lands of Mr Robert Peter, where temporary posts 
were fixed and the line marked upon them, according to the instructions 
by signal from Mr Briggs at the instrument. From the President’s house 
the line was reversed by the instrument and continued south across the 
Tyber creek and marked in the same manner on the head of posts driven 
in the public appropriation called the mall. 

Having obtained the permission of Mr Peter, early in September I 
planted a small obelisk of freestone, prepared by Mr Blagden, in the 
meridian line north of the President’s house, on the height where the 
stakes had been fixed under the direction of Mr Briggs. The apex is in 
the true meridian from the center of the north door. 

In perpetuating the south line it was deemed best to place the stone 
where the meridian line should be intersected by a west line from the 
Capitol. The surface of the ground, however, being unfavorable—the 
Capitol not being visible at the point of intersection—it suggested the 
planting an obelisk similar to that on the north line at a point on the 
meridian west from the south end of the Capitol and where the building 
was distinctly seen, and from thence find the intersection of the center 
line by measuring northwards half the length of the Capitol. Although 
the body of the building was in full view, yet intervening trees prevented 
my seeing with the necessary distinctness the south end of the Capi- 
tol; and I had to find the required point on the meridian by setting off 
the angle included between the northwest corner of the building and 
the center of the President’s house. This angle I had previously ‘calcu- 
lated, from the distance, 7,696.8 feet, and the length of the Capitol, 351 

23—Nar, Grog. Maa.,, vor. VI, 1894. 


166 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

feet 5 inches, to be 87° 23’ 6’’.8. For the greater accuracy I measured 
this angle from different parts of the circle of a theodolite, made by 
Adams, going several times around the instrument and taking the mean 
as the correct angle. In one instance, however, I found a variation of 
nearly two minutes in the angular distance of the buildings; in others 
they would coincide for severa] observations. I thus ascertained my 
position and the point on the meridian line from which a line drawn at 
right angles due east would touch the south end of the Capitol with 
all the precision the instrument is capable of. Here I planted the obe- 
lisk, and measured from the center of it north 175 feet 8} inches, half 
the length of the building, for the point of intersection on the meridian 
drawn through the center of the President’s house by a west line from 
the center of the Capitol. It ison the south bank of Tyber creek and 
marked by the erection of a small pier, covered by a flat freestone, on 
which the lines are drawn. 

Iam, sir, very respectfully yours, 
Nicu’s Kine, 8S. C. W. - 

(First endorsement. ) 
Nicholas King. 15 Ocr", 1804. 

Meridian line through the center of the President’s house. 

(Second endorsement. ) 
King, Nich’. ; Surveyor’s Orrice, Oct. 15, ’04. 
Rec® Oct. 15. 
To be filed in the office of State, as a record of the demarcation of the 
1st meridian of the U. 8. 


In gathering material for the foregoing notes on surveys and maps of 
Washington and the District of Columbia various maps have been exam- 
ined. Asno list of such maps is known to be in print, it is deemed worth 
while to print this list, which may serve as a useful beginning for the 
future bibliographer. The titles have been prepared by the compiler 
himself, unless otherwise indicated. The places where the maps were 
seen is also indicated for those which are not common. 

L. C. = Library of Congress. 
Gass 7“ ‘* Geological Survey. 
C. S. i ‘* Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

ll | 

1791. L’Enfant (Peter Charles). Plan of the city intended for the 
permanent seat of the Government of t{he] United States. Projected 
agreeable to the direction of the President of the United States in pursu- 
ance of an act of Congress passed the sixteenth day of July, MDCCXC, 
establishing the permanent seat on the bank of the Potomac. By Peter 
Charles L’ Enfant. 

Size, 30 x 45inches. Seale, 4 inches to one mile, or 1:15840. 

Colored photolithograph made by C. & G.S. in 1887 from original in “ Office of 
Commissioner of Publie Buildings, D. C.” 

This is No. 3035a of the C. S. catalogue of charts, 1893. 

1792. Ellicott (Andrew). Plan of the city of Washington, in the terri- 
tory of Columbia, ceded by the states of Virginia and Maryland to the 
United States of America, and by them established as the seat of their 
government after the year MDCCC. Engraved by Thackara & Vallance, 
Philada., 1792. 

Size, 21 x 29 inches. Seale, 1009 poles to one inch, or 1:19800. 

Black. Engraved on copper. Original copper plate said to be in possession of 
the C.&G.S. 

This map is No. 3035 of C. & G. S. catalogue of charts, 1893, where its date is given 
as 1800. Copies seen, L. C. and C.S. 

[1732?] Ellicott (Andrew). Plan of the city of Washington, in the 
territory of Columbia, ceded by the states of Virginia and Maryland to 
the United States of America, and by them established as the seat of 
their government after MDCCC. 

Size, 17 x 20 inches. Scale, 100 poles to one inch, or 1:19800. 

Black. Engraved on copper. 

{In Maps of the District of Columbia and city of Washington and plats of the 
squares and lots of the city of Washington. Printed in pursuance of a resolution 


168 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

of the Senate of the United States. Sm. fol., Washington, printed by A. Boyd 
Hamilton, 1852.] 

This is map No. 3043 of the C. & G. S. eatalogue of charts for 1893, where its date 
is given as 1800. Original copper plate said to be in possession of the C. & G.5. 

[1792] Bllicott (Andrew). Plan of the city of Washington, in the 
terrigery, of Columbia, ceded by the states of Virginia and Maryland to 
the United States of America, and by them established as the seat of 
eovernment after the year MDCCC. Engraved by Sam’! Hill, Boston. 

Size, 17 x 20 inches. Seale, 100 poles to one inch, or 1:19800. 

Black. Engraved on copper. 

Three copies of this map in L. C. Apparently same as preceding, differing only 
by the added words, ‘“‘ Engraved by Sam’! Hill, Boston.” 

[179-?] Reid (I.) Plan of the city of Washington, in the territory of 
Columbia, ceded by the states of Virginia and Maryland to the United 
States of America, and by them established as the seat of their govern- 
ment after the year 1800. Rollinson, sculp., N. York. Publish’d by I. 

Size, 16 x 21inches. Seale, 100 poles to one inch, or 1:19800. 

Black. Engraved on copper. 
Evidently a copy of Ellicott’s map. Copies seen, L. C. 

[1793 ?] Hllicott (Andrew). Territory of Columbia. Drawn by Andw. 

Size, 22 x 22inches. Seale, 2 inches to one mile, or 1:31680, 

Black. Engraved on copper. 

The ouly copy of this map known to me is the very yellow and soiled one now in 
the Library of Congress. It was reproduced in 1852, omitting the words, ‘‘ Drawn 
by Andw. Ellicott.” Itis the first topographic map of the District of Columbia, 
and was the only one down to about 1860. All the maps of the District of Columbia 
J have seen published between 1793 and 1861 appear to have been copied from this 

1793. Bent (W.) Plan of the city of Washington now building for the 
metropolis of America, and established as the permanent residence of 
Congress after the year 1800. B. Baker, sculp. 

Size, 104% x 13% inches. 


[im Universal (The) Magazine. 8°. London, W. Bent, 1793, vol. 93, July, 1793, 
facing p. 41.] 

Copy seen, L. C. 

1794. Gotha Almanac. Plan de la ville de Washington en Amerique. 
Weidner Jun. del. J. G. Klinger, sc. Nov. 1794. 

Size, 6 x 8 inches. 
Black. Engraved on copper. 

[In Gothaischer Hof. Kalendar zum nutzen und vergniigen auf des jahr 1795. 
18°. Gotha, bey C. W. Ettinger, 1794, p 95.] 

1795. Reid, Wayland, and Smith. Plan of Washington. Published 
by Reid, Wayland, and Smith, 1795. 

Not seen. ‘Title from sale catalogue. 


List of the Maps of the District. 169 

1795. Griffith (Dennis). Map of the state of Maryland laid down from 
an actual survey of all the principal waters, public roads and divisions 
of the counties therein; describing the situation of the cities, towns, 
villages, houses of worship and other public buildings, furnaces, forges, 
mills and other remarkable places; and of the Federal territory ; as 
also a sketch of the state of Delaware; shewing the probable connexion 
of the Chesapeake and Delaware bays; by Dennis Griffith, June 20th, 
1794. Engraved by J. Thackara & J. Vallance. Philada. Published 
June 6th, 1795, by J. Vallance, engraver, No. 145 Spruce street. Sub- 
title, ‘‘ Plan of the city of Washington and Territory of Columbia.’’ 

Size, 16 x 16inches. Scale, 200 poles to an inch, or 1:39600. 

Blaek. Engraved on copper. 

Apparently copied from Ellicott’s map of the Distriet of Columbia, 1793. Copies 
seen, G.S. 

1798. Dermott (James R.) The Dermott or tin case map of the city of 
Washington, 1797-8. Prepared by James R. Dermott, who was in- 
structed by the commissioners, June 15, 1795, to prepare a plat of the 
city. The resulting map was sent to Pres’t Adams June 21, 1798. 

Size, 54x 62inches. Seale, about 8 inches to one mile, or 1:7160. 

Black. Photolithograph. 

Republished by the C, & G. S. in 1888. It is No. 3035) of the C. & G. S. chart cata- 
logue of 1893. Copies seen; G. 8. 

1800. Weld (Isaac, Jr.) Plan of the city of Washington. Published 
by J. Stockdale, Picadilly, 16th Sepr., 1798. 

Size, 7x9 inches. Seale, 14 inches to one mile, or 1:50688. 

Biack. Engraved on copper. 

[In Weld (Isaac, Jr.) Travels through the states of North America, etc. By 
Isaac Weld, Jr. 3d ed.,in2 vols. 8°, London, J. Stockdale, 1800, vol. 1, p. 89.] 

1802. Moore (S. S.) and Jones (T. W.) Plan of Washington to accom- 
pany the traveller’s guide. No title or scale. 
Size, 4 x 6 inches. 
Black. Engraved on copper. 
[In Moore (8. 8.) and Jones (T. W.) The traveller’s directory, ete. 12°, Philadel- 
phia, M. Carey, 1802, map 23.] 

[180-?] King (Robert). A map of the city of Washington, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, established as the permanent seat of the government 
of the United States of America, taken from actual surveys as laid out 
on the ground by Rt. King, surveyor of the city of Washington. En- 
graved by C. Schwarz, Washn. 

Size, 24 x 3linches. Seale, 514 inches to one mile, or about 1212000. 

Black. Engraved on copper. 

Has two views: (1) South front of the President’s house; (2) East front of the 
Capitol of the United States. Copies seen, L. C. 

1815. Warden (D. B.) Territory of Columbia. Drawn by Andw. Elli- 

cott. Engraved by P. A. F. Tardieu, Paris, 1815. 
Size, 11 x llinches. Seale, 0.97 inches to one mile, or 1:65000. 
Black. Engraved on copper. 
[In Warden (D. B.) Achorographical and statistical description of the District of 
Columbia, ete. 8°, Paris, 1816, ad in.] 
A reduced copy of Ellicott’s map. Copies seen, L. C. 

170 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

1816. Winder (Rider H.) No title or scale. 

Size, 10 x 15% inches. 

[In Remarks on a pamphlet entitled “An enquiry respecting the capture of Wash- 
ington by the British on the 24th of August, 1814, with &e. By Spectator (Rider H. 
Winder). 8°, Baltimore, J. Robinson, 1816.] 

A crude diagram of the country between Bladensburg and Mt. Vernon and 
between Georgetown and Patuxent river. Copies seen, L. C. 

1820. Force (Peter). A correct map of the city of Washington, capita] 
of the United States of America. Lat., 38° 537 N.; lone., 0° 0%. En- 
graved by W. I. Stone, Washn. [1820]. Entered according to act of 
Congress on the 31th (sic) day of January, 1820, by Peter Force, of the 
District of Columbia. 

Size, 16144 x 2144inches. Scale, 100 poles to one inch, or 1:19800. 

Black. Engraved on copper. 

[In Force (Peter.) A national calendar for 1820. By Peter Force. 18°, Washn., 
1820, ad fin.] 

Contains views: (1) West front of Capitol; (2) North front of President’s house. 
Two copies in L. C. : 

1828. Brennan (John). Map ofthe city of Washington. Published by 
John Brennan, 1828. Drawn by F. C. De Krafft, city surveyor. En- 
geraved by Mrs W. I. Stone. 

Size, 1614 x 214% inches. Seale, about 3.47 inches, equal to one mile, or 1:18200. 
Black. Engraved on copper. 
Copies seen, L. C. 

1830. Bussard (William). A map of Georgetown, in the District of 
Columbia, by William Bussard, 1830. Engd. by W. Harrison, Washn. 
Size, 24x 27inches. Seale, 100 yards to an inch, or 1:3600. 
Very ragged, worn, and yellow copy in office of city surveyor. Another copy 
owned by W. H. Lowdermilk. 

1846. McClelland (David). Map of the city of Washington, established 
as the permanent seat of the Government of the United States of 
America, 1846. Engraved and published by D. McClelland. 

Size, 14x 17% inches. Seale, 3 inches to one mile, or 1:21120. 

Black. Engraved on copper. : 

A sub-sketeh consists of a reduced vopy of Ellicott’s map of the District of Co- 
lumbia of 1793. Seale, 3%¢ inches, equal to 10 miles, or 1:188000. Copies seen, L. C. 

1851. Van Derveer (Lloyd). Map of the city of Washington, D. C., 
established as the permanent seat of the Government of the U. S. of 
Am. James Keily, surveyor. Lloyd Van Derveer, publisher, Camden, 
N. Jersey, 1851. 

Size, 30 x 42inches. Seale, 64% inches to one mile, or 1:9750. 

Colored, glazed, on roller. 

Contains views of (1) Capitol, (2) President’s house, (3) Greenough’s statue of 
Washington, (4) Patent Office, (5) Observatory, (6) Monument, (7) City Hall, (8) Gen_ 
eral Po-~t Office, (9) Smithsonian Institution, (10) Treasury Department, and (11) 
Statistics from census of 1850. Also contains sub-sketch of the District of Columbia 
from Ellicott’s map. Copies seen, L. C. \ 

List of the Maps of the District. 171 

1852. U.S. Senate. Territory of Columbia. 

Size, 22 x 22inches. Secale, 2 inches to one mile, or 1:31680. 

Black. Engraved on stone ? 

[In Maps of the District of Columbia and city of Washington and plats of the 
squares and lots of the city of Washington. Printed in pursuance of a resolution 
of the Senate of the United States. Sm. fol., Washington, printed by A. Boyd 
Hamilton, 1852.] 

This is a reproduction of Ellicott’s map of 1793. Copies seen, L. C.,C.S.,G S., 
and engineer’s office, War Dept. % 

1852. U.S. Senate. Map of the city of Washington, in the District of 
Columbia, established as the permanent seat of the government of the 
United States of America. W. J. Stone, sc., Washn. 

Size, 20x 3linches. Seale, 5 3-16 inches to one mile, or 1:12200. 

Black. Engraved on copper. 

[In Maps of the District of Columbia and city of Washington and plats of the 
squares and lots of the city of Washington. Printed in pursuance of a resolution 
of the Senate of the United States. Sm. fol., Washington, A. Boyd Hamilton, 1852. | 

This is chart or map No. 3036 of the C. & G. S. catalogue of charts for 1893, where 
the date of the chart is given as 1863. 

1852. U. S. Senate. 

Reproduction of Ellicott’s mup of [1792?], which is No. 3048 of the C. & G S. chart 
catalogue, 1893. 

1857. Boschke (Albert). Map of Washington city, District of Colum- 
bia, seat of the Federal government. Respectfully dedicated to the 
Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of North 
America. Surveyed and published by A. Boschke, C. E., 1857. 

Size, 56 x 60 inches. Seale, 500 feet to one inch, or 1:6000. 

Colored. Lithograph of J. Bien, 60 Fulton St., N. Y. 

Copyright, 1857, by A. Boschke. Ornamental border and 18 marginal pictures. 

An original and excellent map. The best map of Washington, in my judgment, 
that has ever been made. Copies seen, L. C. and C. 8. 

1858. Bohn (Casimir). Map of the city of Washington, established as 
the permanent seat of the government of the United States of America. 
1858. Published by C. Bohn. Copyright by C. Bohn, 1858. 

Size, 13 x 17 inches. Seale, 2 15-16 inches to one mile, or 1:21600. 

Black. Engraved on copper? 

[In Bohn (Casimir.) Handbook of Washington, ete. 16°, Washington, 1860, 
ad fin.] 

This is a reproduction of McClelland’s map of 1846. Copies seen, L, C. 

1861. Boschke (Albert). Topographical map of the District of Colum- 
bia, surveyed in the years 1856, ’57, 58 & ’59 by A. Boschke. Pub- 
lished by D. McClelland. Blanchard & Mohun, Washington, D. C., 
1861. Engraved by D. McClelland, Washington, D. C. Copyright, 
1861, by D. McClelland, Blanchard & Mohun, Hugh B. Sweeney and 
Thos. Blagden. 

Size, 40 x 40 inches. Seale, 4 inches to one mile, or 1:15840. 

Black. Engraved on copper. 

The first contour topographic map of the District of Columbia. An excellent 
map. The original copper plates seized by the United States in 1861 and now in 
possession of the War Department. Electroplate copies in possession of the C, & 
G.S. Copies seen, G.S., C. S., and Morrison’s bookstore. 

172 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

1862. McDowell (General Irvin). Surveys for military defenses. Map 
of N. eastern Virginia and vicinity of Washington, compiled in topo- 
eraphical engineer's office, at division headquarters of General Irvin 
MeDowell, Arlington, January 1, 1852, from published and manuseript 
maps corrected by recent surveys and reconnaissances. Engraved on 
stone by J. Schedler, No. 120 Pearl St., N. Y. 

Size, 50 x 67 inches. Seale, one inch to the mile, or 1:63360. 
lack. Lithograph. 

1862. Colton (G. Woolworth). Topographical map of the original Dis- 
trict of Columbia and environs: showing the fortifications around the 
city of Washington. By E. G. Arnold, C. E. Published by G. Wool- 
worth Colton, 18 Beekman St., New York, 1862. Copyright by Arnold, 

Size, 32 x 33 inches. Seale, 2 inches to one mile, or 1:3L680. 
Colored. Lithograph. 
Topography shown by hachures. Mainly copied from Boschke’s map. One of 

the maps issued by Colton was seized by order of Secretary Stanton, and this is 
probabiy the one. Copies seen, L. C. 

1867. Carpenter (B. D.) Map of the roads in Washington county, 
D. C., 1867. B. D. Carpenter, surveyor of Washington county, D. C. 
Size, 34x 40 inches. Seale, 4 inches to one mile, or 1:15840. 

Black, with certain roads colored. Lithograph by J. F. Gedney, 393 Pennsyl- 
vania Ave., Washington. Copies seen, G.S. 

1868. Wyeth (S. D.) Map of the city of Washington, District of 
Size,6x 744inches. Seale, none. 
[In Wyeth (S.D.) The Federal city, ete. 3d ed., 8°, Washington, D. C., Gibson 
Brothers, 1868, pp. 34, 55.] 
Very crude and poor. Copies seen, L. C. 

1868. Johnson (A. J.) Johnson’s Washington and Georgetown, pub- 
lished by A. J. Johnson, New York. Copyright 1868. 

Size, 13 x 17 inches. Seale, 2 9-16 inches to one mile, or 1:24700. 

[in Johnson’s new illustrated family atlas of the world, ete, fol. New York, 
A. J. Johnson & Co., 1885, map 48.] 

1870. Forsyth (William). Plan of the city of Washington, in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, established as the permanent seat of government of 
the United States, extended to embrace its suburban towns, villages, 
&c, and the city of Georgetown, and showing original and other valu- 
able data not to be found on any maps heretofore published. Also a 
diagram of the avenues, showing their true courses and distances, and 
a plan of Alexandria. By William Forsyth, formerly surveyor of 
Washington city. 1870. Copyright 1870. 

Size, 60 x 68 inches, in six sheets. Scale, 500 feet to one inch, or 1:6000. 

Colored, glazed, on rollers. Photolith. by the N. Y. Lithographing, Engraving & 
Printing Co,; Julius Bien, sup’t. 

There are said to be two editions of this map Copies seen, city surveyor’s 
office and L, C, 

List of the Maps of the District. 173 

[1872.] Forsyth (William). Map of Georgetown, in the District of Co- 
Jumbia, prepared from surveys and other data under an act of the legis- 
lature approved Decr. 28th, 1871. Wm. Forsyth, surveyor District of 

Size, 47 x 56 inches. Scale, 200 feet to one inch, or 1:2400. 
Colored, glazed, on rollers. 
Copies seen, city surveyor’s office. 

1872. Petersen (A.) and Enthoffer (J.) Map of the city of Washington, 
showing the subdivisions, grades, and the general configuration of the 
ground in equidistances from 5 to 5 feet altitude. Compiled, with the 
assistance of the city sur., P. H. Donegan, by A. Bastert and J. Enthoffer. 
Published by A. Petersen and J. Enthoffer, of the U. S. Coast Survey, 
1872. For sale by Philip & Solomons. 

Size, 86 x 106 inches. Seale, 250 feet to one inch, or 1:3000. 
Black. Engraved on copper. 
Copies seen, F. W. Pratt, Sun building. 

1873. Enthoffer (J.) Map of the city of Washington, showing the pro- 
gress of buildings up to October Ist, 1873. Compiled by J. Enthoffer, 
top. engineer. Copyright, 1873. 

Size, 22 x 25inches. Seale, 1,000 feet to one inch, or 1:12000. 


May never have been published. Has 10-foot contours, and classifies buildings 
as “ houses, shanties, churches.” Copies seen, L. C. 

1874. Faehtz (E. F. M.) and Pratt (F. W.) Sketch of Washington in 
embryo, viz., previous to its survey by Major L’Enfant. Compiled from 
the rare historical researches of Dr Joseph M. Toner, who by special 
favor has permitted the use of his labor and materials for the publica- 
tion of a grand historical map of this District now in progress by his 
efforts, combined with the skill of S. R. Seibert, C. E. Compilers, E. F. 
M. Faehtz & F. W. Pratt, 1874. 

Size, 16 x 2linches. Seale, about 314 inches to one mile, or 1:18500. 

Black. Photolith. by N. Peters, Washington, D. C. 

Ln Faehtz (E. F. M.) and Pratt (F. W.) Washington in embryo, etc, fol., Wash- 
ington, 1874, facing p. 32.] 

Copies seen, L. ©. 

1882. Ward (Lester Frank). Map of Washington and vicinity. Pre- 
pared in the office of the U. 8. Geological Survey, 1882. 
Size, 24 x 30inches. Seale, about 0.58 inches to one mile, or 1:109000. 
Black. Photolithograph. 
[In Ward (L. F.) Guide to the flora of Washington and vicinity, being Bulletin 22, 
U.S. National Museum. 8°, Washington, 1882.] 

1882. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Washington and George- 
town harbors, District of Columbia, 1882. 
Size, 18 x 29 inches. Secale, 4 inches to one mile, or 1:15840. 
Colored. Photolithograph. 
This is C. S. chart391a, issued July, 1882. Drawn by A.and H. Lindenkohl, Land, 
buff; water, green, and city, shaded; has 10-foot contours. 

24—Nart. Grog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

174. M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

1882. Boyd (William H.) Boyd’s map of the city of Washington and 
suburbs, District of Columbia, 1882. Published by Wm. H. Boyd, 
directory publisher, Washington, D. C. Copyright 1882. 

Size, 15 x 18 inches. Seale, 1,900 feet to one inch, or 1:22800. 
Black. Photolithograph by Am. Photolith. Co., New York. 

1884. Commissioners, District of Columbia. Topographical map of 
the District of Columbia and a portion of Virginia, compiled under the 
direction of Major G. J. Lydecker, corps of engineers, Engineer Com- 
missioner, D. C. By Captain F. V. Greene, corps of engineers, 1884. 
Drawn by W. T. O. Bruff. 

_ Size, 21 x 2linches. Seale, 2 inches to one mile, or 1:31680. 
Black. Lithograph by Julius Bien & Co., New York. 
Contour interval, 20 feet. Copies seen, District Commissioners’ office and G. Ss. 

1884. Commissioners, District of Columbia. Topographical map of 
the District of Columbia and a portion of Virginia, compiled under the 
direction of Major G. J. Lydecker, corps of engineers, Engineer Com- 
missioner of the D. of C., by Captain F. V. Greene, corps of engineers, 
1884. Drawn by. W. T. O. Bruff. ; 

Size, 41 x 41 inches. Seale, 4 inches to one mile, or 1:15840. 

Lithograph by Julius Kien & Co, New York. 

A contour map. Contour interval, 20 feet. Culture, black; water, blue; con- 
tours, brown. Copies seen, Eq. Co-op. Bldg. Ass’n, 1003 F St., and G. 8. 

1884. Stewart (James M.) Map of the city of Washington, in the 
District of Columbia, showing the lines of the various properties at the 
division with the original proprietors in 1792. 

Size, 24 x 32 inches. Seale, 5 3-16 inches to one mile, or 1:12200. 
Colored. Lithograph. 

Copyrighted by James M. Stewart, Washington, D. C., 1884. F. Bourquin, 31 S. 
Sixth St., Phiiadelphia. 

Copies seen, Office of Commissioner of Publie Buildings and Grounds and real 
estate office of Weller & Repetti, 400 Pa. Ave. S. E. 

1886. U.S. Geological Survey. District of Columbia and adjoining 
territory, being the Washington sheet of the general topographic map 
of the United States. Surveyed and compiled by J. D. Hoffman and 
D. J. Howell in 1885-6, under the direction of Henry Gannett, U. S. 
Geological Survey. 

Size, 19 x 28 inches. Secale, about one mile to one inch, or 1:62500. 

Engraved on copper. Printedin3 colors: culture, black; water, blue; contours: 
brown. Contour interval, 20 feet. 

1886. Warner (B. H.) B. H. Warner & Co.’s map, showing a bird’s- 
eye view of the city of Washington and suburbs. Locating the public 
buildings and places of interest. Copyright, 1886, by B. H. Warner & 
Co. Prepared by A. G. Gedney, Post building, Washington, D. C. 

Size, 20 x 26inches. Seale, none. 
Black. Photolithograph. 
Compromise between a view and a map. 

List of the Maps of the District. 175 

1887. Engineer Department, District of Columbia. Map of the city 
of Washington for use of the engineer department, District of Colum- 
bia, 1887. 

Size, 38 x 38 inches, in two sheets. Seale, about 850 feet to one inch, or 1:10200. 

Black. Photolithograph by Norris Peters, Washington, D. C. 
Copies seen, G. S. and District Commissioners’ office. 

1887. Silversparre (Axel). Map of Washington, D. C., and environs, 
with marginal numbers and measuring tape attachment for instantly 
locating points of interest within a radius of twenty miles from the 
Capitol. Compiled [etc] by Axel Silversparre, C. E. Published by 
R. BE. Whitman, Washington, D. C. Copyrighted, 1887. . 

Size, 25 x 30 inches. Scale, 1,600 feet to one inch, or 1:19200. 
Copies seen, L. C. and G.S. 

1889. Commissioners, District of Columbia. Topographical map of 
the District of Columbia and a portion of Virginia, revised and corrected 
under the direction ef Major Chas. W. Raymond, corps of engineers, 
Engineer Commissioner, D.C. By Captain T. W. Symons, corps of 
engineers, 1889. Drawn by W. T. O. Braff. 

Size, 41 x 4l inches. Seale, 4 inches to one mile, or 1:15840. 
Colored. Lithograph by Julius Bien & Co., N. Y. 
This is a revised edition of the Lydecker-Greene map of 1884. Copies seen, G. S. 

1889. Evening Star. Mapof the city of Washington, with compliments 
of the Evening Star. Souvenir of March 4th, 1889. Showing route of 
inaugural parade. 

Size, 17 x 23 inches. Scale, abouts 8-10 inches to one mile, or 1:16500, 

Black. Photolithograph by Bell Bros., Washington, D. C. 
Copies seen, G. S. and Toner collection in L. C. 

1891. Fisher (Thos. J.) & Company. Map of the city of Washington, 
District of Columbia, and adjacent portions of Maryland and Virginia. 
Prepared and presented with compliments of Thos. J. Fisher and Co., 
real estate brokers, Washington, D.C. Prepared by W. Kesley Schoepf, 
civil and topographical engineer, Sun building, Washington, D. C., 1891. 
Copyrighted, 1891, by Fisher & Co. 

Size, 27 x 34inches. Scale, 1:27000. 
Black. Lithograph by Bell Litho. Co., Washington, D. C. 

1891. Fisher (Thos. J.) & Company. Map of the District of Columbia 
and adjacent portions of Maryland and Virginia, prepared especially for 
and presented with compliments of Thos. J. Fisher and Co., real estate 
brokers, Washington, D. C., 1891. Prepared by W. Kesley Schoepf, 
civil and topographical engineer, Washington, D. C. 

Size, 45 x 57inches. Seale, 1,000 feet to one inch, or 1712000. 

Colored, glazed, on rollers. : 

E. H. Berry, del. Bell Litho. Co., Washington, D. ©. Copies seen, city surveyor's 

176 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

1891, Holtzman (R. 0.) Presented by R. O. Holtzman, real estate and 
insurance broker, Tenth and F streets N. W. Copyright, 1891. 
Size, 17x 19 inches. Seale, about 27 inches to one mile, or 1:22000, 

Crude photolithograph. 
No title. A real-estate advertising map. 

1891. Hopkins (G.M.) Map of the District of Columbia, from official 
records and actual surveys. Published by G. M. Hopkins, C. E., 520 
Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa., 1891. Copyright, 1891. 

Size, 59 x 64inches. Secale, S00 feet to one inch, or 1:9600. 

1891. U.S. WarDepartment. U.S. Coastand Geodetic Survey. <A. D. 
Bache, sup’t. Map of the ground occupation and defense of the division 
of the U. 8. army in Virginia in command of Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, 
Topographical survey by the party in charge of H. L. Whiting, ass’t. 
U.S. C. 8S, Field-work executed during parts of June and July, 1861. 
By F. W. Dorr and C. Rockwell, U. 8. C. 8. Julius Bien & Co., lith., 
New York. 

Size, 16x17inches. Seale, 1:4'7500. 

Culture, black ; water, blue; contours, brown; timber, green. Contour interval, 
20 feet. 

[In Atlas to accompany the official records of the Union and Confederate armies, 
1861-1865. Published under the direction of the Hon. Redfield Proctor, Secretary 
of War, etc, fol., Washington, 1891, part 2, plate 6.] 

1891. U.S. War Department. Surveys for military defenses. Map 
of northeastern Virginia and vicinity of Washington, compiled in topo- 
graphical engineer’s office at division headquarters of General Irvin 
McDowell, Arlington, January 1, 1862. Corrected from recent surveys 
and reconnaissances under direction of the Bureau of Topographical 
Engineers, August 1, 1862. Drawn by J. J. Young and W. Hesselbach. 

Size, 17 x 27 inches. Secale, 2 miles to one inch, or 1:126720. 
Colored. Lithograph by Julius Bien & Co., New York. 

[Lm Atlas to accompany the official records of the Union and Confederate armies, 
1861-1865. Fol]., Washington, 1891, part 2, plate 7.] 

1892. Wan Hook (J.C.&C.G.) Map and guide to Washington, D. C. 
Compiled and published by J. C. and C. G. Van Hook, National Union 
building, 918 F St. N. W., Washington, D. C., 1892. 

Size, 18 x 25 inches. Seale, 3%4 inches to one mile, or 1:16900. 
Colored. Photolithograph by A. B. Graham, Washington, D. C. 

List of the Maps of the District. BF 

1892. District of Columbia National Guard. Map of the District of 
Columbia and vicinity, showing the principal points of interest, includ- 
ing the present condition of the defenses of Washington. Compiled 
from the latest maps and from original surveys and reconnaissances 
by the engineering platoon of the Engineer Corps, D.C. N. G. F. L. 
Averill, C. E., first lieut., com’d’g platoon, 1892. Copyright, 1892, by 
F. L. Averill. 

. Size, 20 x 25inches. Seale, about 1% inches to one mile, or 1:40000. 
Black. Photolithograph by A. B. Graham, Washington, D. C. 

1892. Howell (David Janney). Index map to Washington county plans 
District of Columbia. From official records, by D. J. Howell, civil 
engineer and landscape architect, National Union building, Washing- 
ton, D. C. Under act of Congress approved Jan’y 24th, 1891, by au- 
thority of Commissioners, D. C. Matthew Trimble, assessor, January 
Ist, 1892. 

Size, 47 x 55inches. Seale, 800 feet to one inch, or 1:9600. 
Colored. Photolithograph by Bell Lith. Co., Washington. 

1893. Fisher (Thos. J.) & Company. Map of the District of Columbia 
and adjacent portions of Maryland and Virginia. Prepared especially for 
and presented with compliments of Thos. J. Fisher and Co., real estate 
brokers, Washington, D. C., 1893. Prepared by W. Kesley Schoepf, 
civil and topographical engineer, Washington, D.C. Copyrighted, 1895. 

Size, 56 x 69 inches. Seale, 47 inches to one mile, or 1:13000. 
Colored, glazed, on rollers. 

1894. Coast and Geodetic Survey ‘ District of Columbia. Surveyed 
between 1880 and 1892. Published Sept., 1894. The contour interval 
is 10 feet. The datum plane is 0.807 feet above half tide level of the 
Potomac river.” 

Size of each sheet, 25 x 34 inches. Seale, 800 feet to one inch, or 1:9600. 

Black. Photolithograph. In five sheets. 

This is the first published map resulting from the careful and detailed surveys 
mentioned on pp. 158,159. It shows in great detail all the present District, except 
the city. 

The sheets have two series of numbers as follows : 

North East 
PERT ei eee 
No. 3061 = Sheet No. 1. 1 2 | 
No. 3062= “ No.2 | 
No.3063= “ No.3. | 
3 | 1 
Wos S064) “° No. 4. 
No. 3066= “ No.6 
And are distributed as shown in the annexed cut. 
West South 

178 M. Baker—Surveys and Maps, District of Columbia. 

[1894.] United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Topographical 
map of the District‘of Columbia. Sheet No.1. Scale, 1:4800. The 
contour interval is 5 feet. The datum plane is 0.807 feet above half-tide 
level of the Potomac river. 


Size, 15 x 16inches. Secale, 400 feet to an inch, or 1:4800. 

Engraved upon copper by Evans and Bartle, Washington, D.C. Printed by the 
Norris Peters Lith. Co., Washington, D. C. 

In four colors, viz., culture, black; drainage, blue; contours, brown, and wood- 
land, green. 

The above is one sheet of the very elaborate map begun by the Coast Survey in 
1880. It covers one square mile, and 100 such are required to cover the original 
District of Columbia. Under the scheme of numbering now adopted the Distriet 
is divided into 100 squares by lines parallel to its boundaries. The northeastern 
row of ten sheets is numbered from the northern corner to the eastern corner 1 to 
10; the second row, 11 to 20; the third, 21 to 30, and soon. Some 30 to 35 of these 
sheets are said to be now engraved, but none are published. The compiler has 
seen proofs of sheets 1, 2, 22, and 32. 

Another series of sheets preceded the above described. This other series con- 
sists of photolithographs, black, made from drawings by J. A. Flemer and E. H. 
Fowler. The method of designating them has been changed from time to time, 
leaving the whole in confusion. Sheets have been designated “Section No 10 W.,”’ 
“Section D, Sheet No.1,” and also by numbers, such numbers not agreeing with 
these nowinuse. These sheets are 15 by 18 inches, and about 15 of them haye been 

Lar iy ¥ 
PN Od od Ue 

re toh 


ae ee 




298, Fis. 10-14 

re. VAR 

; A.D.1888. WA 

DEcEmBER 29, 1894 



THE National GroaraPuic Soctery 

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The First Landfall of Columbus; by J. W. Repway............... 
Japane by Ws W. STEVENS. 655 es aL Gs Dan, ace ee 
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Sir Francis Drake’s Anchorage; by E. L. Brrtnoup...........-.. 

Note on the Height of Mount Saint Elias; by PROFESSOR I. C. Rus: 

santa dep Notes; by Crrus C. Bass: 
The' Antarctic Continent? 27. 240 SEPA en Oat aaa oe hala 
Magnetic Observations in Iceland, Jan meee and Spitzbergen 
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VoL. VI, PP. 179-238, PL. 10-14 DECEMBER 29, 1894 





In examining the evidence concerning the first landfall of 
Columbus on the shores of the American continent, but little 
attention has been given heretofore to the evidence that might 
be found in early maps. Most critics have attempted to solve 
the problem by plotting the course either forward or backward 
as might seem most expedient. A few historical writers have 
been content to brush aside all evidence save that contained in 
the log book, trusting to logical inference where positive evidence 
is wanting. 

But logical inferenges are of value only when there is something 
like unanimity of agreement, and thus far, with respect to the 
landfall, they have resulted, not in unanimity of agreement but 
in diversity. By such inferences Washington Irving fixed upon 
Cat island ; Muiioz believed it to be Watling ; Navarrete held it to 
be Grand Turk; Becher, Parker, Murdoch and Markham clewed 
sails off various parts of the coast of the present Watling ; Captain 
Fox kept the anchors fast to the catheads until the squadron 
crept into a lee bight on the south side of Samana, and Varn- 
hagen let go those same anchors off the reefs of Mariguana. 

_At the present time, however, but three islands are seriously 
considered—Mariguana, Watling and Samana—and the opinions 

25—Nar. Grog. MaG., von. VI, 1894, (179) 

180 «J. W. Redway—The First Landfall of Columbus. 

having the most weight are those of trained seamen. In the fol- 
lowing pages I have endeavored to discuss the merits of the two 
prevailing opinions from a geograpMic standpoint, making use 
not so much of a modern chart as of the evidence contained 
in certain maps of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 

There is but one source from which information concerning 
the first landing-place can be obtained, and that is the log book. 
Ever since navigation of the sea began it has been the custom 
to keep this official record of the voyage with the utmost fidelity, 
for a falsely kept log is an abomination that nowadays will 
subject the master of the vessel to the severest penalties. In his 
private log book, the only one whose contents are now known, 
Columbus admits that he understated the daily run of the caracca 
Santa Maria, but he says that he thus falsified his quasi-official 
log in order to keep a mutinous crew in subjection. The decep- 
tion practiced on his crew, however, was a subterfuge that could 
have misled no one but an ignorant sailor; it could not have 
deceived the brothers Pinzon, the masters of the two caravels, 
for they were quite as skillful navigators as Columbus. The 
private log must have been reasonably correct, therefore, or it 
would have been exposed by the enemies of the Admiral. 

Unfortunately, this document has disappeared and it cannot 
now be found. All we know of its contents 1s contained in an 
abridged and interpolated copy made by that grand old soldier- 
priest, Las Casas. From the date of October 10, however, the log 
seems to have been copied in full, and mainly in the ipsissima 
verba of the Admiral.* The interpolations, however, are gen- 
erally apparent; but, good, bad or indifferent, about the only 
knowledge we possess is contained in this abridged log, and 
whatever conclusions one may reach concerning the locus of the 
landfall and the courses between Guanahani and Cuba, it must 
stand or fall accordingly as it agrees or disagrees with Las Casas’ 
abridgment. The map of Juan de la Cosa affords no tangible 
evidence; Columbus’ letter to Luis Santangel contains no allu- 
sion to the matter. 

One might think that with the log and a good chart the estab- 

*Apparently Sefor Castelar, in his serial article published in the 
Century Magazine, 1892, has not appreciated the fact that only a part of 
the log is in the words of Columbus. He quotes freely from Columbus, 
seemingly oblivious to the fact that much of the material quoted is not 
the language of Columbus, but that of Las Casas. 

The Variation of the Compass. 181 

lishment of the squadron’s course would be an easy matter, but 
unfortunately this is not the case. At that time there was no 
instrument sufficiently pigcise to establish a ship’s position to 
within two or three degrees.* Moreover, in the entire log book 
there are but one or two references to latitudes, and these are 
not exact enough to establish anything. Still another difficulty 
in the way is the variation of the compass. At that time a vari- 
tion was known to exist, but, a few declinations excepted, no 
values had been determined. Columbus, indeed, found that his 
declination was changing, but he did not establish any values.t 
A change of twenty degrees or more in declination, during the 
voyage, even if the Admiral had allowed for it, would have 
i made the retracing of the course a difficult matter. 

The fact that Columbus did not write well in the Spanish lan- 
euage adds to the difficulty also. He did not punctuate, and 
many of his sentences are so ambiguous that it is impossible to 
tell their meaning. For instance, in the journal of Sunday, 
October 14, he says: “At the break of day I commanded the gig 
of the ship and the boats of the caravels to be [lowered] and 
went along the island in a north-northeasterly course to see the 
other part which was to the other part of the east.” { This par- 
ticular passage is so perplexing that at least three different points 
of Watling island have been selected as the first anchorage. 

Within a few years research has narrowed the six islands 
above named to the three already noted—Watling, Mariguana, 
and Samana. Watling island was first proposed by Mufioz, but 
it is very uncertain that the Watling island of Mufioz is the one 
at present bearing that name. On the contrary, if the maps of 
Sayer (1792), Jacobsz (1621) and the so-called map of Vallard 
(1547) are worth anything as evidence, the Watling island of 
Mufioz lay to the southeast of the island at present bearing the 
name Watling. In fact, this island had the relative position that 
Samana now occupies. 

* Vasco da Gama used to go ashore and rig a cross-staff on the beach 
when he wished to find his latitude. 

+ At the port of Gomera, at the time Columbus sailed, the declination 
was about 20° E.; at the crossing of the thirty-fifth meridian it was not 
far from 16° W. At Guanahani it could not have been more than two or 
three degrees. The agonic, or line of no declination, now passes within 
a few miles of Samana. 

+See note on page 184 for the quotation from the log book. 

182. J. W. Redway—The First Landfall of Columbus. 

In his day, Las Casas says that the island which the natives 
called Guanahani and Columbus renamed San Salvador, was 
known by the name of Triango. After a diligent search, how- 
ever, I find no map bearing this name earlier than the third 
decade of the sixteenth century. This is the famous Weimar 
map, but unfortunately on this map the names both of Guana- 
hani and Triango appear, the latter an islet a little to the east- 
ward of Guanahani. Both names also appear on several other 
maps published during the next fifty years, and in the map of 
Sebastian Cabot (1544) an island, Triangulo, is found bearing the 
same relative position that Triango holds on the Weimar map. 
The name also appears on the maps of Gutierrez (1550) and 
Santa Cruz (1560). The name “ Triangulo ou Watling” occurs. 
on an anonymous map in the collection of R. and I. Ottens.* 
On this map Guanahani also occurs as a separate island. 

In 1856 Captain Becher, Royal Navy, discussed the question 
exhaustively, taking the ground that the present Watling 7 was 
the locus of the landfall. His researches forever put an end to 
any lingering belief that Cat island was the San Salvador of 
Columbus. His views have been ably supported by the late 
R. H. Major, Lieutenant Murdoch, United States Navy, and more 
recently by Captain William H. Parker, formerly of the United 
States Navy. Captain Parker combines the qualities of a trained 
seaman with those of a critical scholar. He spent many years 
in the West Indies and in Spain, and having had access to all 
papers and documents bearing upon the question, stands in the 
ranks of the foremost authorities. 

Mariguana or, more properly, Mayaguana island has been 
pointed out by Varnhagen as a probable site of the landfall. It 
lies in an east-and-west direction, and its shores are broken by 
spits and coves: but Varnhagen not only ignores the fact that 
on leaving Guanahani the squadron sailed to the southwest; he 
omits from his thesis the Admiral’s declaration that on the mor- 
row he should sail to the southwest. Varnhagen lays the course 
due west and anchors the squadron on the windward side of 
Acklin island (!) 

Tn 1880 Captain Gustavus V. Fox, United States Navy Gn 1861 
Assistant Secretary of the Navy), published a critical review of 

*Nova Tabula Exhibens Insulas Cuba et Hispanolani. Amsterdam. 
(I am unable to give the date. There is a copy in the British Museum.) 
t+ Named from a pirate of the seventeenth century. 

A Criticism of Herr Cronau’s Paper. 183 

the various monographs bearing upon the subject. At the same 
time he offered a carefully prepared array of evidence in favor 
of Samana or Atwood Cay. Owing to the fact that it was pub- 
lished in a government report,* the monograph did not then 
receive the attention it deserved, and for ten years it was popu- 
larly unknown; lately, however, it has commanded much in- 
terest. In his Discovery of America, Mr John Fiske adopts 
Captain Fox’s views, and Mr Henry Harrisse, though rather in- 
clining to Acklin island, practically admits that Captain Fox 
has come nearer to the truth than any other critic. 

From the nature of the case it is evident that the question 
cannot be settled without the aid of the trained seaman. It is 
equally evident that the problem comes within the domain of 
the geographer, the cartographer and the historian. No solu- 
tion will be satisfactory, therefore, that does not meet the con- 
ditions imposed by each of these sciences. Several historical 
papers that have recently appeared have been mercilessly rid- 
dled because of their failure to comply with the conditions de- 
manded by the navigator. The sailor, on the other hand, is not 
always beyond criticism in discussing questions belonging to 
history or to cartography. Herr Cronau,f a historical writer, for 
instance, who, in 1890, took the trouble to visit the Bahama 
islands, declares that he had no difficulty in identifying Riding 
rocks, on Watling island, as the spot where Columbus landed. 
Here is a statement that for vernal simplicity has scarcely an 
equal in historical literature. Had he divided the entire coast 
of the Bahama islands into five-mile stretches, he could have 
identified sixty per cent. of them with equal facility. Neither 
Becher nor Parker succeeded in accomplishing such a wonderful 
feat, and Herr Cronau has the credit of it all to himself. It may 
be casually added, however, so very like one another are stretches 
of coast that, in spite of lighthouses and profiles, scarcely a day 
passes that masters and pilots of long experience are not de- 
ceived. Indeed, there are but few harbors that have not either 
a ‘‘false” entrance or a “false” namesake. Herr Cronau also 
asserts that Watling island is the only one answering to all the 

*Report of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1880, Ap- 
pendix 18. 

+ In asummary of Herr Cronau’s paper, published in the Magazine of 
American History, March, 1892, President C. K. Adams, of Madison 
University, endorses this view. 

184. J. W. Redway—The First Landfall of Columbus. 

distinctive features enumerated by original authorities, and that 
“in following the course from Watling there is no difficulty in 
identifying all the islands at which the fleet stopped.” Such a 
statement is simply ridiculous; if it were true, all dispute about 
the matter would have ended long ago. 

This writer also makes much of the assertion that the island 
contained a large interior lake. As a matter of fact, however, 
Columbus makes no such assertion. He says there was a large 
lagoon in the middle; but a lagoon is one thing and a lake is quite 
another.* Even Captain Becher falls into this error, a piece of 
carelessness for which Captain Fox takes him to task. Herr 
Cronau also criticises Kettell’s translation of the passage in which 
Columbus states that, with the boats of the ships, he took a north- 
northeasterly course to see the other side.f He translates this 
perplexing passage, “I skirted along the coast towards the north- 
northeast in order to explore the other part of the island, namely, 
that which lies to the east.” Now this may, or it may not be 
what Columbus meant; it certainly is not what he wrote, and 
Herr Cronau’s guess is no better than that of any other student. 

Mr Clements R. Markham in reviewing the question does 
himself injustice by a few expressions which are certainly ill- 
chosen. In a very scholarly article he says, concerning the 
first landfall: “If the materials from the Journal were placed 
in the hands of any midshipman in Her Majesty’s navy, he 
would put his finger on the true landfall in halfan hour.” Such 
a statement as this most certainly will not do. Could the ques- 
tion be so easily settled as all this, it would not have been a bone 
of contention for more than acentury. Furthermore, Mr Mark- 
ham says: “It is obvious that, if we trace these bearings and 
distances backwards from Cuba they will bring us to an island 
that must necessarily be the Guanahani or San Salvador of 
Columbus. This is the sailor’s method.” ¢ 

But what sailor has yet been able to accomplish this problem 
so suitable for a royal middy’s recitation exercise? Where on 
the coast of Cuba is the place at which the Admiral landed? 
How much and in what direction was the squadron carried out 

* « Y una laguna in medio muy grande.’? Log book, October 13. 

+ En amaneciendo mandé aderezar el batel de la nao y las barcas de las 
carabelas, y fue al luengo de la isla, en el camino del nornordeste, para 
ver la otra parte, que era de la otra parte del Leste. Log book, October 14. 

¢ Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, September, 1892. 

The Landing on the Island of Cuba. 185 

of the course by the winds, by the tides, by the swift currents of 
the West Indian seas? What was lost or gained in latitude and 
departure in all the many times the vessels were standing off 
and on? Of all the places in the West Indies at which the 
squadron anchored, but one, Fort Navidad, is known. Here 
the caracca Santa Maria was wrecked, and forty-two men picked 
from the crews were left to guard the stockade built from the 
wrecked vessel. The impression obtains that Puerto Nipe was 
the first place in Cuba at which the squadron touched. Navar- 
rete takes this view, and so do Captains Becher and Parker. As 
a matter of fact, there is not a scintilla of evidence to establish 
such a statement. THe Admiral states specifically that there 
were but twelve fathoms of water in the harbor in which the 
squadron anchored. But in the roadstead of Puerto Nipe there 
is a depth of from twenty to thirty-five fathoms, while in the 
gut through which it opens into the sea there are nearly twice 
twelve fathoms of water; in the deepest part there are about 
forty fathoms. Now an estuary into which several mountain 
torrents are pouring might possibly silt itself up from thirty-odd 
fathoms to twelve; it could not well scour itself out from twelve 
fathoms to thirty. Moreover, the course from Islas de Arenas 
to Puerto Nipe would have been two or three points east of 
south, but according to the log Columbus lay the course south- 
southwest, and the westerly current would have carried him 
still farther westward. Had Messrs Becher, Markham, and Par- 
ker considered Puerto Padre as the first anchorage on the coast 
of Cuba there would have been fewer inconsistencies to explain 

And this brings me to a statement in Mr Markham/’s interest- 
ing paper that I wish chiefly to consider. He says: 

When we warmly applauded the close reasoning of Major’s paper we 
supposed that the question was at length settled; but as time went on 
arguments in favor of other islands continued to appear, and an Ameri- 
can* in high official position even started a new island, contending that 
Samana was the landfall. But Fox’s Samand and Varnhagen’s Maya- 
guana must be ‘‘ruled out of court” without further discussion, for they 
both occur on the maps of Juan de la Cosa and Herrera,-on which Gua- 
nahani also appears. It is obvious that they cannot be Guanahani and 
themselves at the same time; and it is perhaps needless to add that they 
do not answer to the description of Guanahani by Columbus and meet 
none of the other requirements. 

* Captain Gustavus V. Fox. 

186 J. W. Redway—The First Landfall of Columbus. 

Now, if Samané must be dropped without discussion because 
it appears on a map on which Guanahani also appears, Watling 
island must also be dropped for the same reason, for it appears 
with Guanahani on the map of R. and I. Ottens, and on at least 
half a score of other maps, probably contemporaneous, that the 
author has examined in the British Museum. 

But at the risk of being “ruled out of court” myself, I shall 
attempt to show that not only can Samana be Guanahani and 
itself, but also that for one hundred years or more Samana was 
Guanahani and itself at the same time. In the first place, let us 
look at the map of la Cosa* (see plate 10). On this map it will 
be observed that the name Saman4 may apply to any one of 
three islands. It is about as near to Guanahani as either of the 
others, though it is hardly possible to decide upon which it is 
intended to apply. Incidentally it may be noted that the island 
which la Cosa marks Haiti is not the one at present bearing the 
name. That name, in fact, has been transferred to the island 
Columbus named la Espafiola. Moreover, the transference of 
names on early maps was by no means an uncommon thing. 
If Johann Schéner had not carelessly transferred the name 
“ Parias” from the Spanish main to Mexico, instead of putting 
the rightful “ Lariab ” there, it is doubtful if the northern part of 
the western continent would have been called America. An in- 
spection of a.very few maps of the sixteenth century will show 
that the transference and reduplication of names was made in a 
wholesale manner. 

The map of Herrera (see figure 1), upon which Messrs Major 
and Markham lay so much stress, furnishes but little evidence 
not found in the map of la Cosa, and although nearly one hun- 
dred years later, it is hardly more than a copy of the latter. The 
most notable difference is in the shape of Guanahani. ‘The east- 
and-west position by which the Admiral describes it and which 
it has on la Cosa’s chart has been changed to a north-and-south 
trend. Furthermore, it is no longer northeast of the island of. 
Someto, but almost due north. The island of Samana on the 
map of Herrera has the same distance and bearings from Someto 
that Guanahani has on the map of la Cosa. Just why Messrs 
Major and Markham place so much confidence in the map of 

* The critical part of this map has been traced by the author, copying 
not only the outlines as found, but inserting their names also, each in the 
place it occupies on the original. 


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Un ynu nb (\ oF 
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‘OL “Id ‘p68l ‘IA TOA “OVW “SOAS “LVN 

A valuable Ear-mark. 187 

Herrera one cannot readily comprehend. Herrera was neither 
a cartographer nor a sailor. In his time he was the historian of 
Columbus, but he had none of the material that enabled Navar- 
rete to speak ex cathedra, and Navarrete discards Watling island, 

Among the maps in the British Museum is one of more than 
ordinary interest; it is not an original but its fidelity to the 
original is attested. It bears the inscription, “Mappa Munde 
Peinte sur Parchemin par Ordre de Henri II, Roi de France.” It 

y" delos Lucayos la matanga 


PTs del camaueral 

Reus > y" cayoneque 
On i 

oy balama ATEN 
3 LER) 
O eurateo tampag 


he omucio 

“D, Qs. habacogQ@ 
bemin RS ; = s 
Saige j . C20. pe ‘ Guanima 
rns ate yuma goventhani 
F Bisse 

tos martives 


A145 testugos Qermguia 

HE eee Eee & 

oe bague Rapes eae : 

2. J Meeeeet” 

SG Co {Watting ISLAND 

: SS 5 nayuguana = 

Mirapor vd O ais oS 

Unagua tee 


YyeOs < 

G j datortug Gmac Arey 

caym av~grande 

Vas caym anes 

C.detvburon Ta saona 

° ae Sto ecdtalina 
== *s Novimigas 

Figure 1.—A part of the Map of Herrera—1601—with Vignette of Watling 
Tsland from a modern Chart. 

is generally referred to the third decade of the sixteenth century, 
but from features about it that it is not best to discuss here the 
author is inclined to place the date about forty years later. At 
all events it antedates the map of Herrera by thirty years—pos- 
sibly by seventy years. So far as can be learned, neither its 
genuineness nor its authenticity has been questioned. The 
draftsman had a delightfully unique way of conventionalizing the 
coast outlines. There are several other maps extant coast-charted 
in the same manner. This feature is therefore not only a quaint 
and artistic conventionalism ; it becomes a valuable ear-mark in 
identifying the date of certain maps. 

26—Nar. Grog. Maa., vot. VI, 1894. 

188 oJ. W. Redway—T he First Landyall of Columbus. 

On this map (see plate 11) it is interesting to note the ap- 
pearance of the name ‘‘ Bahames” and ‘“Guanima,” the Cat 
island of modern maps. I have seen no map of earlier date on 
which these names occur. But the most important feature is 
the fact that here, at least, Samana is itself and Guanahani also. 
Of the placing of both names to the same island there can be 
not a shadow of a doubt. Compared with the map of la Cosa, 
the outlines of Guanahani are geometrically too similar to admit 
questioning; moreover, its position next to Mayaguana cuts off 
any further doubts as to its identity. It is the Samana of today, 
and the islands to the southwestward are the group comprising 
Acklin and Crooked islands. 

Now the question as to which island the name Samana belonged 
has evidently perplexed more than one cartographer. Captain 
Fox, in his researches, noticed this, and his only error lies in 
the fact that he did not appreciate the importance of his discoy- 
ery. The same perplexity led many cartographers to apply the 
name to the group now comprising Crooked and Acklin islands. 
Captain Fox gives a list of maps in which the name dodges 
back and forth from the Crooked group to the present Samana. 
Most of these have been examined and verified by the author. 
Among other maps bearing on the subject are the following, 
which also include many of those mentioned by Captain Fox. 

dam, 1610: The island next Mayaguana is named Trianga. Its position, 
therefore, is that of Samand. The name is the one Las Casas said that 
in his time Guanahani bore. 

THEATRUM OrsIs TerRARUM, Abraham Ortelius, Antwerp, 1572: Guana- 
hani appears in the position it occupies on the map of HenryII. Samana 
is applied to Crooked group. Ona map by the same author, 1590, Samana 
appears next to Mayaguana. 

Map or Norra America; John Senex, Charles Price, John Maxwell, 
geographers: The present Crooked group is marked Samana or Krooked. 
Guanahani is a separate island. 

An Accurate Mar or Norto AMERICA; ALSO ALL THE West INDIES, 
Eman Bowen, geographer to His Majesty, 1733: Crooked, Fortune, Ack- 
lin and Samana form one group. To the northeast, in the position of the 
present Samana, is Atwood’s Key. This name is also given to Samana, 
and it is carried today on the official charts of the United States. 

Diego Gutiero ef al., cosmographio, 1562: On this map Samana appears 
next to Mayaguana. 


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The transference of the name Samand. 189 

Arias Hisrorique, Henri-Abeah, Amsterdam, 1738: Crooked group is 
here named I. Samana. 

EYLANDEN VAN West-Inpien (date and place not given): Guanahani 
and Samana appear on this map attached to islands near Mayaguana. 

Cartes Grocrapaiques, Wd’ Anville, 1731-1794: The present group is 
marked ‘‘Samana ou Krooked.” 

Tue West Inpra Arias; Thomas Jeffreys, geographer to the king: The 
present Samanda is marked “El Terrigo or Atwood’s Key, the Samand.of 
the French.” Southwest is the Crooked group, one island of which is 
marked ‘‘ Samana or Crooked island.’’ 

Map or THE Banamas, Delisle and Buache, 1744: On this map Guana- 
hani appears under the name ‘‘ Isle Nova.’’ 

Map or tHe West Inpies, N. Vischer, Amsterdam, 1740: Guanahani 
appears under the title ‘‘ Samana or Rum island.”’ 

This list might be considerably extended, but the quotations 
are sufficient to show that the name “Samand” has been a sort 
of homeless waif, having several times been transferred. The 
draughtsman who made the Henry II map evidently believed 
that Samana and Guanahani were one and the same island, or 
he would not have so marked it; but because it was a super- 
numerary, other cartographers attached it to the Crooked group. 
So we have Juan de la Cosa’s map, on which it is doubtful 
whether Guanahani is itself or not; the Henry II map, on which 
Guanahani is certainly itself and Samand at the same time, and 
a score or more of later maps on which “Samana” is applied to 
the Crooked group. It will be observed, moreover, that Jeffreys 
retains the name in both places, calling Crooked island “Samana” 
and the other “‘ the Samana of the French”; but when finally the 
name ‘‘ Crooked ” was exclusively applied to the island at present 
bearing the nanie, “ Saman4&” was put back in its old place. It 
had previously belonged to an island lying northwest of Maya- 
guana, and it was put back there. In other words, if the testi- 
mony of these maps is worth anything, Guanahani, El Terrigo, 
Trianga, Atwood Cay, Isle Nova and Samana are one and the same, 
and that one is the Guanahani of Columbus. 

Beyond a few observations concerning the second island at 
which the squadron landed, it is not within the province of this 
paper to attempt tracing the course to Cuba. It is believed by 
the writer that the identification of the second island is the chief 
factor to the locating of the first. Sometime during the 14th of 
October, Columbus sailed southwestward for the largest island, 


190 SL W. Redway—The First Landfall of Columbus. 

which he thought to be about five leagues distant. He reached 
the island after dark, for in the record of the 15th he says: 

I had been standing off, and on this night, fearing to come close to the 
shore to anchor, for I could not know whether the coast was free from 
shoals, and intending at dawn to clew up sails; and as the island was 
over five leagues ahead, rather, seven, and the tide detained me, it was 
noon when I reached said island ; and I found that the side of the island, 
which is toward the island of San Salvador, runs north and south and is 
five leagues in length, and the other, which I followed, extends east and 
west and contains more than ten leagues; and, as from this island I saw 
another larger one to the west, I clewed up sails, for I had gone all that 
day until night, because I could not have gone to the western cape, to 
which I gave the name of the island of Santa Maria de la Concepcion, 
and about sunset I anchored near said cape.* 

This second island Columbus asserts to have a north-and-south 
side sixteen and an east-and-west side thirty-two miles in length. 
Now Crooked and Acklin islands—they are practically one t— 
conform exactly to this description, and there is not another 
island in the Bahama archipelago that does. The north-and- 
south side of Crooked island is thirteen; the east-and-west side 
is twenty-nine miles; the distance from Samana to the north- 
eastern point of Crooked island is twenty-three miles—22.3 the 
log says. An expert sailing master could not come nearer the 
truth today than did the Admiral. There is but one discrep- 
ancy, namely, the Admiral’s assertion that the side of the island 
toward Guanahani is the east (Norte Sur) side. As a matter of 
fact it is the north (Leste Oueste) side that lies off Guanahani. 
Whether or not during the night, while standing off and on, the 

* Habia temporejado esta noche con temor de no llegar 4 tierra a sorgir 
antes de lamafiana por no saber si la costa era limpia de bajas, y en 
amaneciendo cargar velas. Y como la isla fwese mas lejos de cinco leguas, 
antes sera siete, y la marea me detuvo, seria medio dia cuando llegué 4 
la dichia isla y fallé que aquella haz, ques de la parte de la isla de San 
Salvador, se corre Norte Sur, y hay en ella cinco leguas, y la otra que yo 
segui se corria Leste Oueste, y hay en ella mas de diez leguas. Y como 
desta isla vide otra mayor al Oueste, cargué las velas por andar todo aquel 
dia fasta noche, porque aun no pudiera haber andado al cabo del Oueste, 
a la cual puse nombre la isla de la Santa Maria de la Concepcion, y cuasi 
al poner del sorgi acerca del dicho cabo. 

{ The narrow gut that separates them is hardly more than a tidal swale 
or kill, not more than four or five feet deep at high tide. It is invisible 

from the deck of a passing vessel. 

The second Landing-place. 191 

steersmen had worked the vessels so far to the eastward that 
they were off the east instead of the north coast, is a matter of 
conjecture. Iam free to admit the objection and do not attempt 
to explain it away by guesses. The same objection obtrudes 
itself just as strongly in the consideration of Watling island. In 
spite of this objection, however, there is not another island that 
for shape, dimensions, distance and direction so fully meets the 
requirements of the log as does Crooked island.* 

See - 
* -Gamana or 

it ve | Atwood Cay” 

Bird Rocky > 

( oO 

s-.Plana Cays 


eCastle Isd 

ey ca 
*‘@ Mira por Vos 

Figure 2.—Modern Map of Samana, Crooked and Acklin Islands. 
v ? 

Let us now examine the claims of Watling island. The only 
land visible from Watling that lies southwestward is Rum Cay. 
Its distance from Watling is twenty-three miles, and the course 
and distance conform to the requirements of the log, but Rum 
Cay is only five miles in extent on its eastern and eight miles 
along its northern shore. Several writers have endeavored to 
show that the squadron passed to the northward of Rum Cay 
without anchoring there at all, basing their arguments on the 

* The force of this statement is apparent when one compares the size, 
outlines and relative bearing of the islands, as shown in figure 2, with 
the log. On this map is also shown the route in accordance with Captain 
Fox’s views. 

192. J. W. Redway—The Furst Landfall of Columbus. 

statement, “I looked for the largest island and determined to 
make for it.” Now there is only one other neighboring island 
southwest of Watling, and that is Long island. Moreover, no 
part of Long island is visible from Watling. Not only is it in- 
visible from the masthead, but it is about twice the distance 
given in the log; still more, neither its shape nor its dimensions 
conform to the description in the log. Even the careful Captain 
Becher incorrectly translates the passage “ cargué las velas, por 
andar.todo aquel dia fasta la noche,” saying, “ I made sail, contin- 
uing on until night,” etc. But cargar las velas means to shorten 
sail—not to crowd on more canvas. Major errs’ in translating 
the same passage, saying, “I started for the purpose of sailing,” 
etc. Captain Fox notices these errors and translates the passage 
correctly. Indeed, there can be no question about it, for it is 
the recognized nautical expression in the Spanish language for 
the act which in English is to “ clew up.” 

Just why Watling island should have received the sanction of 
so many authorities it is difficult to understand, unless it is the 
fact that this island has two rather large interior lakes; but, 
under any circumstances, lakes are about the most transitory 
features of the earth’s surface, and the lagoon of low, sandy shores 
is almost ephemeral; it is found today, and tomorrow it has dis- 
appeared. The storm which throws up a spit or walls in a cove 
today will just as readily undo its work tomorrow. After a lapse 
of four hundred years the presence or absence of a lagoon counts 
for nothing. 

It is freely admitted that in the foregoing paragraphs the pos- 
itive identification of Samané as the first landing-place has not 
been made. It is believed, however, that material evidence has 
been added to the question. It is hardly necessary to say that 
the testimony of any one map counts for but little; but the case 
is different when we take the consensus of many maps, and in 
future researches undoubtedly early maps will play a part sec- 
ond only in importance to the log. In closing this paper, there- 
fore, it is suggested that thorough and systematic search for eyi- 
dence among early maps be made. In the past such search has 
always been highly fruitful in its results; there is no reason why 
it should not be equally fruitful in the future. 




(Extract of Address presented before the Society October 19, 1894*) 

The restoration of 1868 found Japan in a disordered and im- 
poverished condition. The assumption by the Emperor of the 
imperial power and the relegation of the Shogun to private 
station were not the results of a sudden emeute or of a hastily 
planned revolution. The seeds of discontent had been long 
sown—the fruit was long in maturing. Japan had been closed 
to the world for centuries ; but no people can be shut off com- 
pletely from knowledge of the rest of mankind, or from contact 
with the ideas of a progressive age. The government of the 
Shogun was a feudal despotism, a system as complete as any 
that ever existed in the middle ages, surviving apparently un- 
impaired to the last half of the nineteenth century. It was a 
government which had served a good purpose at one time, for 
it had quelled and pacified warring factions and had given the 
nation much needed rest under a wise, if a severe, rule. But 
its day of usefulness was past; those who controlled it saw the 
threatening dawn of a new era, and their wisdom became cunning, 
their severity, tyranny. It may be safely asserted that the 
Shogunate would have fallen in any event, from internal feuds 
and dissensions ; but strangely enough the death blow to its power 
was that event of which we Americans are so justly proud—the 
conclusion of the Perry treaty. It was this dawn of daylight 
from the outer world which showed intelligent Japanese how 
thoroughly out of touch their country and, above all, their form 
of government was with the spirit of the age. It was then that 
the little band of reformers who were chiefly instrumental in 

*The Editors regret that space will not permit the publishing of this 
address in full. 


194 D. W. Stevens—Japan. 

bringing about the great change of ’68 began their work. They 
were aided in a measure by the cry of opposition to foreign in- 
trusion which the conclusion of treaties with western powers 
immediately aroused. Thtre are conservatives in all countries, 
and the Japanese conservatives of that day formed the Joi or 
anti-foreign party. Like skillful politicians, those who were 
seeking the destruction of the illogical and unwieldly dual gov- 
ernment availed themselves of this, as well as of all other forms 
of discontent and opposition, in order to better accomplish their 
purpose. The facts of history will bear me out in the assertion 
that, like wise statesmen, they permitted it to have no share in 
their policy when they themselves came into power. 

Glance at the first acts of the Emperor when he assumed the 
exercise of all those prerogatives of which his ancestors had been 
deprived for more than three centuries and tell me, if you please, 
whether the men who guided and directed the counsels of the 
youthful sovereign were visionary schemers or practical states- 
men; whether they were merely lucky speculators trading upon 
borrowed ideas, or whether they were men who understood their 
country and their countrymen and cherished a hopeful but not 
an unreasonable or an illogical ambition for both? 

One of the first acts of the Emperor was to issue an edict abol- 
ishing the laws against foreign religions and their propagation 
among the Japanese. 

The daimiyos or feudal chiefs surrendered their fiefs to the 
crown and accepted in leu the bonds of the government at 
amounts, it should be added, much less than the value of their 
original holdings. This, it must not be forgotten, was an entirely 
voluntary act of self-abnegation. 

The samurai or military class, whose privileges, rigorously 
secured and jealously guarded, made them the real masters of 
Japan, especially in times of domestic disorder, like their chiefs, 
the daimiyos, accepted capitalized pensions instead of the regular 
support to which their fealty and their service had entitled them ; 
and I should add that the dangers to be apprehended from the 
discontented and turbulent members of this powerful class thus 
thrown out of employment, and in many cases sadly impover- 
ished, were anticipated and guarded against by the passage and 
enforcement of a law which has proved itself the highest form of 
statesmanship. I refer now to the conscription law, by which 
every Japanese, rich and poor, high and low, is obliged to serve 

Educational Institutions. 195 

in the army fora certain period, and thereafter for a certain fur- 
ther time to hold himself in readiness for such service. The 
wisdom of such a law, in view of a possible uprising of the 
samurai, was signally proved by the serious outbreak which oc- 
curred in Japan in 1877. The result of that rebellion set at rest 
forever the question of rule by a military class in Japan. 

The reorganization of the whole fabric of the public adminis- 
tration was naturally the first care of the imperial government. 
The departments were all established upon a new and an effective 
basis. Foreign advisers were employed to assist in the work, 
and no effort or expense was spared to create a system which 
would be at once modern, practical and economical. 

Time will not permit and it would weary you to recount all 
that was done. A few instances will serve to illustrate the whole. 

The government recognized the importance of education to 
themselves and to the masses. A complete system of educa- 
tional institutions was established in every part of the empire, 
beginning with primary schools in every hamlet, through mid- 
dle, normal and other more adyanced institutions, up to the 
university in Tokio. Hospitals were endowed, and especial 
attention was paid to education in medicine and surgery. Nor 
was any distinction made between the sexes, but schools were 
established for the education of women as well asof men. This 
system has been steadily followed throughout, with only those 
changes which experience has shown to be advisable and bene- 
ficial. There are also a number of private educational establish- 
ments in Japan, many of which hold a deservedly high rank. 
Some of these are denominational, established in the first place 
by foreign missionary bodies, but now exclusively under Jap- 
anese control, white others are secular, the result of the labors of 
men of high scholarly attainments and conspicuous executive 

In all public works the government has taken an active and 
an earnest interest. The establishment of railway and steam- 
ship lines, of telegraph and post-roads, and, in short, of all those 
facilities which increase the comfort and convenience of the 
nation, have been their constant care. The telegraph and postal 
systems are equal to those of most countries, while as to rail- 
ways an increase from 18 miles in 1873 to almost 2,000 miles in 
1894 may fairly be regarded as a good result even in this country 
of phenomenal railway developments. 

27 —Nar. Geog. Maa., vou. VI, 1894, 

196 D. W. Stevens—Japan. 

Nor should it be forgotten that a great deal of the progress 
which Japan has made in every direction has been due as much 
to private enterprise as to government direction. The railway 
and steamship lines, for example, are almost exclusively under 
the control of private corporations. The government has, of 
necessity, taken the initiative in many things, but oftentimes it 
has been merely to set an example which has been readily and 
aptly followed. 

There is another phase of Japanese development which is well 
worthy of notice. Irefer now to the newspaper press. The Jap- 
anese, like the ancient Athenians, and, may I add, like modern 
Americans, are a people who delight in hearing new things. It 
need hardly be added that the press came to them, as it comes 
so often to us, to supply ‘“‘a long-felt want.” Its development 
has been little short of marvelous, and now it flourishes like the 
green bay tree, from the scholarly periodical, the didactic weekly, 
the political daily, down to the penny dreadful, for whose col- 
umns nothing short of murder and sudden death are fit matter. 
Many able, intelligent and patriotic men are enlisted in the 
ranks of the press in Japan, and they already exercise a potent 
influence upon public opinion and the conduct of public affairs. 
The government has deemed it necessary to establish regulations 
for the control of the press—a system more alien to American 
than to European ideas, but one which experience has shown is 
necessary to the public welfare, and to that proper distinction 
between liberty and license to which a youthful but an energetic 
and a powerful institution lke the press of Japan might on 
occasion be oblivious. 

The inhibitions of the press regulations are plain and precise. 
Their object is clearly stated, the preservation of public peace 
and morals, and restraint from interference with affairs of state 
where secrecy is a necessity, such as diplomatic negotiations and 
the lke. The penalties they provide—suspension, fine, and 
minor imprisonment—are not severe. The heaviest penalty of 
all, the total suspension and confiscation of the paper, has never 
been inflicted. 

In attempting to describe the changes through which Japan 
has passed and the effect which they have had upon the develop- 
ment of the country’s resources and the increase of national 
wealth it has not been possible to omit some mention of the 
political transformation which has been so notable a feature of 

Changes in the Form of the Government. 197 

her recent history. The one stands to the other in the relation 
of cause to effect, and what the future may have in store for 
Japan depends not a little upon the harmonious development of 
the governmental system which was adopted when the empire 
emerged from its seclusion. 

On-March 14, 1868, the Emperor, in the presence of the court 
nobles and feudal lords, made solemn oath that from that time 
forth the government and the people should unite in the develop- 
ment of the national power, and that the administrative affairs 
of the nation should be decided by public deliberation; that 
encouragement should be given to all the pursuits of life; that 
all abuses and evil practices should be abolished and the equi- 
table principles of nature should be the guiding star of the nation ; 
that wisdom should be sought in all the countries of the world, 
and whatever was good and right should be adopted to strengthen 
the basis of the national and the imperial power. 

The solemn obligation thus voluntarily assumed by the ruler 
of a country whose predecessors had exercised despotic power 
furnishes the keynote to all that Japan has since accomplished, 
It clearly foreshadowed not alone the changes which immediately 
followed, but the consummation of all those changes which took 
place when in 1890 the Emperor established a constitutional 
form of government. It will thus be seen that this final result 
was achieved not on the impulse of the moment or in conse- 
quence of any political exigency, but in conformity with a plan 
adopted from the beginning. That plan was consistently held 
in view and systematically followed from the outset. The states- 
men who under the imperial will guided Japan’s destinies then, 
some of whom are still the trpsted advisers of the emperor, wisely 
decided that the immediate establishment of parliamentary in- 
stitutions was not practicable; but steps were taken to pave the 
way for such institutions by extending the rights and privileges 
of the people, most notably by the creation of the prefectural 
and other local assemblies, which exercise a certain degree of 
control over local affairs. These and other similar institutions 
were designed to educate the people in the practice of self-govern- 
ment, and they were in active operation a number of years before 
the first imperial diet was opened. 

After the resignation of the Shogun in 1868 that office was 
abolished and a council of state was created, to which the Em- 
-peror confided the direction of public affairs. Several changes 

198 D. W. Stevens—Japan. 

in the formation of this council followed, until in 1885 the 

present executive system was adopted. It consists of a cabinet . 
and a privy council. The former, presided over by the prime 

minister, is composed of the ministers in charge of the executive 

departments, who are directly responsible to the Emperor for the 

management of their offices. The functions of the privy council 

are purely advisory. 

The different prefectures into which the empire is divided are 
under the charge of governors, appointed by the Emperor upon 
the recommendation of the minister for home affairs. In each 
prefecture there is, as I have already stated, a local assembly, 
which codperates with the governor in the management of local 

The imperial diet is composed of two houses, a house of peers 
and a house of representatives. The former body consists of 
members who hold office asa hereditary right; of a certain num- 
ber who are elected by the different orders of nobility which are 
not entitled to seats in the house, and of a certain number ap- 
pointed by the Emperor. 

The members of the house of representatives are elected directly 
by the people. A property qualification governs the exercise of 
the electoral franchise. 

This, in brief, is the executive and legislative system now in 
force in Japan. When everything is taken into account, it may 
be said to have worked smoothly and efficiently. Since the 
adoption of the constitution and the establishment of the diet 
there has at times been a great deal of political excitement, but 
throughout every storm of this kind there has been no attack 
upon the privileges of the people, mo thought of an assault upon 
the fundamental law. The constitution has been scrupulously 
observed, and each struggle between the executive and the legis- 
lative branches of the government has been carried on within 
the lines defined by that instrument. Such contests are inevi- 
table where men strive for political supremacy. In Japan they 
afford a useful vent for political passions, and when, in time, 
party principles are more clearly enunciated and party lines 
more sharply drawn, there is no reason to believe that parlia- 
mentary government in Japan will not achieve all that was 
hoped for it. The fact that in Japan, even from ancient times, 
a system of local self-government in town and village and rural 
district was conceded by the government and jealously retained 

The Judiciary System. 199 

by the people affords perhaps the brightest augury for the suc- 
cess of self-government in Japan. 

The systematization and codification of the laws of Japan was 
one of the first cares of the government after the restoration. It 
was their wish to adapt them as nearly as possible to western 
models. All cruel and unusual punishments have been long 
since abolished, and Japan has today a body of codified law 
based upon the best models. All of the codes are in successful 
operation, with the exception of the civil code, which has already 
been promulgated, but has for some time been undergoing re- 
vision at the hands of a commission of experts and will soon be 
put in operation. 

In equal measure the judicial organization of the empire has 
been made the subject of careful study and thorough reform. 
In 1872 the Japanese judiciary was made independent of the 
other branches of the government, and courts were established 
presided over by judges who performed no other functions. 

Ten years ago a system of competitive examination for appoint- 
ment to judgeships was introduced, and has ever since been in 
successful operation. The constitution itself provides that juris- 
diction shall be exercised by the courts of law according to law ; 
that the organization of the courts shall be determined by law ; 
that the judges shall be appointed from among those who possess 
the proper qualifications according to law, and that no judge 
shall be deprived of his office except for misconduct and by due 
process of law. A statute passed for carrying these constitutional 
guarantees into effect and providing for a comprehensive and 
complete reorganization of the courts of justice has been in opera- 
tion for more than four years. 



(Presented before the Society November 2, 1894) 

The broadening fields of human knowledge haye changed 
their very name in the evolution that has been wrought in man- 
ner, means and extent of learning, research and study. We no 
longer say science, but instead the sciences. From time to time, 
as the aggregations of fundamental data and accompanying dis- 
cussions have become too divergent for easy comparison or too 
abundant for individual assimilation and reception, they have 
been divided and subdivided first into branches and eventually 
into separate sciences. 

It is only within the early part of the present century, how- 
ever, that associations have formed for the study of geographic 
problems. and yet more recent is the claim and belief that geog- 
raphy is no longer an unappreciated handmaid of history or 
geology, but rather an able-bodied member of the scientific 

At this time, then, it is fitting that the general subject of geog- 
raphy should be very briefly reviewed, especially with reference 
to its proper place among the sciences, its enlarged scope in the 
ereat universities of the world, and the radical transformation in 
methods of study that makes it a science rather than an accom- 

It is twenty years since Germany, first of the great nations, 
awoke to the value of sound geographic study. Previously 
taught perfunctorily as an adjunct to history, geography was at 
that time honored in one of its great universities by a separate 
chair. Such were the results from this field of research, previ- 
ously rfeglected by the other sciences, that other universities 
speedily followed the example, and at present fourteen of the 


The Importance of Geography. 201 

twenty-one German universities have professors of geography, 
with annual salaries running as high as two thousand dollars. 
Now the tendency to separate history and geography is general, 
and this latter science is not only compulsory in Germany, but is 
recognized as of equal value to history, natural science, physics 
and chemistry. 

Geography has assumed similar importance in France, Bel- 
gium and Italy. The last-named country, besides imposing pro- 
ficiency therein as essential to the degree of Ph. D., has estab- 
lished twelve professorships at its great seats of learning. The 
conservative universities of Great Britain, viewing modern ten- 
dencies with distrust, slowly yielded to the inevitable, and while 
Cambridge decided some ten years since that, among other uni- 
versities, teachers to be appointed there should be one in geog- 
raphy, yet it is only within a few years that Cambridge and 
Oxford have formally appointed geographic readers or lecturers. 

Formerly the field of geography was unsluly restricted by 
associating it with geology or history—a practice happily waning. 
Now the pendulum swings to the other extreme, and there is on 
the part of some enthusiasts a tendency to unduly extend its 
limit so as to encroach on the domain of other branches of sci- 
ence. The separate sciences necessarily overlap, and no sharp 
line of division can be drawn that will find universal acceptation. 

In my opinion, geographic science should be restricted to the 
surface of the earth, with its superincumbent or attached objects 
and attendant atmospheric phenomena, which are to be consid- 
ered, both in their interrelations with the earth and with each 
other. The evolution of the earth’s surface pertains to geology, 
but the distribution over the surface of the earth of inorganic mat- 
ter, whether in the shape of agricultural soils or other forms, with 
industrial possibilities, pertains to geography. Similarly the 
distribution of existing faunas and floras is geographic as far as 
these in any way affect mankind, while their classification and 
detailed study are botanical, biological or zodlogical. In like 
manner other physical sciences either touch or overlap that of 
geography, the same class of data pertaining to different branches, 
according to its interrelation with man or its bearing on non- 
geographic sciences. 

There is no question that geography, when properly taught, is 
not only a discipline for the mind, but it also furnishes its stu- 
dents with a body of information both interesting and valuable. 

202 A. W. Greely—Annual Address. 

In its comparative branches it trains and stimulates the intel- 
lectual faculties; by its contact with nature it develops the powers 
of observation and reflection, and in its investigations it offers 
endless opportunities for promoting clearness of expression and 
logical methods of conclusion. For professional men its stores 
of knowledge regarding other nations and countries broaden the 
mind. To merchants the knowledge it affords is indispensable 
when changed conditions oblige them to seek foreign outlets for 
their wares. Its utility is even more apparent to statesmen and 
legislators, whose actions control the destiny of a nation, which, 
through their geographic ignorance or knowledge may be led 
into humiliating and unfavorable concessions or may reap mate- 
rial advantages at favorable opportunities. To the tiller of the 
earth it offers material advantages in its afforded knowledge re- 
garding the influences of elevation, exposure and soil, as shown 
in the natural vegetation or cultivated crops of various countries. 
To the investigating,scientist it presents a wealth of unsurpassed 
material, almost untouched, it may be said, relative to the distri- 
bution of permanent and transitory fauna and flora, and in regard 
to its ethnographic data and sociologic conditions, so often af- 
fected by man’s dependence on the resources of the soil. 

It has been objected that the addition of another science to 
the already overladen course of our great universities is to be 
deplored, since even now time fails for a complete course. This 
was a valid objection a quarter of a century since, before the au-’ 
thorities of the great educational institutions of the world came 
to realize that the field of human knowledge had so broadened 
that the scientist of the future must be a specialist. Now the 
initiation of selective courses gives opportunity for additional 
departments of science, hitherto neglected or ignored. As man 
is the dominating spirit of the earth, so the study of man is the 
highest and noblest of all pursuits. Time was when the dead 
languages and ancient history—the forgotten speech and vain 
actions of vanished nations—were the heights of secular scho- 
lastic ambition, but with advanced civilization there inevitably 
developed a necessity of formulating and mastering such of the 
natural sciences as minister to the growing physical needs“of 
mankind. The struggle between the humanities and the natural 
sciences is practically past, each maintaining its fruitful field of, 
usefulness. We have come now, however, to another age, to a 
higher stage of civilization, where the brotherhood of man is 

The Field of commercial Geography. 208 

practically established, upon a low plane, be it granted, so that the 
lowest tribes and highest communities are inextricably united. 
As an illustration consider the barbarous and lately cannibal- 
istic tribes of the Congo basin, sixteen years azo unknown to the 
world; five years later their future destiny deliberated on and in 
a measure decided by a congress of fourteen great nations. Yet 
again, and only a year since, the vast industries of this great 
nation, with their involved financial interests, almost completely 
paralyzed in a single week by the telegraphic announcement of 
an order passed by the board of council of a country held by 
many to be yet heathenish. 

These conditions emphasize the already assumed importance, 
which, it may be added, will steadily increase, of such branches 
of science as illustrate the interdependence of the humanities 
and natural sciences. In other words, of the interaction which 
takes place between man and his physical environment. 

One of the most important phases of geographic knowledge is 
that pertaining to commercial interests. Indeed, so indefinite, 
unsatisfactory and inaccessible have been the fundamental data 
on which rest the success of extensive enterprises that, in default 
of authoritative geographic departments in the great universities 
of the world, the business portion of large commercial communi- 
ties have been obliged to organize bureaus of information or 
commercial geographic societies for the purpose of collecting t!.e 
widely separated data pertaining to their special department of 
compierce. In the United States the lack of such data has very 
materially retarded the development of its foreign export trade— 
a condition of affairs so obvious and regrettable that the general 
government has been constrained to attempt a remedy for the 
evil by initiating and continuing its valuable and highly appre- 
ciated series of consular reports. Unfortunately, however, many 
of our consuls enter upon their duties in various stages of igno- 
rance as to the underlying principles of commercial geography 
and commerce as represented by widely separated and dissimilar 
countries. It requires a mind trained in geographic research to 
treat the important and various aspects of commercial geography. 
The successful performance of such duties involves a knowledge 
of the leading industries of each country ; technical familiarity 
with the raw material used; thorough knowledge of such factors 
as the method and cost of native labor; local customs ; trade re- 
strictions; facilities for transportation; hindrances and advan- 

28—Nat, Grog. Maa., von. VI, 1894, 

204 A. W. Greely—Annual Address. 

tages of trade routes; navigation conditions, such as port dues, 
canal charges, lighterage, ete ; custom duties, both export and 
import; local trade methods; the character of currency and the 
peculiarities of exchange. As an illustration of the value of in- 
formation on the last-named point may be mentioned Stanley’s 
dismay at finding gold coin the only money recognized at Zan- 
zibar, while his gold sight bills on London or Calcutta were nego- 
tiated as a favor at the enormous discount of twenty percent. It 
may be said that elsewhere in Africa the friends of the white 
metal predominate, since in Abyssinia the Maria Theresa dollar 
(or five-frane piece) of a certain date—1789, I belieye—is the only 
current money, a fact which seriously threatened the success of 
the Abyssinian campaign until the British government supplied 
Austrian silver to its supply department. 

The extent of geographic science necessitates its division 
into distinct branches, which, by common consent, include, first, 
mathematical; second, physical, and, third, political geography. 
Among other suggested divisions are classical, climatological, 
historical, ete, which, in my opinion, are inadvisable, except as 
strictly subordinate divisions for special purposes. Other various 
and suggested divisions of economic, commercial, industrial, 
hydrographic and climatological should, in my opinion, be com- 
bined to form afourth branch to be known as economic geography. 
3 Mathematical geography concerns the figure, size and motion 
of the earth, its delineation on charts, and the determinations of 
its localities by astronomical methods. Research and instruction 
in connection with this branch should bear especially on the 
technology of geography, on the principles and methods of car- 
tography, and on such instruments, methods, etc, as are indis- 
pensable to the correct determination of positions. . 

Political geography considers the earth as divided into separate 
countries or states, the various methods through which these 
states subsist and exist as independent or subordinate govern- 

_ments, together with the affiliations and repugnances shown in 
their intercourse with other states. Under political geography 
should be studied the existing laws, moral institutions, social 
organization and modes of government of different countries, 
together with their domestic and foreign policies, with the ensu- 
ing results at home and extraneous influences abroad. 

Physical geography sets before us the characteristics of the 
surface of the earth, and in its entirety presents a concrete idea 

The Field of physical and economic Geography. 205 

of the wonderful fitness of the earth for man’s habitation and 
workshop. It includes the distribution of the animal, vegetal 
and mineral kingdoms ; the atmospheric phenomena ; the limits, 
forms and movements of land and water and their interrelations. 

The broad field of physical geography is of extreme practical 
importance as furnishing a vast array of Knowledge not only in- 
teresting in itself, but also as furnishing the fundamental bases 
on which necessarily rest the ultimate conclusions of economic 
geography in its efforts for the perfect evolution of man’s material 
interests. The course and degree of permanency of the great 
currents of air and sea, the intensity and variation of the im- 
portant factors of climate, the distribution of rain and snow, the 
prevalence of storms, the diversifications of land surfaces and 
ocean beds, the extent and relation of navigable waters and 
practicable roads, the habitat of faunas and the distribution of 
floras useful to mankind, and the ethnographic characteristics of 
different nations and races are the most important subjects that 
it furnishes for study and consideration. 

Kconomic geography—which may be said to be the compara- 
tive treatment of the political and physical branches—owing to 
‘its practical bearings, is the most important part of this science, 
since it illustrates where, when and how the latent resources of 
the earth may be most advantageously exploited for the benefit 
of mankind. It involves a knowledge of the natural resources 
of different regions, of transportation routes, of natural elements 
that militate against or are favorable to special pursuits or indus- 
tries, and of numberless social conditions that may affect the ini- 
tiation, development or continuance of any material enterprise. 

In economic geography efforts should be made to supplement 
the accumulated data of political and physical geography by 
special study of soil, climate, trade routes, mineral and vegetal 
deposits and aggregations, transference and acclimatization of 
plants and animals, raw industrial materials, industrial appl- 
ances, financial methods, trade restrictions, race prejudices or 
peculiarities, and other elements calculated to assist in the prac- 
tical solution of the problem of bringing the producer and con- 
sumer into such relations as will insure the greatest possible 
benefit to the world. Problems of this character offer endless 
and attractive means of cultivating the intellect, since the powers 
of thought are necessarily exercised and the faculties of observa- 
tion stimulated. 


206 A. W. Greely—Annual Address. 

Ten years ago our Commissioner of Education was asked by 
the Royal Geographical Society to give information setting forth 
the condition of geographic science and its appliances in the 
higher institutions of learning in the United States. The infor- 
mation sought was promised, but not furnished. The answer 
as regards nearly every college or university might well have 
been paraphrased from a stock army story of the officer who 
was directed to report on the morals and manners of an Indian 
tribe he had visited. He tersely said: “ Morals they have none 
and their manners are disgusting.” So scientific geographic in- 
struction until lately has been practically nil and its appliances 
obsolete and deficient, as far as the United States is concerned. 

It should not be understood that geographic research, or even 
genius, has been wanting in the United States. The clear-cut 
ideas, keen researches, vivid portrayals and lucid reasonings of 
Guyot have done much to raise the level of physical geography. 
The most striking contribution by the United States to the geo- 
graphic benefit of the world was that where, as Humboldt said, 
a new science was created through the genius of Maury, whose 
discriminating mind gave the original impulse to that special 
branch of geographic science now known as oceanography. His 
invaluable system of charts first delineated together as a unity 
great ocean currents, constant and variable winds, regions of 
storm and calm and the known whaling grounds. Few appre- 
ciate the enormous practical outcome of Maury’s labors, which 
have saved to mankind tens of millions of dollars through the 
shortened voyages of its commercial transports, which in tens of 
thousands, weave and reweave across the seas the web of com- 
mercial intercourse essential to human progress and prosperity. 

More frequently the reverse side, that of geographic ignorance, 
has presented itself to the attention of man, with its inevitable 
train of futile enterprises, wasted efforts and ruined fortunes. 
Now it is an expensive governmental experiment, foredoomed to 
non-success with its enforced and hasty generalizations, based 
on insufficient or incorrect data; again it is a commercial enter- 
prise, a great canal, an industrial scheme, a commercial venture, 
initiated under geographic conditions that forecast inevitable 
failure. If it is not an official, squandering tens of thousands of 
dollars in accumulating for building purposes steam saw-mills 
and bodies of skilled wood-workers in a treeless region abound- 
ing in building stone, it is a host of moneyed individuals buy- 

The Triumphs of Geography. 207 

ing worthless land on prophesied possibilities, which a cursory 
knowledge of economics or even physical geography would au- 
thoritatively disprove. 

A word relative to what many have thought to be the prac- 

tical if not the whole of geographic work, explorations and their 
direct or indirect result. Chancellor’s voyage to the White sea 
reaped millions from the Muscovy trade for England. Hudson, 
Cook, Bering and others made voyages and discoveries that re- 
sulted in equally important additions to the wealth of the civil- 
ized world. Explorers by the score have affected the course of 
trade and influenced the onward march of human progress. I 
have already alluded to the astounding results flowing from 
Stanley’s African work, which, from the nature of circumstances, 
ean never be paralleled. There will be results of no small value 
from geographic field explorations in the near*future, but it may 
be admitted, as a whole, that the days of great results from geo- 
graphic discoveries are practically past. 
- We must turn, then, to the higher field of geographic research, 
in which comparison and analysis play the most important part. 
Recall that from a handful of dried plants the botanist Hooker 
outlined the extent and general physical conditions of an un- 
known land; that the geologist Heer in a few score fossil plants 
read the riddle of wondrous climatic changes that the arctic re- 
gions have experienced, and that a geographer forecast the great 
plateau of interior Africa years before its existence was demon- 
strated to the satisfaction of the world. 

Even higher studies, those of economic geography, await the 
magic influence of scientific treatment to yield fruition of tre- 
mendous import to the future, by forecasting the tendencies of 
industrial progress as affected by the development and _ transi- 
tion of the centers of production of the raw materials, and their 
interrelations with the great centers of population. 

Such fields offer most promising results to investigating sci- 
entists, and among those who will reap reputation therefrom let 
us hope there will be many from the ranks of the members of the 



The Elizabethan era was the dawn of the birth of the supremacy 
of the English navy, which was destined in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries to sweep the seas of Spanish, Dutch and 
French navies and destroy the commercial monopoly of Spain 
in the new world.’ 

Foremost among the English to attack the attempted monopoly 
of Spain in the Americas and the East Indies were Drake and 
Cavendish, who, with what today seem ridiculously insufficient 
armaments, shook Spanish pride and conceit, and captured the 
fabulous wealth they yearly sent in galleons to the mother 

In 1577, under the auspices of England’s queen, a silent partner 
and sharer in the expected booty, Sir Francis Drake sailed from 
England to raid the Spanish colonies of North and South 

Sir Francis Drake was one of the boldest buccaneers and navi- 
gators that ever sailed from England ; he was every inch a sailor. 
Of infinite bravery, skill and self-reliance, he sallied out to shear 
the golden fleece so long the sole monopoly of Spain. 

Judged today by the standard of present accepted morality, 
Drake’s naval campaign was but a shade above piracy. It was 
conquest and plunder, with no pretension to discovery or com- 
merce. What it achieved was merely incidental in his plans of 
occupation—a mingling of chivalric bravery with a modicum 
of religious fervor. One Fletcher, a clergyman, was his chaplain 
and exhorter, but was not a very zealous workman in the yine- 
yard of the Lord. Fletcher and one Pretty have both left an 
elaborate account of Drake’s “res geste,” which in main facts 
correspond tolerably well. 

Sir Francis Drake (whom Fletcher calls our Admiral), having 
raided and plundered the west coast of South America and of 


Disagreement of Latitudes. 209 

Central America and Mexico from Chili to Guatulco, capturing 
ships, towns and great treasures of gold, silver and plate, spread- 
ing a reign of terror in that whole region, reached at last the 
port of Guatulco, a haven a short distance west of Tehuantepec. 

At Guatuleo* Drake, knowing that the whole*power of Spain 
was now aroused and on the qui vive in the South sea, and that 
the return route by the straits of Magellan was too dangerous 
and uncertain, both on account of difficult navigation and certain 
attack from Spanish fleets, boldly resolved to return to England 
by the Pacific ocean, the Moluccas and East Indies, and the cape 
of Good Hope, a longer but a safer route. Leaving Guatulco 
well loaded with plunder, Drake sailed northwestward instead 
of westward, his true course, some 500 leagues in longitude, and 
to June 3 1,400 leagues in all, “until we came into 42° north 
latitude,” + but Pretty says 43° of the pole arctic. 

Although Fletcher and Pretty differ somewhat in their account, 
both agree that the cold for them was intense, after their long 
cruise in the tropics. Pretty says, “ our men being pinched with 
the same, complained of the extremity thereof,” while Fletcher 
pithily says, “they seemed to be in the frozen zone.” 

On June 5 our militant chaplain says: ‘“‘ Wee were forced by 
contrary windes to runne in with the shoare, and so cast anchor 
in a bad bay.” Here the cold continuing and, as Fletcher calls 
them, “vile, thick and stinking fogges prevailing,” § they were 
unabfe to remain, but were forced to go no farther north. 

Curiously enough, at this point of his narrative Fletcher seems 
to have had his mind or his memory much affected, probably 
by the aforesaid “ fogges,” for in the next paragraph he gravely 
tells that this bad bay was in the height (latitude) of 48° north, 
not far from the entrance of Puget sound into the Pacific ocean. 
So if Fletcher is correct in his statement as to the latitudes 
gained, then from June 3 to June 5, 1579, Drake had sailed in 
three days 6° of latitude, or over 400 miles, or, taking Pretty’s 
estimate of 5°, some 350 miles; but when they concluded to leave 
this locality and return southward, they followed the coast, which 
he says was reasonably plain, yet the hills were covered with 

* World Encompassed, by Fletcher. 
ft Op. cit. 

t Pretty’s narrative or journal. 

2 World Encompassed. 

210 =F. L. Berthoud—Sir Francis Drake's Anchorage. 

Thus, returning with “propitious windes,” our clerical nar- 

rator tells us it took them to June 17, 1579, to reach on the coast 
the parallel of 38° 30’ north latitude, “a convenient and fit har- 
brough,” as Fletcher calls it. 

We can say ‘here that Fetcher’s bay. with the “ vile, stinking 
fogges,” which he says was in 48° north latitude, must be con- 
sidered as an error made by him in place of 45° latitude. 

Greenhow, in his discussion on the Oregon question years ago, 
comments on the discrepancy of time between Drake’s rapid 
journey northward and the twelve days’ time it took the Admiral 
to sail back to the 388° 30’ point with favoring wind. 

Prior, in his Collection of Voyages, a well known English work, 
plainly says Drake went to 45° north latitude, then sailed back 
south to 38° latitude. 

That this is no surmise on our part as to wind and weather, 
Fletcher himself says the bay was a most uncomfortable spot 
for them, and they were driven south to find a better place of 

After carefully comparing Fletcher’s and Pretty’s narratives, 
it is evident Drake landed somewhere on the coast of California, 
but where, is the point of discussion. When, however, we con- 
sider the cold and frost experienced by them, the confusion of 
latitudes given, their northing and abrupt return, we cannot give 
much weight to their latitudes, taken in the storms and fogs that 
beset that coast, and that their observations and dead reckoning 
were not even close approximations, nor can we believe such a 
magnificent bay and harbor as that of San Francisco could have 
been so slightingly mentioned by him in the way he narrates, so 
that the “ fit and convenient harbor and fair bay ” could not be 
the bay of San Francisco. 

Bryant, in his History of the United States, discusses the prob- 
able location of Drake’s harbor on the coast of California, and 
gives from Hondius a map of his anchorage, which has a strong 
resemblance to Bodega bay and Romanzoff point, now known as 
Bodega head. 

Winsor’s Narrative and Critical History of the United States 
enters largely and interestingly into this subject—a résumé of 
the arguments advanced on this mooted point—adding to the 
hitherto scanty cartography of Drake’s discovery a copy of Dud- 
ley’s map, the Arcano del Mare. Dudley's map we think but 
little elucidates the question. It indicates certain bays and 

Old map of the coast of California. 21 

islands between the 38° and 89° north latitude, one of which is 
called the bay of Saint Michael, the other Porto di Nueva Albion, 
which, aside from their approximation to the 88° and 88° 30’ lati- 
tude, require constructive imagination to call Bodega bay and 
the port of San Francisco. 

Professor Hale, in Winsor’s Narrative and Critical History, 
hints that it may all be the work of Dudley’s imagination. 

The map of the coast of California, derived from Father Acosta’s 
work, in Angel’s Mémoires Geographiques, curiously resembles 
Dudley’s map in several respects. Bahia de Pinos can be taken 
to represent Monterey bay, and Cabo de San Francisco as point 
San Pedro; then follow islands that by a farther stretch of imag- 
ination can be supposed to represent the Farallones, while the 
Bahia de las Islas on the same lines represents the supposed San 
Francisco bay, if such was supposed to exist in the sixteenth cen- 
tury; but is Cabo de San Francisco a name imposed on that head- 
land after or before Drake’s voyage? We hope that Professor 
Davidson will throw some light on that name in his farther 
promised collation of Viscaino’s survey; but Acosta’s map is 
of date anterior to Viscaino’s exploration. We were inclined 
first to consider the group of islands between Cabo de San Fran- 
cisco and Punta de Sardine as representing Cabrillo’s discover- 
ies, but their distance from Monterey bay and their position 
toward cape Mendocino seem to preclude this theory. 

Now, Fletcher says expressly: “ From the height of 48° [48°], 
in which wee now were, to 38° wee found the land by coasting 
along tobe but low; . . . in 38° 30’ we fell with a con- 
venient and fit harbrough, and June 17 (1579), came to anchor 
therein, where we continued until July 23d.” * 

San Francisco bay is in latitude 37° 46’ north. Bodega bay 1s 
in 38° 30’ north. It is singular, in view of what Fletcher says, 
that their anchorage was in 38° 30’; that a bay south of Drake’s 
most southern return journey should be selected as the point 
where Drake landed and took possession. Drake coasted to 58° 
latitude, near to point Reyes; he, finding no place of suitable 
anchorage or to land, returns northward again and anchors in 
Bodega bay, a most OC aeenaiene point to refit, where a few days 
after he indulges (more Anglicano) in the antics of a regs al crown- 
ing more pee the Neptunian mé snqquemade 6 of a yes set of 

* Op. cit.. ° 

29 -Nat. Grog. Maa., vou. VI, 1894, 

212 =E. L. Berthoud—Sir Francis. Drake's Anchorage. 

tars and successful buccaneers laden with plunder, than the 
honors of a sober discovery, while the inane farce of taking pos- 
session for the crown of England disregarded the prior rights of 
Spanish discovery many years before Drake’s landing. 

Fletcher, who enters in some detail as to what took place dur- 
ing their residence in the bay, says, on page 64: “ This country 
our general named Albion,” ete. Another reason for the “act of 
possession ” was evidently Drake’s idea that by it he reaffirmed 
England’s denial of Spain’s monopoly, founded on the absurd 
bull of Pope Alexander sharing the eastern and western hemis- 
pheres between Spain and Portugal, a partition scouted by both 
France and England. The absurdity of the “act of possession ” 
by Sir Francis Drake was in later years repeated in numerous 
localities on this globe with signal advantage to England. 

In this manner the poor ignorant aborigines of Africa, Asia, 
and America have found themselves invested with the honors of 
allodial possession, duly transferred to England by the magic of 
treaties. These, with the claims of first discovery conveniently 
at hand, backed by presents of cast-off clothing, rum, theatrical 
crowns and medals of Britannia, formed the foundation for future 
seizure and annexation. 

July 23, 1579, Drake left his anchoring ground, the Indians 
taking a sorrowful farewell, signaling with fires the departure of 
the buccaneers. 

Fletcher now tells us ‘‘that not farre without the harbrough 
did lye certain isles (we called them the isles of Saint James), 
having on them plentiful and great store of seals and birds, with 
one of which we fell July 24th, whereon we found such provision 
as might completely serve our turn for awhile.” * 

These islands, called by Fletcher the Saint James, are un- 
doubtedly the Farallones, yet it took them one day’s sail to reach 
them from their anchorage. We can hardly think it would take 
a day to sail from Drakes bay or San Francisco harbor to reach 
these outlying islets. The preponderance of locality and dis- 
tance seems to point to Bodega bay as Drake’s harbor. 

It does not seem possible that in their desultory sailing up 
and down the coast they would have sailed right into San Fran- 
cisco bay without hesitation or difficulty in finding it. 

Then, again, it seems they discovered the Saint James islands 
only when they left, the coast of California. Could they have 

os Loe. cit. 

California represented as an Island. 213 

ignored them when in June they sailed along the coast and 
entered the bay? On the theory that they stopped in Drakes 
bay near point: Reyes, they were in sight of the Farallones. If 
they had sailed into San Francisco harbor on June 17, 1579, 
they passed between Drakes bay and the Farallones and could 
not fail to see or notice them. 

A discussion on the values of the latitudes given in the course 
of the desultory navigation of Drake along the coast of Califor- 
nia will not be made here. We leave it to the eminent hydrog- 
rapher, Professor George Davidson, who has most clearly and 
sagaciously worked out the devious and puzzling questions in- 
volved, from the explorations of Cabrillo and Ferrelo, and he 
alone is competent to sit in judgment over the positive value of 
Drake’s nautical astronomy. 

We have elaborated our theory as founded on conditions and 
physical facts given by the authorities consulted, while we have 
accepted the latitudes as closely correct when they are applied 
to the point discussed, when it can be shown they agree with the 
landmarks described. 

From the survey of Viscaino in 1601-1603 until late in the 
eighteenth century, the coasts of upper and lower California and 
Oregon were little known or studied. Serious changes took place 
after 1620, when map-makers began to consider California an 
island, an error perpetuated to the middle of the eighteenth 
century. On Duval’s map of 1682, California is represented, and 
Canada is shown as bordering on California, port San Francisco 
is in about 40° north latitude, and the Rio del Norte is empty- 
ing into the Vermillion—most fanciful and unreal cartography 
founded on the worst errors of former explorers. 

Engel, and others quoted by him, suggested in the last century 
that the discrepancies between the sixteenth century Spanish 
explorations and those brought out in the eighteenth century 
might be ascribed to changes in coast configuration. The shal- 
lowing of the sea along the coast, the formation of islands and 
reefs, were sufficient to account for changes in topographic and 
hydrographic features. 

We are unable to either affirm or deny the possibility of such 
changes in the 350 years since Cabrillo’s exploration, yet we 
cannot forget that California and the region around San Francisco 
has been subjected to violent and oft-recurring seismic convul- 
sions, which have elevated the region around San Francisco 

914 E. L. Berthoud—Sir Francis Drake's Anchorage. 

many feet above the present Pacific level; and that these con- 
vulsions are still far from dormant is yearly witnessed by earth- 
quake shocks, a state of high internal tension which might 
obliterate that magnificent bay. 

Consulting the account of Admiral Viscaino’s survey of the 
coast of California as given in Father Venegas’s History of Cali- 
fornia : * 

The Capitana and tender had no sooner left the harbor of Monterey 
than they had a favorable wind, which, lasting till the twelfth day, car- 
ried them beyond port St Francisco. But the day after, which was the 
7th January, the wind shifted to the northwest, but blowing an easy gale, 
still made some way, and the tender, concluding there was no necessity 
for standing in for the shore, continued her voyage. The Capitana, think- 
ing they were in company, did not shew any light, by which means in 
the morning they had no sight of each other, and the general ( Viscaino) 
in the Capitana returned to port San Fraucisco to wait for the tender. 

Another reason which induced the Capitana to put into Puerto 
Francisco was to take a survey of it and see if anything was to be found 
of the San Augustin, which in the year 1595 had, by order of his majesty 
and the viceroy, been sent from the Philippines by the governor to survey 
the coast of California under the direction of Sebastian Rodriguez Cer- 
menon,-a pilot of known abilities, but was driven ashore in this harbor 
by the violence of the wind. Among others on board the San Augustin 
was the pilot Francisco Volanas, who was also chief pilot of this squadron 
(Viscaino’s). . . . And the general was desirous of putting in here to 
see if there remained any vestiges of the ship and cargo. 

The Capitana came to an anchor behind a point of land called la 
Punta de los Reys. 

We consider that this quotation most signally proves that port 
San Francisco was what is now known as Drakes bay, and that 
Sebastian Viscaino anchored at the northwestern corner, under 
Punta de los Reyes; and if we accept Acosta’s map as published 
previous to 1580, then it would appear that port San Francisco 
is a name given to it by the Spaniards, and in no manner con- 
nected with Sir Francis Drake’s anchorage or the subsequent 
dubbing of San Francisco bay as the bay of Sir Francis Drake. 

* Venegas’s History of California, pp. 288, 289, ed. 1757. 



Owing to the wide variations in the reported height of mount 
Saint Elias, it has been facetiously remarked that the mountain 
must be undergoing remarkable changes. Now that the accu- 
rate measurements of Messrs MeGrath and Turner, of the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey, have furnished reliable data 
for comparison, it is important to note that the height of the peak 
probably does vary, and that future measurements, although as 
refined as those just mentioned, may not agree with them. 

At first glance it might be thought that the snow falling on a 
lofty range would be blown off from the ridges and peaks and 
accumulated to a great thickness only in the depressions. It is 
now known, however, from abundant observations that this is 
not the case, but instead drifts form in a peculiar manner on 
even the most exposed summits, so as to materially increase their 
height. As I have previously attempted to describe,* the drifts 
on mountain peaks frequently have the form of a sharp pyramid, 
set eccentrically on their summits. This is the case on mount 
Saint Elias. The snow pyramid which gives the mountain its 
exceedingly sharp tip is certainly not less than 200 feet high, 
and 1 should not be surprised if, when the top is reached, the 
snow would be found to be 300 or 400 feet deep. The height of 
the pyramid depends on the snowfall, on the direction and force 
of the wind, on eddies in the air currents caused by the shape of 
the summit, and onavalanches. Every storm remodels the pyra- 
mid in the same manner that snow-drifts at lower elevations 
change their shapes, and the great avalanches which start from 
its northern face must affect its height. Still the resulting form, 
so far as is known, is always an unsymmetrical pyramid, with its 
steepest slope to the north. Changes in the height of the pyra- 

* Nat. Geog. Mag., vol. ili, 1891, p. 143. 

216 I. OC. Russell—Note on Height of Mount Saint Elias. 

mid are not caused by melting, for the reason that under present 
climatic conditions the snow near the summit-of the mountain 
does not melt during summer, but at an elevation exceeding 
about 18,500 feet is always dry and light and resembles the finest 

The conditions on which the snow pyramid on mount Saint 
Elias depend are so variable that it is not reasonable to suppose 
that its height remains the same at all seasons or from year to 
year. What the variations may be will perhaps be determined 
by future measurements of the elevation of the mountain 




Résumé of Exploration Work.—The first expedition into the 
Antarctic area was made in 1567 by Alvaro Mendafia, a Peru- 
vian. In 1598 the South Shetland islands, a group south of 
cape Horn, was discovered by the Dutch, and in 1606 the New 
Hebrides group was discovered by a second Peruvian expedition. 

La Roche, a Frenchman, in 1672 reported the discovery of an 
island now known as South Georgia island. France in 1772 
sent out M de Kerguelen, who sighted land in latitude 49° 8. 
and longitude 69° E. He thought he had discovered the Ant- 
arctic continent, but a second expedition the next year showed 
it to be only a barren island, which now bears his name. 

The great English captain, James Cook, was the first, however, 
to do any serious work in this section. In 1775 he first crossed 
the southern circle, and the next year he reached latitude 71° 
10’ S. in longitude 106° 54’ W. He describes the region as in- 
tensely inhospitable, beset with thick fogs and heavy storms, and 
the ports along the coast, if there were any, as being filled with 
ice of a great thickness. He also believed that it would be impos- 
sible to attain a higher latitude,and it is a fact that his record has 
been surpassed by only two other men—that is, Captain James 
Weddell and Sir James’ Clark Ross. 

After Cook came Smith, Palmer and Bransfield in 1819 and 
1820, and during this latter year also Bellingshausen, a Russian, 
attained a latitude of 70° 8. in longitude 1° 30’ W., discovering 
Alexander and Peter islands. Powell discovered the South Ork- 
neys. Cook’s record was broken in 1823 when Weddell reached 
latitude 74° 15’ 8. in longitude 34° 17’ W. Here he found an 

*See The Geographical Journal, London, 1894; also the Royal Scottish 
Geographical Magazine, Edinburgh, 1894; also Antarctica, by General 
A. W. Greely, Cosmopolitan, July, 1894. 


218 Cyrus C. Babb—Geographic Notes. 

open sea with many whales surrounding his ship and the waters 
covered with birds. 

Biscoe in 1831 landed on Adelaide island, discovering also 
Graham and Enderby lands. Balleny discovered Balleny islands 
and Sabrine land. The Frenchman D’Urville sighted Adélie 
land in 1840, but he was unfortunate in being preceded by 
only a few days by Wilkes, who, in charge of the expedition 
from our own country, skirted the shore of this continent 
through 60° of longitude. He was unable to make a landing, 
owing to the immense ice cap which, descending from the shore, 
extended for several miles into the sea. It presented a perpen- 
dicular face 109 to 200 feet above the level of the sea, and was 
unbroken by indentations for the entire length along which he 
coasted. Later Dallman discovered Kaiser Wilhelm islands 
and Bismarck strait. 

The most successful and the most important expedition to the 
Antarctic was that of the Hrebus and Terror, under the command 
of Sir James Clark Ross, between the years 1839 and 1845. He 
thrice crossed the Antarctic circle. In January, 1841, Vicipria 
land was sighted, consisting of mountain ranges varying from 
7,000 to 15,000 feet in height. Along this shore he coasted south- 
ward for 500 miles, until his way was intercepted by a perpen- 
dicular wall of ice 200 feet in height extending in an east and 
west direction. Immediately in front of him the volcanic cones 
of mounts Terror and Erebus arose 10,800 and 12,400 feet in 
height respectively. The latter at the time of visit was in active 
eruption, and one can imagine what a magnificent sight it must 
have been to those men to see an immense mountain peak, 
located in a vast wilderness of ice and snow, belching forth fire, 
lava, and smoke. The ice barrier capping this Antarctic conti- 
nent Ross coasted for 500 miles, until he had to make his way 
out, owing to the closing in of winter. 

The next season this intrepid explorer repeated his last year’s 
trip, but with not so much success. He reached a latitude, how- 
ever, of 78° 10'S. In the third season, in 1842-’43, Ross visited © 
the regions south of cape Horn in the vicinity of Erebus and 
Terror bay. He could not follow Weddell’s course, owing to the 
closing in of heavy pack ice. 

The next expedition of importance was that of Her Majesty’s 
ship the Challenger, which visited these regions in 1874. Little 
geographic work as commonly understood—that is, the discovery 

The Expedition of the Dundee Whalers. 219 

of new lands—was done. Her investigations were more confined 
to a study of.the deeper regions of the sea. Very valuable scien- 
tific results were obtained, however, and through her soundings 
and dredgings and in connection with previous discoveries, Dr 
Murray has been able to outline the Antarctic continent. 

In the fall of 1892 an expedition, consisting of four steam 
whalers, was fitted out from Dundee, Scotland. The Royal Geo- 
graphical Society well equipped them with scientific instruments, 
such as chronometers and meteorological instruments, and the 
surgeons on board of two of the vessels, the Balena and the Active, 
were selected on account of their general scientific training. An 
account of this expedition may be found in the Scottish Geo- 
graphical Magazine for February, 1894. The two ships, the 
Active and the Balzna, left the Falkland islands December 11, 
cruising about in search of whales until January 2, when they 
had reached a latitude of 67° S. On January 6, 1893, a landing 
was made ona beach of Erebus and Terror bay, where a few 
specimens of seaweed and moss were found and preserved. No 
whales of value, as the true whalebone whale, were seen, but of 
the southern finner and the common hunchback large numbers 
were encountered. Specimens of the bottlenose and two other 
species were captured, possibly the Orea capensis and the Globio- 
cephalus. Seals were plentiful and a good catch was made in a 
short time, four species being observed, apparently identical with 
those described by Ross, but it is doubtful whether the true fur- 
seal was found. 

There was a Norwegian sealer, the Jason, in the same vicinity 
this season. She collected on Seymour island, in Erebus and 
Terror bay, a number of fossils, which have since been deter- 
mined as belonging to the lower tertiary.* 

In September, 1893, another Norwegian steam whaler, the Ant- 
arctic, sailed from Tonsberg, Norway, for the southern regions, 
She was sent out by Commander Svend Foéyn. Her sailing 
master is Captain Leonard Christensen; she is barque-rigged ; 
tonnage, 226, and carries eight whale-boats. Meteorological and 
other observations are to be made. Last season, in the vicinity 
of Kerguelen islands, 1,500 seals were caught inside of eight 
days, no fur-seals, however, being found. At these latter islands 
the vessel visited Royal sound, where a colony of 59 persons 
was found, consisting of Europeans, Chinese and Indians. She 

* Geographical Journal, January, 1894, p. 11. 
30—Nart. Grog. Mae., vot. VI, 1894. 

220 Cyrus C..Babb— Geographic Notes. 

then sailed for Australia and arrived at Melbourne on February 
27,1894. This November she will attempt to enter the Antarctic 
circle in the vicinity of Victoria land. 

Finally the last expedition at this date, consisting of the Nor- 
wegian whalers Jason, Castor and Hertha, has contributed con- 
siderably to our topographic knowledge of Antarctica.* 

On December 6, 1898, Captain C. A. Larsen, in the ship Jason, 
attained a latitude of 68° 10’S. in longitude 60° W., and one of 
_the other vessels reached latitude 69° S. and in a more western 
longitude. These men have therefore attained a higher southern 
latitude by four degrees in these longitudes than any previous 
explorers. New lands were discovered and a number of active 
as well as extinct volcanoes were sighted. 

Large numbers of seals were seen and captured, belonging 
principally to the Graasel and Fiskesel species. Few whales 
were captured ; species seen were as follows: Blaahvale, Finwale, 
Knarhval, Minkevale and the Rethvale. 

On December 1 land was sighted in 65° 43'S. latitude and 
56° 57’ W. longitude and the name of cape Frammes was given 
to the headland. The land appeared to be high, covered with 
snow and ice, and stretched in a north and south direction. 
Many high snow-covered peaks were seen in the interior, and 
the name of mount Jason was given to one of the more eastern 
and nearer peaks. The lower slopes of this mountain were free 
of ice and snow, but it was found impossible to land, owing to 
the immense ice barrier which extended from the land into the 
sea for a distance of several miles. 

In latitude 66° 42’ 8. and longitude 61° 50’ W. high land was 
sighted, to which was given thename of Foyn land. It consists 
of four hills, their northern and eastern slopes being free of snow 
and forming a conspicuous landmark, especially on approaching 
from the north. Captain Larsen sailed southward for a distance 
of 500 miles along this ice barrier until on December 6 he at- 
tained his highest southern latitude. Further progress in this 
direction was prevented by the winter ice. On their return sev- 
eral islands were discovered and named Weather, Robertson, 
Christensen and Seal islands. A landing was made on Christen- 
sen island and the greater part of it was found to be free of 
snow. ‘To the northwest of this island a small volcanic island 


*The Voyage of the Jason to the Antarctic Regions: The Geograph- 
ical Journal, London, October, 1894, pp. 333-344; 1 map. 


A map of the South Polar Regions. 221 

was sighted, to which was given the name of Lindenberg. Cap- 
tain Larsen says in his journal: 

This volcano had the shape of a sugar-loaf and was of considerable 
height. The ice was melted for a considerable distance around it. It pre- 
sented a remarkable aspect, as around the top and on the slopes there 
were funnel-like holes, from which a very black and thick smoke issued 
from time to time, covering the top itself. In short, it was in full activity. 

Figure 3.—The Antarctic Continent. 

The Antarctic Continent—Figure 3 is a map of the Antarctic 
continent according to Murray. He estimates the area as 
nearly 4,000,000 square miles, or a continent with a greater 
area than Australia. According to Ross, the rocks of Franklin, 
Cockburn and Possession islands are of volcanic origin, and in 
his dredgings to the east of Victoria land volcanic rock was 
found, but with some fragments of gray granite. 


222 Cyrus C. Babb—Geographic Notes. 

D’Urville, at Adélie land, found a precipitous shore, with ele- 
vations from 2,009 to 3,000 feet. The rocks of the neighboring 
islands were granites and eneisses. Wilkes found on an iceberg 
in the same vicinity large bowlders of red sandstone and basalt, 
with smaller gravels, stones, clays and mud. The dredgings of 
the Challenger produced from the great ocean basins volcanic 
débris, but as the Antarctic continent was approached quartz and 
granite fragments were found, and in the highest latitudes reached 
the dredgings consisted mainly of fragments of diorites, granites, 
mica schists, sandstones, limestones, and earthy shales. 

In the reports of the expeditions previous to those of the Dun- 
dee and Norwegian whalers the rocks of the islands to the south 
of cape Horn are described as of volcanic origin. Dr Bruce, of 
the Balena, reports the finding of metamorphic and sedimentary 
rocks in his soundings. 

Captain Larsen, of the ship Jason, as above stated, collected 
from Seymour island during his first trip, in 1892, a number of 
fossils which have been determined as belonging to the lower 
tertiary. In November of the next year he landed on the same 
island, but at a different place, and says: 

When we were a quarter of a Norwegian mile from shore and stood 
about 300 feet above the sea the petrified wood became more and more 
frequent, and we took several specimens, which looked as if they were of 
deciduous trees ; the bark and branches, as also the year rings, were seen 
in the logs which lay slanting in the soil. The wood seemed not to have 
been thrown out of the water; on the contrary, it could never have been 
in the water, because, in the first case, we found petrified worms, while 
there were none in the second. At other places we saw balls made of 
sand and cement resting upon pillars composed of the same constituents. 

. . The beach is flat and consists of white sand. 

It would seem, therefore, that Antarctica was a true conti- 
nental area, having the fundamental continental gneiss, with 
later fossil-bearing sandstones and limestones. 

The primary object of Ross’s expedition was for the purpose 
of making magnetic observations, and in this he was very suc- 
cessful, sailing to within 160 miles of the south magnetic pole. 
He furnished more trustworthy evidence on the meteorological 
and magnetic conditions of Antarctica than all the preceding 
and succeeding expeditions put together. 

At the time of the reading by Dr Murray of his valuable paper 
before the Royal Geographical Society, Dr Neumayer, a German 
scientist, contributed an article showing the desirability, even the 

The Need of Observations. 223 

necessity, of observations in this section before the theory of 
the earth’s magnetism could be finally settled.* 

The very important problem of the figure of the earth, together 
with a number of other geodetic questions, cannot be solved 
- without fuller knowledge of this area. 


The May and June number (1895) of the Annuaire of the 
French Meteorological Society contains an account by M Th. 
Moreaux of the magnetic observations made in Iceland, Jan 
Mayen island, and Spitzbergen, in the year 1892, by the officers 
of the transport la Manche. 

The secretary of the French navy, at the instance of the min- 
ister of public instruction, sent, under command of Captain 
Bienaimé, the steamer la Manche to Jan Mayen and Spitzber- 
gen for scientific purposes, supplementary to a supervision of the 
Iceland fisheries, which was the ordinary duty for the ship. 

The magnetic observations, participated in by several officers, 
were tabulated and reduced by Lieutenant Exelmans. In Ice- 
land the northern and southeastern shores were ice-bound and 
the eastern coast nearly unattainable; consequently observations 
were made upon the northwestern coast at Reykiavick, Dyre, Isa 
and Patrix fiords. 

At Jan Mayen the pier and bench-mark erected by the inter- 
national Austrian expedition (1882-83) were found intact. 
Here, as in Iceland, the soil is magnetic, and around the build- 
ing sheltering the pier was found a fine blackish sand, arising 
from rock disintegration, which affected very strongly the mag- 
netic needle. 

At Spitzbergen several series of determinations were made at 
Research bay on the spot-where Bravais observed in 1839. Bad 
weather and heavy sea prevented them from landing at cape 
Thorsden, the Danish magnetic station of 1882, but they suc- 
ceeded in making observations under favorable conditions, how- 
ever, in la Manche bay, about 7 miles from the Swedish observ- 
atory. Inaddition, observations were made at sea at 21 separate 
points in the vicinity of Iceland, in order to verify the opinion, 

*The Renewal of Antarctic Exploration, by John Murray : Tne Geo- 
graphical Journal, London, January, 1894, p. 37. 
{ Translated and condensed by General A. W. Greely. 

224 Cyrus C. Babb—Grographic Notes. 

generally accepted among the Iceland fishermen, that in these 
waters the actual direction of the compass varies from 20° to 80° 
from the calculated direction. These observations indicated that 
the calculated values are never more than three degrees in error- 

By comparison with former observations, it was found that the 
average secular variation of the declination is — 10’ at Jan Mayen 
(1882-1892) and at Spitzbergen (1839-1892), —7’ at Reykiavick 
(1856-1892), and — 8’ at Bergen (1858-1892). 

The secular variation of the inclination-and intensity is much 
less clearly defined. The inclination, for example, appears to 
have diminished only nine minutes at Reykiavick since 1876, 
and is now increased at Jan Mayen and Spitzbergen, according 
to the observations of 1892. The tendency of this variation may 
seem natural, taking into consideration the distribution of iso- 
clynics in the North Polar ocean; but, on the other hand, we 
know that different inclination compasses do not give identical 
results; and again, that to make magnetic observations in vol- 
canic lands strictly comparable it is necessary that observers 
should occupy exactly the same point, and even under these 
conditions it is uncertain whether the influence of the rocks has 
not been modified in the meantime. 

The following table gives the result of the land observations: 

rs) =e 

: & e $2 

ag “= ° RO 

wife 2 = os 5 oR 

1893. Station. Hinge S 5 3 so 

tie 3: oF zs BE 

) 4 4 S| na se 

June 13..............| Reykiaviel .... : .-| 649.2 | 24°. W.?]| 36° 43/.0 | 76° 17/9 0.1319 
May 24-2 .| Dyre fiord.. ..| 659.9 | 259.8 W. | 38° 337.0 | 75° 8.7 0.1157 
May 28.. Isa fiord..... PANGGOee | 25218) Wien A (Cfo 2710) beeen eee 0.1216 
June 4.. Patrix fior Fe] G26) |26C: 4 Wien I ecisT ley 22 (hl See 0.1179 
July 27.. Jan Mayen............-- Ue ves 719.0 | 109.8 W. | 28° 19’.2 | 79° 147.9 0.0979 
Augus .| Spitzbergen (R. B.)........] 779.5 | 129.2 E. | 129 3/8 | sv° 0148 * | 9.0920 
August 8...... ...| Spitzbergen (C. M. B )...| '75°.5 | 139.7 E. | 10° 3/7 | 80° 437.9 0.0888 

*79° 497.0 August 1 and 80° 7/.0 August 3. 


This was the title of a paper by Mr Yule Oldham, read at the 
meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, last August, at Oxford. He says:* 

A glance at the map of the Atlantic ocean will show the three easiest 
points of access: (1) North America by means of the convenient stepping- 

* Scottish Geographical Magazine, September, 1894, page 471. 

The easiest Points of Access to America. 225 

stones, Iceland and Greenland; (2) Central America, with the help of 
the steady northeast trade winds; (3) Brazil, in South America, which 
is not only the nearest point to the Old World, but has the additional 
advantage of winds and currents tending in its direction. There can be 
little doubt that America was visited by Norsemen about A. D. 1000, by 
the first route. Tradition and the records of some early maps, which 
show some large land masses as far west of the Azores as these are west 
of Europe, seem to indicate that the second route had been possibly 
utilized early in the fifteenth century, but the third and easiest was not 
available till the west African coast as far as cape Verd had been dis- 
covered. It wagin 1445 that cape Verd was for the first time rounded 
by one of the exploring expeditions despatched from Portugal by the in- 
defatigable Prince Henry. There is good reason to believe that only two 
years later Brazil was reached. There is at Milan a remarkable manu- 
script map, dated A. D. 1448, drawn by Andrea Bianco, of Venice. On 
this map are shown for the first time the result of the Portuguese discoy- 
eries as far as cape Verd, but in addition there is drawn at the edge of 
the map, southwest from that cape, in the direction of Brazil, a long 
stretch of coast line labeled ‘‘Authentic island,” with a further inscription 
to the effect that it stretches ‘£1,500 miles westward.’? Antonio Gal- 
vano, in ‘The Discoveries of the World,” published in the middle of the 
sixteenth century, says that in A. D. 1447 a Portuguese ship was carried 
by a great tempest far westward until an island was discovered, from 
which gold was brought back to Portugal. As Bianco’s map of A. D. 1448 
was made in London, it is likely that it represents information about this 
voyage obtained in Portugal, where Bianco probably called on a voyage 
_ from Venice to England. The conclusion to be drawn is that South 
America was first seen in the very year in which Columbus is believed to 
have been born, by one of the Portuguese explorers despatched by Prince 
Henry the Navigator. In the discussion of this paper the author’s con- 
clusions were challenged by several gentlemen on the ground that its ar- 
gument was purely conjectural, and that if such a discovery had been 
made it would have been known to Columbus and other geographers of 
the day. 


The Board of Managers has the pleasure of announcing that 
it has made arrangements for the publication of a series of science 
manuals on the physical features of the United States. The 
principal object of the publication is to render accessible to 
every public school in the United States, at a nominal price, 
accurate and properly correlated information upon the geog- 
raphy of our country, and expressed in simple, untechnical 
language. Various members of the Society have agitated this 
question for some time past, and it resulted that in last June, 

226 Oyrus C. Babb—Geographie Notes... 

President Hubbard called a meeting of certain geographers to 
meet Major J. W. Powell and Professor W. M. Davis of Harvard 
University and listen to their views upon this subject. 

The teacher of geography in this country at the present time 
has great difficulty in finding information on their subject, 
especially comprehensive accounts of their home geography, 
outside of their text-books. A certain amount may be found 
in reports of geological surveys, state and national, and in scien- 
tific journals, but they are generally written in such a technical 
style that little benefit can be derived from them. 

From a suggestion made by Professor Richard Lehmann at 
the second German Geographical Congress at Halle in 1882 a 
central commission for the scientific geographic study of Ger- 
many was formed. Various publications have appeared under 
the direction of this commission, including a guide to geographic 
study and a bibliography of ements literature. The more 
important of their results are included, however, in the special 
yolumes on investigation of German geography and ethnology, 
now reaching seven volumes.* 

Our Society will somewhat modify the German plan in that 
the monographs will be prepared more especially for the teachers 
of our public schools. It is also the intention of introducing 
into the series a large number of maps, diagrams and illustra- 
tions. Arrangements have been consummated with the Ameri- 
can Book Company of New York to publish this series and to 
bring it to the attention of the school teachers of this country. 
The plan involves the preparation of material for a physio- 
graphic description of the country by districts. The following 
are some of the subjects and authors proposed : 

The elements of physiography, by Major J. W. Powell, director 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology ; The tidal marshes and 
beaches of the Atlantic coast, by N. S. Shaler, professor of geol- 
ogy, Harvard University ; Niagara falls and its history, by G. K, 
Gilbert, United States Geological Survey ; The New England hills, 
by W. M. Davis, professor of physical geography, Harvard Univer- 
sity ; The southern Appalachian system, by Bailey Willis, United 
States Geological Survey ; Mount Shasta, by J.S. Diller, United 
States Geological Survey; The lake region of the northwest, by 
Professor I. C. Russell, University of Michigan. 

Among other proposed subjects are the flood plains of the Mis- 

* Forschung en zur deutschen Landes-und Volkskunde. 

Selected Subjects. 227 

souri, the Atlantic coastal plain, the Colorado canyon, the Great 
Plains, the high plateaus of Utah, the valley of California, and 
the extinct volcanoes of the West. 

If this project is successful, the idea is to extend the scope, in- 
volving the issue of monographs on the relation of geography to 
other subjects, types of weather in different parts of the country, 
rainfall, the storms of the United States; the ocean, including 
the tides and currents of our shores; the relation of geographic 
form and historical development; the relations of resources, in- 
dustries and population, ete. 


The subject of the Essay in competition for the Gold Medal 
and Geographic Certificates of the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Sociery, 
for the year 1895, will be the River Systems of the United States. 

The Geographic Gold. Medal of the NattonaL GEOGRAPHIC So- 
creTy will be awarded to the best essayist of the entire country, 
while the second essayist will receive a certificate of honorable 
mention. The best essayist of each state will receive a certifi- 
cate of proficiency from the Society. 

1. Essays, not exceeding 2,000 words in length, will be re- 
ceived only from such public schools as announce their inten- 
tion to compete by May 31, 1895. 

2. Essays must be entirely composed by the student, who must 
certify on honor that he has not received aid from any person. 

3. The two best essays from each school shall be passed on by 
a committee of the NationaAL GroGRAPHIC Society in order to 
select the best essay for each state and for the United States. 

4. No certificate shall be awarded unless, in the opinion of 
the judges, the essay offered possesses sufficient merit to justify 
such award. 


One of the most important aims of the NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 
Socrery is to stimulate and make more practical the study of 
geography, particularly with reference to America. The Society 
therefore seeks the codperation of all educational workers in 
making its labors more efficient and general. To this end, gifts 

31—Nart. Groa. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

228 Cyrus C. Babb—Geographic Notes. 

for medals and scholarships are solicited, and identification with 
the Society by membership and personal effort is suggested. 

The Society already comprises among its active workers a 
considerable number of geographic scientists, who have given 
liberally of their time and ‘efforts with a view of stimulating 
public interest in geographic education. The Society is a work- 
ing one, and in its efforts to exercise an educational influence 
over the whole of the United States, feels justified in asking lib- 
eral support from public-spirited citizens. The Society numbers 
nearly eleven hundred members, and has active representatives 
in every state and territory. 

All members are earnestly requested to take a special interest 
in this subject and to bring it to the attention of the school 
superintendents and teachers in their vicinity. Additional cir- 
culars may be obtained of the committee as given below. 

General A. W. Greely, United States Army, Dr T. C. Menden- 
hall, President Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and Professor 
W. B. Powell, Superintendent of Public Schools of the District 
of Columbia, constitute the committee charged with the award 
of the prizes for 1895. 

The Committee on Prizes also desire to announce that in con- 
nection with the essays submitted to the Society last year on the 
river systems of the United States that Miss Cora Combs, of the 
high school at Chariton, [owa, received honorable mention on 
the unanimous recommendation of the judges. 




The tendency of animals and plants to multiply beyond the 
means of subsistence and to spread over all available areas is well 
understood. What naturalists wish to know is not how species 
are dispersed, but how they are checked in their efforts to over- 
run the earth. Geographic barriers are rare, except in the case 
of oceans, and since even these were formerly bridged at the north, 
another cause must be sought. This has been found in the group 
of phenomena commonly hidden under the word climate, and 
nearly a century ago it was shown by Humboldt that tempera- 
ture is the most important of these climatic factors. 

In the northern hemisphere animals and plants are distributed 
in circumpolar belts or zones, the boundaries of which follow lines 
of equal temperature rather than parallels of latitude. They 
conform in a general way, therefore, with the elevation of the 
land, sweeping northward over the lowlands and southward over 
the mountains. Between the pole and the equator there are three 
primary belts—Boreal, Austral and Tropical—each of which may 
be subdivided into minor belts and areas. In the United States 
the Boreal and Austral regions have each been split into three 
secondary transcontinental zones. The Boreal are known as the 
Arctic, Hudsonian and Cunadian ; the Austral as the Transition, 
Upper Austral and Lower Austral. The subordinate faunas and 
floras need not be here considered. 

* The present abstract of the principal results of an investigation carried 
on under the Department of Agriculture is here published by permission 
of the Honorable J. Sterling Morton, Secretary of Agriculture. The tem- 
perature data have been furnished by the United States Weather Bureau, 
a branch of the Department of Agriculture. A preliminary announce- 
ment of results was made by the author before the Philosophical Society 
of Washington May 26, 1894, 


250 Merriam—Laws of Temperature Control. 

The area of overlapping of Boreal and Austral types is con- 
fined in most parts of the country to the narrow Transition zone, 
but along the Pacific coast it reaches all the way from southern 
California to Puget sound. This Pacific coast strip has always 
proved a stumbling-block to students of geographic distribution 
of life in America, but has now become the means of verifying the 
fundamental laws governing this distribution, as shown later. 

But while the boundaries of the several zones rarely coincide 
with absolute mechanical barriers, being fixed in the main by 
temperature, difference of opinion prevails as to the period during 
which the temperature exerts its restraining influence, and no 
formula for the expression of the temperature control has been 
heretofore discovered. None of the temperature data computed 
and platted on maps as isotherms are ayailable in locating the 
exact boundaries of the zones, because these isotherms invariably 
show the temperature of arbitrary periods, such as months, 
seasons and years—periods whose beginning and ending have 
reference to a particular time of year rather than a particular 
degree or quantity of heat. Thus the temperature for July, 
which is by far the most important of those commonly shown in 
isotherms, bears an inconstant relation to the hottest part of the 
year. Incertain localities the four hottest weeks may fall within 
the month of July, but in other localities they cover the period 
from the middle of June to the middle of July; in others from 
the middle of July to the middle of August, and in others still 

from the early part of August to early September. Similarly, 
the isotherms showing the mean annual temperature fail to con- 
form to the boundaries of the life zones, although in the far south 
they may be nearly coincident. The mean summer temperature 
is obviously inapplicable because of the varying length of the 
season in different localities. 

Several years ago I endeavored to show that the distribution 
of terrestrial animals and plants is governed by the temperature 
of the period of growth and reproductive activity, not by the 
temperature of the whole year; but how to measure the tem- 
peratures concerned was not then worked out. The period of 
growth and reproductive activity is of variable duration, accord- 
ing to latitude, altitude and local conditions of each particular - 
locality. In the tropics and a few other areas it extends over 
nearly the whole year, while within the Arctic circle and on the 
summits of high mountains it is of less than two months’ dura- 

Geographic Distribution of Life. 231 

tion.* It is evident, therefore, that while in the tropics there 
may bea close agreement between the mean annual temperature 
and the life zones, in the north the widest discrepancy exists 
between them. 

At one time I believed that the mean temperature of the actual 
period of reproductive activity in each locality was the factor 
needed, but such means are almost impossible to obtain, and 
subsequent study has convinced me that the real temperature 
control may be better expressed by other data. 

For more than a century physiological botanists have main- 
tained that the various events in the life of plants, as leafing, 
flowering and maturing of fruit, take place when the plant has 
been exposed to a definite quantity of heat, which quantity is 
the sum total of the daily temperatures above a minimum as- 
sumed to; be necessary for functional activity. The minimum 
used. by Boussingault and early botanists generally was the freez- 
ing point (0° C. or 32° F.), but Marie-Davy and other recent 
writers believe that 6° C. or 43° F.{ more correctly indicates the 
temperature of the awakening of plant life in spring. In either 
case the substance of the theory is that the same stage of vegetation 
is attained in any year when the sum of the mean daily temperatures 
reaches the same value, which value or total is essentially the same 
for the same plant in all localities. This implies that the period 
necessary for the accomplishment of a definite physiological act, 
blossoming for instance, may be short or long, according to local 
climatic pecuharities, but.the total quantity of heat must be the 
same. The total amount of heat necessary to advance a plant 
to a given stage came to be known as the physiological constant of 
that stage. Linsser beheved this law to be fallacious and main- 
tained that the physiological constant of any particular stage of 
vegetation was not the sum total of heat acquired that time, but 
the ratio or proportion of this sum to the sum total for the entire 
season. Thus Linsser’s physiological constant is the ratio of the 
sum of the mean daily temperatures at the time when any par- 
ticular stage of vegetation is attained to the sum total for the 

*S6e N. Am. Fauna, No. 3, September, 1890, pp. 26, 27, 29-32; also 
Presidential Address, Biological Soc. Wash., vol. vii, April, 1892, pp. 
45, 46. 

+I began work on this line about fifteen years ago and continued at 
intervals for ten years before convinced of its impracticability. 

t The exact equivalent of 6° C. is 42°.8 F. 

232 Merriam—Laws of Temperature Control. 

year. This formula was based on the belief that plants of the 
same species living in different places arrive at the same phase 
of development by utilizing the same proportion of the total heat 
which they receive in the course of a season. 

Students of geographic distribution may dismiss this phase of 
the inquiry as not pertinent to the problem in hand, for we are 
concerned with the physiological constant of the species itself, not 
of any stage or period in its life history. But what is the physio- 
logical constant of a species, and how can it be measured? If 
it is true that the same stage of vegetation is attained in different 
years when the sum of the mean daily temperatures reaches the 
same value, it is obvious that the physiological constant of a species 
must be the total quantity of heat or sum of positive temperatures re- 
quired by that species to convplete its cycle of development and repro- 
duction. The difficulty in computing such sums is in fixing the 
end of the period during which temperature exerts its influence 
upon the organism. In the case of plants this can be done by 
direct observation of a particular individual or crop, in con- 
nection with careful thermometric readings covering the whole 
period of vegetative activity, and data of this sort have been 
actually recorded by certain European phenologists, but I am 
not aware that an attempt has been made to correlate the facts 
thus obtained with the boundaries of the life zones. Since, 
however, all forms of life are affected by temperature and it is 
manifestly impracticable to ascertain by direct observation the 
total quantity of heat necessary to enable the various species of 
mammals, birds and reptiles to complete the annual cycle of 
reproduction, and since the areas inhabited by definite assem- 
blages of animals and plants have been found to be essentially 
coincident, it is evident that a more generalized formula is neces- 
sary. If the computation can be transferred from the species to 
the zone it inhabits—if a zone constant can be substituted for a 
species constant—the problem will be well nigh solved. This I 
have attempted to do. In conformity with the usage of bota- 
nists, a Minimum temperature of 6° C. (48° F.) has been as- 
sumed as marking the inception of the period of physiolggical 
activity in plants and of reproductive activity in animals. The 
effective temperatures or degrees of normal mean daily heat in 
excess of this minimum have been added together for each 
station, beginning when the normal mean daily temperature 
rises higher than 6° C. in spring and continuing until it falls to 

Geographic Distribution of Life. 233 

the same point at the end of the season. The sums thus ob- 
tained have been platted on a large scale map of the United 
States,* and isotherms have been run which are found to con- 
form in a most gratifying manner to the northern boundaries of 
the several life zones, as may be seen on comparing a reduced copy 
of this map (see plate 12) with a map of the life zones (see plate 
14). The latter, it may be observed, is identical, save a few correc- 
tions in minor details, with the third edition of my Bio-geographic 
map of North America (prepared a year ago and published in the 
Annual Report of the Secretary of Agriculture for 1893).+ While 
the available data are not so numerous as might be desired, the 
stations in many instances being too far apart, still enough are 
at hand to justify the belief that animals and plants are restricted 
in northward distribution by the total quantity of heat during the sea- 
son of growth and reproduction.t 

The isotherm indicating a sum total of 5,500° C. (10,000° F.) 
coincides with the northern limit of distribution of Transition 
zone species, agreeing in the main with the dividing line be- 
tween the two primary life regions of the northern hemi- 
sphere—Austral and Boreal. But in areas where extensive over- 
lapping of Austral and Boreal types occurs, as along the Pacific 
coast from southern California northward to Puget sound, it will . 
be observed that the isotherm in question points, as elsewhere, 
to the northern limit of Austral types and bears no relation what- 
ever to the southward limit of Boreal types. It is evident, 
therefore, that the southward range of Boreal species, and per- 
haps of others also, is regulated by some cause other than the 
total quantity of heat. This cause was believed to be the mean 
temperature of the hottest part of the year,§ for it is reasonable 
to suppose that Boreal species in ranging southward will en- 

*Gannett’s ‘‘ Nine-sheet contour map,’’ published by the U. 8. Geo- 
logical Survey. 

{+ The only changes worth mentioning are the introduction of the Trop- 
ical along the lower Colorado valley, the extension of the Tropical across 
the peninsula of Florida, and the extension of the Transition along the 
Pacific coast strip. 

t In the case of certain sensitive species another factor enters into the 
problem, namely, killing frosts, for a few species are excluded by the occur- 
rence of frosts from areas having a sufficient total quantity of heat for 
their needs. 

2 This was indicated by mean summer temperatures platted from time 
to time during the past fifteen years, but the length of the period was 
never satisfactorily ascertained. 

234 Merriam—Laws of Temperature Control. 

counter, sooner or later, a degree of heat they are unable to 
endure. The difficulty is in ascertaining the length of the period 
whose mean temperature acts asa barrier. It must be short 
enough to be included within the hottest part of the summer in 
high northern latitudes, and would naturally increase in length 
from the north southward. For experimental purposes, and 
without attempting tinnecessary refinement, the mean normal 
temperature of the six hottest consecutive weeks of summer was 
arbitrarily chosen and platted on a large contour map of the 
United States, as in the case of the total quantity of heat. On 
comparing a reduced copy of this map (plate 13) with the zone 
map (plate 14) it appears that the isotherms conform to. the 
southern boundaries of the Boreal, Transition and Upper Aus- 
tral life zones, and that the isotherm of 18° C. (64°.4 F.) agrees 
almost precisely with the southern boundary of the Boreal re- 
gion. The coincidence is indeed so close as to justify the belief 
that animals and plants are restricted in southward distribution by 
the mean temperature of a brief period covering the hottest part of the 

If the isotherm of 18° C. (64°.4 F.) for the six hottest consecu- 
tive weeks (see plate 13) iscompared with that of 5,500° C-(10,000° 
F.), showing the sum of positive temperatures (see plate 12), it will 
be observed that the two are coincident in the main-except in a 
few localities. The principal discrepancy is along the Pacific 
coast from Puget sound to southern California. In this strip 
maps 12 and 13 not only fail to agree, but are fundamentally dif- 
ferent, showing that no constant relation exists between the mean 
temperature of the six hottest consecutive weeks and the total 
of heat for the season. The mean temperature of the hottest 
part of the year from about latitude 35° northward along the 
coast is truly boreal, being as low as the mean of the correspond- 
ing period in northern Maine and other points well within the 
Boreal zone. The mean of the six consecutive hottest weeks at 
several points on the coast of California is as follows: At Eureka, 
on Humboldt bay, 18°.5 C. (56° F.);* at San Francisco, 15°.5 C. 
(60° F.); at Monterey and Ventura, 17°.5 C. (63°.5 F.).} Strange 

* In the following mean temperatures, fractions smaller than one-half a 
degree are ignored. 

+ Santa Barbara, between Monterey and Ventura, has a slightly higher 
mean (67° F.), which is explained by its situation on alow, narrow coastal 
plain facing the south, with a range of mountains immediately on the 

Geographic Distribution of Life. 235 
as it may seem, San Francisco has a lower normal mean tem- 
perature during the hottest part of the year than Eastport, Maine, 
the mean at Eastport being 16° C. (61° F.).. On the other hand, 
the sum of positive temperatures (the normal mean daily tem- 
peratures above 6° C.) at San Francisco is more than 10,000° 
Fahrenheit higher than at Eastport, being 11,290° C. (20,360° F.) 
at the former and only 5,470° C. (9,880° F.) at the latter locality. 
At no point in the Pacific coast strip is the sum of the positive 
temperatures known to fall below 7,330° C. (13,600° F.), and it 
reaches 8,200° C. (14,800° F.) at Tatoosh island, off cape Flat- 
tery, the extreme northwestern point of the United States. Even 
at cape Flattery, therefore, the total of heat for the season is 
260° C. (600° F.) greater than at Eastport, Maine, though the 
latter is the more southern locality and has the higher mean 
summer temperature. 

The data at hand for the Pacific coast strip are amply sufli- 
cient to demonstrate two important facts: (1) that the tempera- 
ture of the summer season, the hottest part of the year, is phe- 
nomenally low for the latitude and altitude—so low, indeed, as 
to enable Boreal types to push south to latitude 35°; (2) that 
the total quantity of heat (the sum of the positive temperatures) 
for the entire season is phenomenally high for the latitude—so 
high, indeed, as to enable Austral types to push north to Puget 
sound. The total of heat is even greater at Puget sound than at 
Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Cleveland, Indianapolis, Keokuk, or 
Omaha, though five hundred miles north of the latitude of these 
places. In other words, the mean temperature of the hottest 
part of the year is sufficiently low for Boreal species, while the 
total quantity of heat is sufficiently great for Austral species. 

It is evident, therefore, that the principal climatic factors that 
permit Boreal and Austral types to live together along the Pa- 
cific coast are a low summer temperature combined with a high sum 
total of heat. The temperature is remarkably equable throughout 
the year; it never rises high for any length of time, and killing 
frosts are rare. 

The study of the accompanying maps was the means of lead- _ 
ing me, first, to the explanation of the anomalous distribution of 
species on the Pacific coast, where for a distance of more than a 
thousand miles a curious intermingling of northern and southern 
forms occurs ; and, second, to what I now conceive to be the true 
theory of the temperature control of the geographic distribution 
of species. 

32—Nar. Grog. Maa., vor. VI, 1894. 

236 Merriam—Laws of Temperature Control. 

The fundamental laws here developed, phrased for the northern 
hemisphere, may be briefly formulated as follows : 

(1) The northward distribution of animals and plants is de- 
termined by the total quantity of heat—the sum of the effective 

(2) The southward distribution of Boreal, Transition zone, and 
Upper Austral species is determined by the mean temperature of the 
hottest part of the year. 


Boreal Zones.—The distinctive temperatures of the three Boreal 
zones (Arctic, Hudsonianand Canadian) are not positively known, 
but the southern limit of the Boreal as a whole is marked by the 
isotherm of 18° C. (64°.4 F.) for the six hottest consecutive weeks 
of summer. It seems probable, from the few data available, 
that the limiting temperatures of the southern boundaries of the 
Hudsonian and Arctic zones are respectively 14° C. (57°.2 F.) and 
10° C. (50° F.) for the same period. 

Transition Zone species require a total quantity of heat of at 
least 5,500° C. (10,000° F.), but cannot endure a summer tem- 
perature the mean of which for the six hottest consecutive weeks 
exceeds 22° C.(71°.6 F.). The northern boundary of the Transi- 
tion zone, therefore, is marked by the isotherm showing a sum 
of normal positive temperatures of 5,500° C. (10,000° F.), while 
its southern boundary is coincident with the isotherm of 22° C. 
(71°.6 F.) for the six hottest consecutive weeks. 

Upper Austral species require a total quantity of heat of at 
least 6,400° C. (11,500° F.), but apparently cannot endure a sum- 
mer temperature the mean of which for the six hottest consecu- 
tive weeks exceeds 26° C. (78°.8 F.). The northern boundary of 
the Upper Austral zone, therefore, is marked by the isotherm 
showing a sum of normal positive temperatures of 6,400° C. 
(11,500° F.), while its southern boundary agrees very closely 
with the isotherm of 26° C. (78°.8 F.) for the six hottest consecu- 
tive weeks. | 

Lower Austral species require a total quantity of heat of at 
least 10,000° C. (18,000° F.). The northern boundary of the 
Lower Austral zone, therefore, is marked by the isotherm showing 
a sum of normal positive temperatures of 10,000° C. (18,000° F-.). 
A formula expressing the temperature-control of its southern 
boundary has not yet been found. 

Geographic Distribution of Life. 237 

Tropical species require a total quantity of heat of at least 
14,400° C. (26,000° F.); and, since the Tropical Life region is a 
broad equatorial belt, it is probable that both its northern and 
southern boundaries are marked by the isotherm showing a sum 
of normal positive temperatures of 14,400° C. (26,000° F.). 

An interesting fact respecting the relative values of the zones 
is brought/out by the isotherms showing the total quantity of 
heat necessary for each. It appears that the Transition and 
Upper Austral zones are not of equal value, but that together 
they are the exact equivalent of the Lower Austral zone. 

Northern limit. Southern limit. 
Regions. Zones. a 
Sum of normal mean | Normal mean tem- 
daily temperatures perature of six 
above 6° C. (48° hottest consecu- 
ECR ae tive weeks. 
C F, (Ge F 

VANCE CRE ay Seer eee ratee te ete iararecee oh Ace NOR 50° * 
OLGA 3) LRG SO MAM sce 5 stellen sleet s rel|t ccnsveracis ole ales Ola * 

(Gharmeyc hiewny 3.0.5 aameect lated cohcore SORES Pimper 18° 64°.4 

Transition 1. .-... 5,500° 10,000° 4 228 TALS6 

Austral...|{ Upper Austral?..| — 6,400° 11,500° 26° 78°.8 
Lower Austral*..| 10,000° TS ODOLS octets tall Gtste seneatee 
“RIQOy SNC) Dei Se OR ee a ee 14,500° ZOLOOOSS oiveres spre a dinckersracrsete 

* Estimated from insufficient data. 

1The Transition zone comprises three principal subdivisions: an east- 
ern or Alleghenian humid area, a western arid area, and a Pacific coast 
humid area. : 

*The Upper Austral zone comprises two principal subdivisions: an 
eastern or Carolinian area and a western or Upper.Sonoran area. 

The Lower Austral. zone comprises two principal subdivisions : 
eastern or Austroriparian area and a western or Lower Sonoran area. 

*The Fahrenheit equivalents of Centigrade sum temiperatures are stated 
in round numbers to avoid small figures of equivocal value. 



It is not the purpose of the present essay to discuss the secon- 
dary causes affecting distribution. At the same time it seems 
desirable to contrast for a moment the influence of humidity, 
which is by far the most potent of the secondary causes, with 
that of temperature, which has been shown to be the primary 

238 Merriam—Laws of Temperature Control. - 

controlling cause. Humidity governs details of distribution 
of numerous species of plants, reptiles and birds, and of a few 
species of mammals, within the several temperature zones. 
Thus the palmetto, the green chameleon, the chuck-wills widow 
and the ricefield mouse inhabit humid parts of the Lower Aus- 
tral zone (the Austroriparian area), while the mesquite, the 
leopard lizard, the sickle-billed thrashers and the four-toed. kan- 
garoo rats find their homes in arid parts of the same zone (the 
Lower Sonoran area). 

That humidity is less potent than temperature as a controll- 
ing factor in distribution may be shown in several ways. The 
numerical evidence I have given on ‘a previous occasion.* 
Equally convincing is the circumstance that many genera re- 
stricted to particular conditions of temperature range completely 
across the continent, inhabiting alike the humid and arid sub- 
divisions of their respective zones; but no genus restricted to 
particular conditions of humidity ranges north and south across 
the several temperature zones. 

Humidity and other secondary causes determine the presence 
or absence of particular species in particular localities within 
their appropriate zones, but temperature predetermines the pos- 
sibilities of distribution ; it fixes the limits beyond which species 
cannot pass; it defines broad transcontinental belts within which 
certain forms may thrive if other conditions permit, but outside 
of which they cannot exist, be the other conditions never so 


The temperature maps show the isotherms that conform to the boun- 
daries of the life zones and the data on which they are based. The spots 
show the actual positions of the temperature stations. 

In map 12, showing the distribution of the sum of effective tempera- 
tures, the isotherms conform with the northern boundaries of the life 
zones (as Shown on map 14) as follows: The isotherm of 14,500° C. con- 
forms with the northern boundary of the Tropical; of 10,000° C. with 
that of the Lower Austral; 6,400° C. with that of the Upper Austral, and 
5,900° C. with that of the Transition. 

In map 13, showing the normal mean temperature of the six hottest 
consecutive weeks, the isotherms conform with the southern boundaries 
of the life zones (as shown on map 14) as follows: The isotherm of 18° 
C. with the sonthern boundary of the Boreal; of 22° C. with the south- 
ern boundary of the Transition, and 26° C. with the southern boundary 
of the Upper Austral. 

* Presidential Address, Ibid., pp. 47-49. 

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Upper Austral. 

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VoL. VI, PP. 239-284 , APRIL 20, 1895 

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Price 50 cents. 

VoL. VI, PP. 239-284. > APRIL220, 1895. 





(Address delivered before the Society March 29, 1895) 

In whatever aspect considered, the subject of this address is 
fruitful in suggestion. Whether it be viewed in respect to the 
derivation and signification of the name Oregon as originally 
applied to the territory and later to the state ; to the manner in 
which and through what title that territory became a part of 
the domain of our common country ; or in reference to its loca- 
tion, nationally and internationally considered ; to its vast ex- 
tent; its geographic formation ; its grand mountains ; its mag- 
nificent rivers ; its fertile valleys; its unrivalled scenic beauties ; 
its capabilities of production ; its trade; its commerce; its brave, 
stalwart, pioneer people; its social and political institutions— 
in whichever of these aspects the subject is viewed, it is pregnant 
with historic interest, full of material for discussion and thought. 

Let us consider, in the first place, the manner in which what 
was formerly known as “ Oregon territory ” became a part of the 
public domain of the United States, the nature of the title under 
which we hold, its extent territorially, and then briefly its gen- 
eral characteristics, and particularly some of the more promi- 
nent geographic features and resources of the present state of 

33—Nar. Grog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. (239) 

240 John H. Mitchell—Oregon 

While making no pretensions as an historian, I confess I am 
still less a geographer; therefore what I shall have to say this 
evening will perhaps be more historical than geographic in its 
nature and would perhaps be more appropriate before an histor- 
ical than a geographic society. 

Discovery and Acquisition of Title. 

The Oregon of today, though one of the American states, 
clothed with all the attributes of that sovereignty which attaches 
to statehood, is widely different in respect to territorial extent, 
as also in very many other respects, from the Oregon of a century 
ago. Although the present state of Oregon includes within its 
boundaries an area of 30,000 square miles more than that in- 
cluded in the whole of the six New England states, it is buta 
fraction less than one-fifth in size of the original Oregon terri- 
tory as claimed at first by Spain and subsequently by the 
United States. Out of that territory, after losing about 200,000 
square miles by compromise, has been carved three great states 
and a large portion of a fourth, namely, Oregon, Washington, 
Idaho, and a part of Montana. 

The history of the various titles under which our government 
asserted claim to the territory of Oregon in the prolonged diplo- 
matic contest with Great Britain for the supremacy is interest- 
ing in the highest degree. Our title was of a triple character : 

First. Discovery and settlement by Spain, to which title we 
succeeded. . 

Second. Discovery in our own right in 1792, followed by scien- 
tific exploration and actual settlement. 

Third. Cession from France of the Louisiana territory. 

For nearly three centuries prior to 1790 Spain had been mak- 
ing claim, on account of alleged discovery, to all of Oregon 
territory extending from the forty-second degree of northern 
latitude not only to 54° 40’ but to the sixty-first parallel, and 
extending from Pacific ocean eastward to the central heights of 
the Rocky mountains. It was in dimensions a vast empire. Its 
geographic extent was about 760 miles from north to south and 
about 650 from east to west, embracing an area of about 494,000 
square miles, or seven and one-half times greater than all of the 
six New England States put together, two and one-half times as 
Jarge as the whole of Spain and more than 50,000 square miles 
more than all of Spain, France and Portugal combined. 

The Discovery by Spain 241 

This claim of Spain dated back 277 years prior to 1790, or 382 
years ago, the inceptive right being based by some on the alleged 
discovery of the Pacific ocean by Balboa in 1513, when he as- 
sumed possession of it as a private sea in the name and for the 
benefit of the Spanish crown; but this claim had slight grounds, 
indeed no really good grounds of support, though it was greatly 
strengthened from time to time by the navigation of its coasts 
and the occupation of its territory by Spanish navigators, Mal- 
donado in 1528 and Farrelo in 1548. In 1592 San Juan de Fuca, 
a Greek navigator in the Spanish service, entered the strait bear- 
ing his name, which now separates the United States from the 
British possessions. He then for a time supposed he had dis- 
covered the great northwestern passage connecting the two 
oceans. In 1774 the navigator Captain Juan Peres sailed from 
San Blas January 25, landing first on the northeastern coast of 
Queen Charlotte island near the fifty-fourth parallel. Humboldt 
says he was the first of all European navigators to anchor in 
Nootka sound, in latitude 49° 30’. This he named Port San 
Lorenzo; four years later it was by Captain Cook called King 
George’ssound. Heceta.a Spanish navigator, visited and landed 
on the coast in 1775, and Galiano and Valdes in 1792; that they 
explored the entire Oregon coast, and even farthernorthward, is 
an historical fact which cannot be questioned. 

Prior to 1790 the claim of Spain to this vast territory was not 
seriously disputed by any power, although Great Britain had 
been feebly making a claim scarcely less ancient though based on 
a more fragile and less defensible title. This claim on the part 
of Great Britain rested originally (although subsequently that 
source of title was virtually abandoned) on the acts, familiar to 
all, of Sir Francis Drake, the English buccaneer and filibuster, 
who, in 1577, with five armed vessels, had sailed from England, 
with the connivance of Queen Elizabeth, ostensibly for a voyage 
to Egypt, but in fact on a filibustering expedition against Spain. 
Two years later Gn 1579), having reached the waters of the Pa- 
cific ocean through the strait of Magellan, his fleet encountered 
storms, reducing it to one schooner of an hundred tons burden 
and his naval force to sixty men. Just how far Drake sailed 
northward along the California and Oregon coast is a matter 
of doubt, some historians asserting he went as far as 42°, others 
43°, and some as far as 48°. All agree, however, that, having 
encountered storms, he returned to the thirty-eighth parallel 

242 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

and landed in a bay, now supposed to be either the present bay 
of San Francisco or the bay of Bodega, where, as one historian 
tells us, he accepted from the savages of the far west, in the name 
of Queen Elizabeth, “‘ coronation, scepter, and sovereignty.” 

Great Britain, however, in her prolonged contest with the 
United States, placed no reliance on the acts of Drake, but based 
her claim first on the alleged discovery of the Oregon territory 
by Captain Cook in 1778 and subsequently on alleged discoveries 
by Captain Mears in 1788 and by Captain Vancouver in 1792, 
1793, and 1794. It was claimed, moreover, that Great Britain 
was the first to acquire what was termed “a beneficial interest 
in those regions by commercial intercourse.” 

Resting on these respective titles, that of Great Britain cer- 
tainly lacking in every respect all those essential elements which 
constitute a real foundation for a valid claim to sovereignty, 
these two great rival powers, Spain and Great Britain, came into 
contention over their respective claims to and in this vast terri- 
tory in 1790, resulting in what is known in history as “the 
Nootka convention.” The claim of England was then hardly 
one of sovereignty, but rather, as she asserted, “an indisputable 
right to the enjoyment of a free and uninterrupted navigation, 
commerce and fishing, and to the possession of such establish- 

~ments as they should form, with the consent of the natives of the 
country, not previously occupied by any European nations.” 

In the assertion of these alleged rights on the part of Great 
Britain and of the Spanish contention on the part of the Spanish 
crown, the conflicting and rival claims to sovereignty were 
attempted to be upheld, as one historian tells us, “by an occa- 
sional visit by vessels, temporarily trading with the natives, some 
fishing, and a few shanties.” The Spanish authorities, however, 
denying the rights asserted by Great Britain, seized and confis- 
cated her vessels and other property employed in the assertion 
of her claims to occupation, if not indeed to sovereignty. It was 
this conflict which resulted in the Nootka convention of 1790, 

That Great Britain gained nothing by the terms of that treaty 
in respect to her alleged rights, either as to sovereignty, tenancy, 
or commerce in any of the countries bordering on the Pacific 
ocean, is conceded by all historians. That her claims, both as to 
discovery and prior occupation, submitted to that convention 
were absolutely baseless as against those of Spain or any other 
power must be conceded. Even should we concede all that has 

The Claims of Great Britain 248 

ever been claimed by the most ardent English historian in respect 
to the achievements of Sir Francis Drake and others, it amounts 
to nothing as against the Spanish claim; and so in reference to 
the alleged discovery by the British captains, Cook, Mears, and 
Vancouver, for the evidence is conclusive that this same coast 
had been navigated and the land discovered more than 260 years 
before by the Spanish navigator Maldonado (1528). If, then, 
Great Britain gained nothing in her claim, either as to sovereignty 
or occupancy, by the Nootka treaty of 1790, as she did not, she 
certainly had no right to complain. 

When this treaty was submitted to the British Parliament it 
was denounced by the opposition as a cowardly surrender. 
“Nothing has been gained,” said Mr Charles Fox, “ but, on the 
contrary, much has been surrendered;” and, speaking further, 
Mr Fox said: “Our right before the convention (whether ad- 
mitted or denied by Spain was of no consequence) was to settle 
any part of South or Northwest America not fortified against us 
by previous occupancy, and we are now restricted to settle in 
certain places only and under certain conditions. Our rights of 
fishing extended to the whole ocean, and now it is hmited and 
not to be exercised within certain distances of Spanish settle- 
ments. Our right of making settlements was not as now a right 
to build huts, but to plant colonies, if we thought proper. In 
renouncing all right to make settlements in South America we 
have given to Spain what she considered as inestimable and have 
in return been contented with dross.” But whatever rights Great 
Britain had by virtue of the Nootka treaty of 1790 were lost, 
totally destroyed, when in 1796 Spain declared war against Great 
Britain, as it is a principle of public law that a declaration of 
war destroys all treaties between the belligerents. 

The claim of Spain to the whole of Oregon territory south of 
the sixty-first parallel was acknowledged by the Russian goy- 
ernment, the only power holding claims which conflicted with 
Spain. In 1790 complaints had been made to the Russian court 
against Russian subjects for invading the Spanish territory south 
of 61° of northern latitude. To this complaint the Emperor 
of all the Russias, through the proper channel, rephed in these 
words : 

‘“The Emperor assures the King of Spain he is extremely sorry that 
the repeated orders issued to prevent the subjects of Russia from vio- 

lating in the smallest degree the territory belonging to another power 
should have been disobeyed.”’ 

244 John H. Mitchell—Oregon 

This was a clear and unequivocal recognition of the sovereignty 
of Spain to all territory south of the sixty-first parallel. 

The contention on the part of the government of Great Britain 
that whatever rights the United States acquired in the Oregon 
territory in virtue of the treaty with Spain, known as “ the Florida 
treaty,” in 1819, subject to certain rights of Great Britain as to 
alleged joint occupancy with Spanish subjects existing in virtue 
of the *‘ Nootka treaty ” of 1790, was completely annihilated, 
first, by Secretary Calhoun in 1845, and subsequently, by Secre- 
tary Buchanan in 1845. They demonstrated two propositions : 
First, that not only had Great Britain acquired no rights of sover- 
eignty in virtue of the treaty of 1790 with Spain, but by that 
treaty the sovereignty of Spain was directly conceded ; for the only 
rights fully recognized to Great Britain in the treaty were that 
her subjects should not be disturbed in landing on the coasts in 
places already occupied for the purpose of carrying on trade 
with the natives. Second, that the treaty of 1790 was abro- 
gated by the declaration of war of Spain against Great Britain 
in 1796; that by that war it fell to the ground and was never 
resurrected, and therefore every right which Great Britain had 
in virtue of its provisions vanished. In their discussion the 
principle of public law that war terminates all subsisting treaties 
between the belligerent powers was discussed with great ability. 
It was clearly shown that the only exception to this general rule 
is in case of a treaty recognizing certain sovereign rights as be- 
longing to a nation which had previously existed, independently 
of any treaty engagement; that is, those rights which the treaty 
did not create, but merely recognized, cannot be destroyed by 
war between the governments constituting parties to the treaties. 
The treaty of peace, for instance, between this country and Great 
Britain in 1783, wherein Great Britain acknowledged that the 
United States was “free, sovereign and independent,” is of this 
exceptional character—a right recognized, but not granted by 
treaty, and hence a right which cannot be destroyed by war. 

The claim of Spain to the territory of Oregon—that is, the 
territory lying on the Pacific ocean north of the forty-second 
parallel and extending to 54° 40’—did not rest alone on dis- 
covery and settlement, but also as being embraced within and a 
part of the ancient Louisiana ceded by France to Spain in 1762 and 
by a secret arrangement re-ceded to France in 1800, then ceded 
by France to the United States in 1803 (known as ‘‘ the Louisiana 

The Discovery by Americans 245 

purchase”). Whatever claim, therefore, Spain had to the Oregon 
territory in 1800, prior to her cession to France, in virtue either 
of discovery and settlement, on the one hand, or by cession from 
France as part of the ancient Louisiana, on the other, vested in 
the United States by the Louisiana purchase. That Spain, there- 
fore, was the real and sole sovereign owner of the whole of Ore- 
gon territory as against Great Britain there can be no doubt, 
and the United States succeeded to all the rights which Spain 
ever had—first, by the cession from France in 1803 and, second, 
by virtue of the Florida treaty and cession from Spain in 1819. 

Americans the first actual Discoverers of Oregon. 

Whatever may be said as to discovery, tenancy, occupation, 
exploration and settlement of that vast region of the mighty 
west lying north of the forty-second parallel, or whatever may 
be the character of those claims on the part of any country, the 
glory of the actual discovery, of the real scientific exploration 
and actual settlement, belongs to America, to the United States ; 
and on that high, unimpeachable title, irrespective of all others, 
has our country ever stood and can forever stand in its claim to 
the territory of Oregon. 

The first real assertion of sovereignty in all that vast region 
occurred when, on May 11, 1792, Captain Gray, of Boston, an 
American citizen and navigator, a naval officer during the revo- 
lutionary war, master of the merchant ship Columbia, discoy- 
ered and entered the great river of the west. He ascended 
its waters a distance of twenty-five miles from its mouth, re- 
maining there nine days, and named it “‘ Columbia ” in honor of 
his ship, planted the American flag on its shores and took pos- 
session of the country in the name of the United States. Inde- 
fatigable were the efforts of Great Britain to wrest this honor 
from the United States, and in support of this effort all manner 
of claims were from time to time set up. 

Suspicion had been entertained for many years, perhaps a 
century prior to 1792, in the minds of Spanish and English 
navigators that a large river emptied somewhere into the waters 
of the Pacific, and the English navigators Mears and Vancouver 
had been instructed by their respective governments to make 
every effort to discover it. They spent months in the years 1791 
and 1792 in this effort, but without result. “ Mears,” says one 
historian, ‘“ failed to find the mouth of the supposed river when 

246 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

he was led to explore for it in the straits of Fuca, and made 
permanent record of his failure in the two titles he left there— 
cape Disappointment and Deception bay.” The same histo- 
rian, in speaking of Vancouver, says: “ Vancouver scrutinized 
that coast for about 250 miles, and so minutely that the surf has 
been constantly seen from the mast-head to break on its shores. 
Thus he failed to discover the mouth of the Columbia, mistak- 
ing evidently the breakers on its fearful bars for coast surf.” 

This entry was made in his journal April 29, 1792, only twelve 
days prior to the date when Captain Gray made the great dis- 
covery; and yet, because the English navigator Vancouver sub- 
sequently sailed farther up the river than did Captain Gray, the 
latter directing him how to find the entrance, Great Britain insists 
that he and not Captain Gray was the discoverer of the Columbia, 
and that all the rights which attach to such discovery belong to 
England and not to the United States. 

In discussing this phase of the Oregon question Professor Twiss, 
of Oxford University, in an elaborate paper, said: “ Captain Gray’s 
claim is limited to the mouth of the river.” 

The historian Barrows, in commenting on this character of 
reasoning, very pertinently says: “Thus the discovery of a river 
is made a progressive work by English claimants, as if one should 
discover the Mississippi at New Orleans, another at Memphis, 
another at Cairo, another at the mouth of the Missouri, and so 
on to the falls of Saint Anthony; as if the discovery of a lost 
cable were progressive as the separate links of the chain are 
hauled on board.” “If,” says the historian, “ this had not been 
said by plenipotentiaries we should call it puerile.” 

Mears not only did not discover Columbia river, but, on the 
contrary, he expressly declared there was no such river emptying 
into the Pacific ocean. ‘‘ We can now safely assert,” said he in 
his report, “that there is no such river as that of Saint Roque, 
as laid down on the Spanish charts.” And, as if to emphasize 
the failure of his expectations, he named the promontory lying 
north of the inlet where he had expected to discover it “ cape 
Disappointment,” and the inlet itself “ Deception bay,” names 
by which they have been known ever since. 

The Exploration of Lewis and Clarke. 

Gray’s discovery and the purchase of Louisiana territory were 
quickly followed by scientific exploration on the part of the 

Our greatest Expedition 247 

government of the United States, as also by settlement on the 
part of its citizens. 

The expedition of Lewis and Clarke, organized before and sent 
out immediately after the consummation of the Louisiana pur- 
chase, was one of the most daring, difficult, dangerous, and, at 
the same time, successful of the expeditions of which history, 
either of this or of any other country, gives record. — 

There seems to be some difference in statements of historians 
as to the number composing that expedition. According to 
Barrows, it consisted of twenty-eight persons in all—Lewis and 
Clarke, nine young Kentuckians, fourteen United States soldiers, 
two Canadian voyageurs, and one negro, the body servant of Cap- 
tain Clarke. According, however, to the probably accurate notes 
of Dr Coues to his new edition of the history of that expedition, 
it consisted of forty-five men from Missouri to the Mandan 
country, and of thirty-two, including Lewis and Clarke, there- 
after across the continent, the others returning from that point, 
as was the original program. 

Captains Lewis and Clarke were commissioned by President 
Jefferson ‘to explore the river Missouri and its principal 
branches to their sources, and then to seek to trace to its termi- 
nation in the Pacific some river, whether the Columbia, the 
Oregon, the Colorado or any other, which might offer the most 
direct, practicable water communication across the continent for 
the purposes of commerce.” 

The time occupied by these courageous men in consummat- 
ing the important and hazardous duty assigned them by their 
government was two years, four months and nine days, and 
during this time they traveled more than nine thousand miles 
through an unbroken and trackless wilderness. The start was 
made May 14, 1804, from their camp on the Mississippi, near 
the mouth of the Missouri, and returning they reached St. Louis 
September 23, 1806. They discovered the headwaters of the 
Missouri and of the Columbia, and followed the waters of the 
latter until they landed at cape Disappointment, at the mouth 
of the Columbia, in Oregon, November 15, 1805. They re- 
mained there in camp until March 23, 1806, when they com- 
menced the ascent of the Columbia in their canoes on their 
return trip. 

The hardships experienced by these brave men and by the 
courageous pioneers, men and women who in the next half cen- 

248 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

tury followed in their footsteps and braved the innumerable 
dangers and hardships of the far west, have never been, nor can 
they be, fully depicted by either pen or tongue. To them are 
the people of America greatly indebted, for they have hewn out 
with willing hands, borne on stalwart shoulders, and set with 
stability in its everlasting resting place, the foundation stone of 
one of the grandest pillars upon which in part rests today the 
superb superstructure of American development and American 
civilization. How strangely pathetic is the history and how 
peculiar are the vicissitudes surrounding the lives of some men! 
Captain Meriwether Lewis, after passing through all the untold 
hardships and perils of that memorable expedition, returned to 
serve a brief time as governor of the northwestern territory, and 
then to find a lonely grave in the forests of Tennessee, either as 
a felo de se or as the victim of the hand of an assassin ; just which, 
history has never definitely determined. 

Not only by succession to every right which both France and 
Spain had to this territory, either in virtue of occupation or 
otherwise; not only by the right of sovereignty which attaches 
to the discoverer of a new country, nor yet by those rights which 
follow in the wake of scientific exploration, did the government 
of the United States rest its claim to the territory of Oregon; but 
added to all these is that other accumulated right, which is the 
result not merely of occupancy, but of actual settlement. The law 
of nations recognizes a wide distinction between those rights 
which attach to mere occupancy and those which attach to actual 
settlement. The natives of this territory in their wild, uncivilized 
state are mere occupants, mere tenants; they are not settlers. 
The Hudson bay trappers and traders, who invaded Oregon terri- 
tory in pursuit of peltries and furs, were mere occupants, similar 
in all respects in the light of the law in regard to territorial rights 
which result from such occupancy as those which attach to the 
Indians. They were not settlers within the legal signification 
of that term, nor did they attract to themselves those territorial 
or sovereign rights which the law accords to settlers. The in- 
terests of civilization, says the law of that civilization, cannot 
permit a great empire of wild country to remain as such for the 
use of wild men for a game life; no less could the law of that 
civilization permit this great foreign monopoly, the Hudson 
Bay company, to occupy such country for the sole purpose of 
accumulating and speculating on the spoils of the hunter, and 

The Settlement planted by Astor 249 

without any effort whatever to either develop or increase the 
natural productions of the country or locate or promote a single 
settlement. It was therefore by mere occupancy, and not by set- 
tlement, that England sought originally to strengthen her claim 
to and acquire rights in the Oregon territory. With the United 
States and the people of the United States it was entirely dif- 
ferent. With the latter occupancy was coupled with that other 
and higher attribute of development and civilization, namely, 
scientific exploration-and actual settlement. 

Astor’s project contemplated not merely occupancy of this dis- 
tant territory for purposes similar to the Hudson Bay company; 
his purposes were of much higher order. They embraced settle- 
ment, the establishment of civil society, the physical develop- 
ment of the country, the leveling of the forest, the construction 
of houses, the cultivation of the land, the building of homes, 
the erection of school-houses and churches, the making of towns 
and cities, the establishing of marts, the creation of commercial 
arteries, and, in a word, the establishment of such civil institu- 
tions as would tend to attach the new territory, with bonds indis- 
soluble, to the states of the American union, and thus weaken 
and finally and forever sever every adverse claim, and at the 
same time expand and develop the country and the commercial 
and political prestige and power of the nation. Irving in his 
“Astoria” summarizes the plans and expectations of Astor in 
these words: “ He considered his projected establishment at the 
mouth of the Columbia as the emporium to an immense com- 
merce; as a colony that would form the germ of a wide civiliza- 
tion; that would in fact carry the American population across 
the Rocky mountains and spread it along the shores of the Pa- 
cific as it already animated the shores of the Atlantic.” 

It was prompted by such impulses and with an aim to such 
results that the town of Astoria was established by Astor in 1811. 
The war of 1812 coming on, the English captured Astoria, hauled 
down the American flag, hoisted the English ensign and changed 
the name of the fort from Astoria to Fort George ; but at the close 
of the war in 1818 it was restored to the United States by a treaty 
which stipulated the restoration of “all territory, places and 
possessions whatsoever taken by either party from the other 
during the war.” In this restoration the English denominated 
it “the settlement ;” and however many may have been the oc- 
cupants of this country or those employed by the Hudson Bay 

250 John H. Mitchell—Oregon 

company prior to that, this was unquestionably the first perma- 
nent settlement made by white men in the valley of the Colum- 
bia or in the territory of Oregon, and this was by American 
citizens. The claim, therefore, to prior settlement of Oregon terri- 
tory, now comprising the whole of the states of Oregon, Wash- 
ington and Idaho and a part of Montana, can rightfully attach 
only to the United States. 

It is doubtless true that the two Winship brothers, of Boston, 
are the men who really made the first attempt at settlement on 
Columbia river after Gray’s discovery. They sailed from Boston 
July 7, 1809, in two ships, the O’Kain, of which Jonathan was 
captain, and the Albatross, of which Nathan was master. The 
O’ Kain went-direct to California, while the Albatross went to Sand- 
wich islands and thence to Columbia river, arriving there with 
fifty men on board early in the spring of 1810. The vessel pro- 
ceeded up the river a distance of forty miles, opposite to the 
place now known as Oakpoint, where they disembarked, cleared 
a small tract of land, erected a building and planted vegetables, 
all of which, however, were demolished and swept away by the 
June floods of the same year, when Captain Nathan Winship 
reémbarked with his men, joined his brother in California and, 
learning of Astor’s expedition, never returned. 

That Great Britain, operating through divers influential chan- 
nels, notably the Hudson Bay company, reénforced as it was in 
1821 by consolidation with the Canadian Northwest company 
of Montreal, exerted a most formidable power against the settle- 
ment of Oregon territory by Americans, and the waves of whose 
influence reached Washington and for a time threatened the loss 
of the whole territory, is an historic fact well established. That 
Daniel Webster, as Secretary of State, was by these influences at 
one time convinced that the whole territory was an unbroken 
waste of sandy deserts, impassable mountains, and impenetrable 
jungles there can be no room for doubt. These powerful influ- 
ences had been operating in divers ways prior to 1842 for more 
than a third of a century. Their effect on the individual and 
public mind in the east, and on the official mind as well in Wash- 
ington, was marked in the highest degree. 

That Webster, as Secretary of State, had seriously contem- 
plated including the whole of this territory in the Ashburton 
treaty, and subsequently in a separate treaty, in exchange to 
Great Britain for certain cod fisheries in Newfoundland is be- 

Power of the Hudson Bay Company 251 

yond question. The insidious and powerfully effective influ- 
ences and the remarkably successful aggressions of the Hudson 
Bay company are best illustrated by the triumphs it achieved in 
the face of what seemed insurmountable obstacles. Although 
its original charter dates back to Charles II of England, in 1670, 
by which it was granted certain important rights, forty years prior 
to that a similar charter had been granted to the Canadian North- 
west Fur company by Louis XIII of France. Prior to 1821 this 
company was in numbers, capital, influence and power vastly 
superior to and a most formidable rival of the Hudson Bay com- 
pany ; yet the latter, notwithstanding all this, through its superior 
management and great diplomacy, compelled the former in 1821 
to yield to and accept its own terms as to union and consolida- 
tion, and from that day the Hudson Bay company, thus re- 
énforced in capital, numbers and influence, and in the number 
and extent of its outposts, directed all its vast energies and im- 
mense powers to wrest from the United States and obtain eventu- 
ally for Great Britain the whole of Oregon territory. 

The Error of our Government in treating for Joint Occupancy. 

But notwithstanding these superior rights on the part of the 
United States, in virtue not only of occupancy but also of scien- 
tific exploration and settlement, entitling this country to exclu- 
Sive sovereign rights in the whole of Oregon territory, the fact 
that the Hudson Bay company had extended its operations into 
that region and was engaged in trade there with the Indians 
induced our government to make the fatal mistake of entering 
into a treaty with Great Britain in 1818 providing for joint occu- 
pancy for a period of ten years. This stipulation was extended 
indefinitely by another treaty with Great Britain in 1827, pro- 
mulgated May 15, 1828. 

These treaties, however, were not intended, nor did they or 
either of them in any manner attempt, to determine the respect- 
ive sovereign claims of the United States and Great Britain, or 
in fact those of any other government, to this territory; they 
were intended only, as expressly stated in the treaty, “to pre- 
vent disputes and differences among the occupants of that terri- 

That the government of the United States made a fearful mis- 
take in ever consenting by treaty stipulation that Great Britain 

252 John H. Mitchell—Oregon 

should, through its subjects, occupy Oregon territory jointly with 
our citizens for a period of twenty-eight years, instead of stand- 
ing in 1817 on our rights as sovereign and insisting that they 
should be respected, is now generally conceded. The value of 
the furs of which that country was stripped by the Hudson Bay 
companyj{in that time was immense, amounting to many mil- 
lions of doJlars. In the four years 1834 to 1837 the Hudson 
Bay company alone killed in that region (Oregon territory) over 
3,000,000 fur-bearing animals, including beaver, marten, otter, 
fox, muskrat, bear, ermine, fitchew, lynx, mink, wolf, badger 
and raccoon. The American fur-traders could not compete with 
the Hudson Bay company, as all the supplies of the latter came 
in free of duty. But the fact that by the joint occupancy this 
great monopoly was enabled to strip the country of its wealth 
was as nothing compared with the powerfully hostile influence 
it constantly exerted against the settlement of the country by 

mericans and the foothold it afforded Great Britain, enabling 
that power to successfully postpone for nearly a century the final 
settlement of the question as to our rights, and which in the end 
compelled us to compromise, and deprived us of that vast extent 
of territory lying between the forty-ninth parallel and 54° 40’, 
the Rocky mountains and the Pacific ocean. Thomas H. Ben- 
ton and many other leading men denounced this policy of joint 
occupation. Said Senator Benton in 1845, referring to the treaty 
of joint occupation: “I have been clear against joint occupation 
for twenty-eight years as a treaty of unmixed mischief to the 
United States.” Historians agree that this company stripped 
Oregon territory of furs of the value of over one million dollars 
annually, amounting to perhaps thirty millions of dollars in the 
twenty-eight years of joint occupancy. 

The political historian, J. Henry Brown, himself an Oregon 
pioneer of 1846, in referring to this matter in his “ Political His- 
tory of Oregon,” says: 

‘“Our government could have well afforded to have given a bonus of 
$10,600,000 and settled the question in 1818. Then, to cap the climax, 

our government was again swindled in the treaty of 1846 by agreeing to 
pay an unknown bill to that greatest of frauds and swindles, the Puget 

Sound Agricultural company, to the tune of $450,000, on account of pos- 
sessory rights and claims of the Hudson Bay company, and on account 
of possessory rights of the Puget Sound Agricultural company, the sum of 
$200,000, a total of $650,000—a nice commentary on American sagacity, 

statesmanship and diplomacy !”’ 

The long Contest of Joint Occupancy 253 

It was the entirely too ready disposition on the part of our 
government at the outset, in 1824, 1826 and 1829, to compro- 
mise our rights in the Oregon territory which resulted event- 
ually in a loss to this country of territory the value of which 
cannot be estimated. Both Presidents Tyler and Polk were 
handicapped by the offer of settlement made to Great Britain 
under former administrations, in which the government had 
consented from time to time to a compromise on the forty-ninth 

This, then, was the status of the territory of Oregon from the 
date of our treaty with Great Britain in 1818 until our treaty of 
1846, a period of twenty-eight years. It was one of joint occu- 
pancy in virtue of treaty stipulation between the two countries, 
and it was during these twenty-eight years that the great battle 
as to the ultimate ownership of Oregon was fought and won. It 
was not wholly, though in part, a warfare of men on the field of 
carnage; it was a mighty, a prolonged—in one sense a physi- 
cal and in another sense a diplomatic—contest between the van- 
guards of two civilizations and of two mighty nations, each con- 
tending with the other for the supremacy, and each also with 
the uncivilized, blood-thirsty savages whose country was being 
invaded, though for their civilization and ultimate good. Such 
was the political status, emphasized by treaty stipulation, as to in- 
duce the belief on the part of Great Britain that the ultimate 
right to the whole territory would be determined, not so much 
by the question as to priority of discovery, exploration and settle- 
ment, but rather by the character and extent of settlement in the 
years that should intervene before the final decision should be 
made by arbitration or otherwise. 

During this period two purposes seemed to inspire the govern- 
ment of Great Britain as a means of: ultimately securing to her- 
self the absolute ownership of the whole of the vast Oregon 
territory. One was to impress on our public men and the goy- 
ernment at Washington in every possible manner the alleged 
worthlessness of the territory; the other was to push forward 
unremittingly through the instrumentality of the great govern- 
mental organ, the Hudson Bay company, actual settlements in 
the territory. That they succeeded in a very large degree in 
impressing many of the prominent officials of our government 
that the whole territory was a worthless waste, not worth hay- 
ing, much less worth contending’ for, is made clearly apparent 

254 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

from the congressional debates during the twenty-eight years of 
joint occupancy. Did time permit, it might be interesting, in 
view of what the state of Oregon is today physically, commer- 
cially, socially, and politically, to recite some of the statements 
made in these debates. I will quote a few extracts: 

Senator McDuffie, of South Carolina, in discussing in the 
United States Senate in 1848 the bill of Senator Linn, of Mis- 
souri, extending the laws of the United States over the territory 
of Oregon and proposing grants of the public lands to American 
citizens as an inducement to settlers, which bill passed the Senate 
February 3, 1848, said: 

‘“The whole region beyond the Rocky mountains and a vast tract be- 
tween that chain and the Mississippi is a desert, without value for agri- 
cultural purposes, and which no American citizen should be compelled 
to inhabit unless as a punishment for crime. 

‘‘ Why, sir, of what use will this territory be for agricultural purposes? 
I would not for that purpose give a pinch of snuff for the whole territory. 
I wish to God we did not own it. I wish it was an impassable barrier to: 
secure us from the intrusion of others. This is the character of the 
country. Who are we going to send there? Do you think your honest. 
farmers in Pennsylvania, New York, or even in Ohio and Missouri, will 
abandon their farms to go upon any such enterprise as this? God forbid, 
if any man is to go to that country under the temptation of this bill?” 

Mr McDuffie concluded by saying: “If I had a son who was 
a fit subject for Botany bay, I would urge him to go there.” 

The historians of the time were laboring under this fearful 
delusion as to the character and value of Oregon. Greenhow, 
writing in 1844 in his “‘ History of Oregon and California,” after 
stating his knowledge and views as to the region included in 
Oregon territory, says: 

‘‘ Thus, on reviewing the agricultural, commercial and other economical 
advantages of Oregon, there appears to be no reason, founded on such con- 
siderations, which should render either of the powers claiming the pos- 
session of that country anxious to occupy it immediately or unwilling to 
concede its own pretensions to the other for a very moderate compen- 

Even Senator Benton, of Missouri, who subsequently became 
one of the great defenders of our rights in Oregon (though unfor- 
tunately never to the full extent of our rightful claim to territory 
in the north, but only to the forty-ninth parallel), as late as 1825 
regarded Oregon as not worth holding. In that year he, in his 
place in the Senate, said: 

Early Misconceptions 255 

“The ridge of the Rocky mountains may be named as a convenient, 
natural and everlasting boundary. Along this ridge the western limits 
of the Republic should be drawn and the statue of the fabled god Termi- 
nus should be erected on its highest peak, never to be thrown down.” 

Thanks to Dr Whitman and other pioneer heroes whose names 
and memories are rightfully forever embalmed in the affections 
of every true American, the western limits of the Republic were 
not drawn on the ridge of the Rocky mountains. The fabled 
god “Terminus” was never stationed there. Providence had 
willed it otherwise, and a brave and courageous people executed 
that will. Though those mountains are high and rocky and 
seemingly insurmountable, they were neither high enough nor 
rocky enough to impress discouragement on the minds or hearts 
of such dauntless men and women as Whitman and his wife and 
their followers, or to stem the irresistible tide of the pioneer 
emigration of these resolute and determined men and women 
who, by their incomparable courage and untold sufferings, set- 
tled the Oregon question forever. 

The great historic fact is that prior to Whitman’s visit to 
Washington (to which I shall presently allude) the sentiment 
among public men was almost universal that Oregon was a 
worthless waste, not worth contending for. Some in fact never 
did learn or comprehend its great value. As late as 1846 Sena- 
tor Winthrop, of Massachusetts, quoted what Benton had said 
in 1825, and then remarked: ‘This country will not be strait- 
ened for elbow-room in the west for a thousand years, and neither 
the west nor the country at large has any real interest in retain- 
ing Oregon.” 

The Influence of the Hudson Bay Company. 

The Hudson Bay company, through whose active influence 
this false sentiment was mainly created, was in every essential 
sense the direct, active and all powerful agent of the British 
government. It held its charter and its licenses from that goy- 
ernment; its officers were superintended by a governor and 
deputy governor and a committee of directors resident in Lon- 
don, while a resident governor superintended and directed its 
vast operations in America. 

The officers and members of the Hudson Bay company were, 
as a rule, under the domination of the home government. One 
grand exception, however, stands out in history: Dr John Mc- 

34 —Nar. Geog, Maa., vor. VI, 1894. 

256 John H. Mitchell—Oregon 

Laughlin was the true friend of the American pioneer. Braye, 
generous, noble, his house, his larder, his horses, his cattle were 
all at the service of the poor travel-worn, weary and discouraged 
emigrant. But for this disposition and these noble qualities 
he was ostracised by the company and the British government, 
driven into exile at Oregon City, there to end his days, yet re- 
spected, venerated, honored by the pioneers,of Oregon and all 
who knew him and his history. 

Doctor Marcus Whitman. 

It was at this critical period in our history that the great mar- 
tyr to the cause of the vindication of American rights and the 
advancement of national development and Christian civilization 
caine to the front, and in the grandeur of American manhood 
in its sublimest sense rose equal to the great emergency, and 
by his memorable trip across the continent, from Oregon to 
Washington, in the dead of winter in 1842-’43, prevented the 
contemplated barter of that great empire for a cod fishery bank 
on the shores of Newfoundland. Dr Marcus Whitman, whose 
name must be forever associated with the early history of Ore- 
gon, had in 1835, under the auspices of the American board of 
foreign missions in Boston, accompanied by his faithful wife, gone 
to what was then a distant wilderness, and in 1836 established 
there a mission. Though 48 years have passed since he and his 
wife and nine of their household, on November 27, 1847, fell 
victims to savage outlawry on the plains of Walla Walla, and 
gave up their lives* as a part of the cost of preserving as our 
rightful heritage that great territory, his name still lives and will 
continue to live in the history of his country, imperishable as the 
stars, honored, respected, admired. 

Dr Whitman, being deeply impressed that the government at 
Washington, through false information received from British 
sources—among others, from the British minister at Washington 
- and the reports of the governor of the Hudson Bay company— 
to the effect that the whole of Oregon territory was comparatively 
worthless, was about to barter the whole thing away for a cod 
fishery interest on the coast of Newfoundland, determined to 
proceed to Washington at once at all hazards, for the purpose 

* Five of the Indians concerned in the Whitman massacre were tried, 
convicted, sentenced and hung at Oregon City in May, 1850. 

W hitman’s memorable Ride Dt 

of presenting the true state of the case to the President, the Sec- 
retary of State, and other members of the government. That he 
was justified in his fears is more than fully demonstrated by the 
historical occurrences of the times. 

It is conceded by all historians who have written on the sub- 
ject that Dr Whitman’s mission to Washington, accompanied as 
he was across the continent by that other brave pioneer, General 
A. L. Lovejoy, in the winter of 1842-48, saved Oregon to the 
union, and all that is implied in, and which attaches to, that sal- 
vation. His mission was of a quadruple nature. It was in the 
interest, first, of the preservation of the sovereign rights of the 
United States to a vast and immensely valuable territory about 
to be bartered away through misinformation on the part of the’ 
government; second, of the preservation of the lives and prop- 
erty of American citizens, men, women and children, pioneer 
emigrants, then settled in Oregon territory, and the protection 
of Christian missions in the Indian territory of the Far West ; 
third, of the material welfare of the United States; and fourth, 
of the great cause of American civilization. 

Although the board of missions, under whose auspices Dr 
Whitman had gone to Oregon seven years before, for the reason, 
doubtless, that they did not understand the real situation, did 
not take kindly to his return without leave on his noble and 
perilous mission, and he was, according to the historian Gray, 
“Instead of being received and treated as his labors justly en- 
titled him to be, met by the cold calculating rebuke for unreason- 
able expenses, and for dangers incurred without orders or in- 
structions or permission, from the mission to come to the states.” 
Although this may be, and doubtless was, true, as stated in this 
paragraph by Gray, the time has at last come when all shadows 
have been dispelled, all doubts removed, and when in the clear 
light of accurate, impartial history the motives, the courage, the 
patriotism, the Christian fidelity of Dr Whitman are seen and 
recognized in their true character, not only by the representatives 
of the Congregational church, its early and present missions, 
not only by the people of the Pacific northwest, nor yet alone 
by the whole American people, but likewise by those of the 
whole civilized world. 

The interest attaching to this memorable trip of Dr Whitman 
across the continent in the winter of 1842-45 was widespread. 
Its fame extended throughout the nation, and the subject of 
Oregon and the rights of the United States in respect to the same 

258 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

were matters of discussion in all political circles. Public senti- 
ment was wrought up to the highest pitch, so much so that the 
democratic national convention which met at Baltimore in 1344 
had, as one of its planks, “ Fifty-four forty or fight,” and on this 
platform the Polk administration came into power. The em- 
barrassments with which it was surrounded, however, growing 
out of the Oregon question and this particular plank in the 
platform, were great. 

The President found that preceding negotiations during the 
administrations of his predecessors, Monroe, Adams, and Tyler, 
had not proceeded on the part of the United States on the 
theory of our right to fifty-four forty; that the negotiations pro- 
ceeded rather on the idea that they should treat the respective 
claims of the two countries in the Oregon territory with a view 
to establishing a permanent boundary between them west of the 
Rocky mountains to the Pacific ocean, and in this compromising 
spirit these administrations had proposed to fix the boundary 
on the forty-ninth parallel. To add to the embarrassment, many 
leading democratic senators, including Benton. of Missouri, 
scouted at the idea that our rights extended to fifty-four forty, 
and insisted that we had no rights extending farther northward 
than the forty-ninth parallel. To add still further to the em- 
barrassment of the situation, Great Britain, through her min- 
ister, on June 6, 1846, before the administration of Mr Polk was 
clearly launched, submitted a proposition, the same that was 
finally agreed on, of the forty-ninth parallel, and coupled with 
it the suggestion that it must be accepted at once, and with- 
out delay, if atall. In this great political dilemma President 
Polk resorted to a course which, though adopted a few times in 
the earlier years of our government, had not been resorted to 
for nearly half a century—that is, of seeking the advice of the 
Senate of the United States in advance of action on the part of 
the executive. 

Consequently on. June 10, 1846, the President transmitted to 
the Senate the proposal in the form of the convention presented 
to the Secretary of State on the sixth of that month by the British 
envoy, for its advice. Mr Polk’s message transmitting this con- 
vention concluded as follows: 

‘“Should the Senate by the constitutional majority required for the 
ratification of treaties advise the acceptance of this proposition or advise 
it with such modifications as they may upon full deliberation deem proper, 

Abandonment of rich Territory 259 

T shall conform my action to their advice. Should the Senate, however, 
decline by such constitutional majority to give such advice or to express 
an opinion upon the subject, I will consider it my duty to reject the offer.’”’ 

In other words, President Polk, encompassed on the one hand 
by the plank in the platform on which he was elected, of “ Fifty- 
four forty or fight,” and on the other hand by the action of pre- 
ceding administrations in conflict with that proposition, his party 
leaders divided on the question, and the issue brought directly 
to the front by Great Britain, concluded to and did throw the 
whole responsibility on the Senate of the United States. Two 
days subsequently, June 12, 1846, the Senate adopted a resolu- 
tion advising the President to accept the proposal of the British 
government, and as a result the convention was finally agreed 
to June 15, 1846. 

So, although this memorable controversy had remained un- 
settled for nearly half a century, it is a remarkable historical fact 
that but nine days elapsed between the submission of the final 
proposition to compromise by Great Britain and the signing of 
the treaty. 

Notwithstanding the fact that one hundred and three years 
have elapsed since the discovery of Columbia river by Cap- 
tain Gray, ninety-two years since the cession of Louisiana, and 
seventy-six years since our cession from Spain, the settlement of 
our title to a certain portion of the territory of Oregon was held 
in abeyance until October 21, 1872, less than twenty-three years 
ago. That was the island of San Juan. The treaty of June 15, 
1846, between the United States and Great Britain, which was 
_ intended to settle all questions relating to our northern boundary, 
inadvertently left the question as to the title to this island an 
open one. The treaty in defining the northern boundary of the 
United States from a point in the Rocky mountains on the forty- 
ninth parallel, from which point eastward the boundary line had 
been fixed by the second article of the treaty of Washington, in 
1842, reads as follows: 

‘Shall be continued westward along said forty-ninth parallel of north 
latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the continent from 
Vancouver's island, and then southerly through the middle of said channel 
and of Fuca’s straits to the Pacific ocean.”’ 

This island is located in the “channel” mentioned in this 
treaty, and the question at once arose, and for a period of twenty- 

260 Jorn Ei Mitchell“ oneaen 

five years was a source of aggravating controversy between this 
country and Great Britain, at one time very nearly involving the 
two nations in war, as to which was the “channel” referred to 
in thetreaty. Great Britain, true to a national tendency, insisted 
while the United States insisted that Haro channel, on the north- 
ern side of the island, was the main channel within the meaning 
of the treaty. : 

This minor boundary controversy was finally adjusted by a 
provision in our treaty with Great Britain of May 6, 1871, sub- 
mitting the question to the arbitration of the German Emperor, 
who, on October 21, 1872, made his award sustaining the conten- 
tion of the United States ; and thus, after a period of nearly eighty 
years, dating from the discovery of the Columbia by Captain 
Gray, the whole question as to the ownership of the Oregon terri- 
tory was finally determined, not, however, without a sacrifice of 
important rights as to our northern boundary in the interest of 

That Dr Whitman was misunderstood at the time by many, 
and by none more than by the board of American missions, and 
therefore suffered unjust criticism from that board, there can be 
no question. Barrows, in his * History of Oregon,” in referring 
to this fact, says: ‘‘ He, as Coleridge says of Milton, strode so far 
before his contemporaries as to dwarf himself by the distance.” 
But the day of atonement has come, and although in this as in 
many other cases justice has been delayed, yet as a poet has 
said, “ Ever the right comes uppermost, and ever justice is done.” 
No longer ago than Sunday, the tenth of the present month 
(March, 1895), in the city of Chicago, the day was widely ob- | 
served in the Congregational churches of that city in honor of 
Marcus Whitman, and incidentally in aid of Whitman college at 
Walla Walla. The Chicago Inter-Ocean, in its issue of March 11, 
says: ‘‘ Dr Whitman is the hero of the Congregational church of 
this century. In fact, in the largeness of the results he accom- 
plished, no man of the century leads him.” 

At the city of Walla Walla, in the state of Washington, within 
six miles of Waiilatpu, the spot where he and his missionary 
wife and nine other companions were, on November 27, 1847, 
mercilessly slaughtered by the very savages whose best interests 
had been subserved by them and whose heads had been blessed 
by their benedictions, there is to be erected a college bearing his. 
name, with an endowment of $200,000, $50,000 of which has been 
pledged by Dr D. K. Pearson on condition that the balance is 

Tardy Appreciation of Whitman 261 

raised. That college, when erected, as it doubtless will be, will 
be a fitting and lasting monument to his name. 

Whitman succeeded in disabusing the minds of Daniel Web- 
ster, President Tyler, Thomas H. Benton, and other public men 
as to the character and value of Oregon territory. They had 
come to believe, through the continuous misrepresentations to 
which I have referred, not only that Oregon territory was of little 
value but that it was a physical impossibility to go from Fort 
Hall to Oregon with wagons. Whitman had taken his wife ina 
wagon over these mountains eight years before (in 1835) and he 
assured them there was no insurmountable difficulty ; and he 
proved his assertion by leading back to Oregon an emigration 
the same year, the summer of 1848, with 200 wagons and over 
1,000 men, women and children, not losing, as I remember the 
history, a single wagon or a single life in the journey west of Fort 

Dr Whitman was a born leader of men. He had the courage 
to face every danger, however perilous. in defense of the right. 
His efforts while in Washington, coupled with the magnificent 
successes of his expedition the same year, turned the scale in 
which that vast: territory was being weighed and balanced be- 
tween the two countries in favor of the United States. 

Had Dr Whitman been possessed of the egotistic assurance of 
Horace of old, and could he have gazed down the long avenues 
of coming ages, he might, with him, have truly said: 

I have achieved a tower of fame 
More durable than gold, 
And loftier than the royal frame 
Of pyramids of old ; 
Which none inclemencies of clime, 
Nor fiercest winds that blow, 
Nor endless change, nor lapse of time, 
Shall ever overthrow. 
I cannot perish utterly ; 
The broader part of me must live, and live and never die, 
But baffle Death’s decree ! 
For I shall always grow, and spread 
My new-blown honors still, 
Long as the priest and vestal tread 
The Capitolian hill. 
T shall be sung when thy rough waves, y 
My native river, foam, 
And when old Daunus scantly laves 


John H. Mitchell—Oregon — 

And rules his rustic home— 

As chief and first I shall be sung, 
Though lowly, great in might, 

To tune my country’s heart and tongue, 
And tune them both aright. 

The Contention of Great Britain. 

In our contention with Great Britain respecting Oregon terri- 
tory it was very earnestly and with some degree of facetiousness 
asserted by the British minister, Packenham, that the different 
titles under which we claimed were conflicting and therefore 
destroyed each other, namely, discovery by Spain, cession from 
France, and discovery and settlement by American citizens; but 
Mr Calhoun,as Secretary of State, in his letter to Mr Packenham, 
disposed of that assertion with this remark: 

‘Tt has been objected that we claim under various and conflicting titles 
which mutually destroy each other. Such might indeed be the fact while 
they were held by different parties, but since we have rightfully acquired 
both those of Spain and France and concentrated the whole in our own 
hands, they mutually blend with each other and form one strong and 
connecting chain of title against the opposing claims of all others, includ- 
eng Great Britain.” 

Mr Buchanan, in referring to this phase of the case, said: 

‘This isa most ingenious method of making two distinct and inde- 
pendent titles held by the same nation worse than one—of arraying them 
against each other and thus destroying the validity of both. From the 
moment Spain transferred all her rights to the United States all possible 
conflict between the two titles ended, both being united in the same party. 
Two titles which might have conflicted, therefore, were thus blended 
together. The title now vested in the United States is just as strong as 
though every act of discovery, exploration and settlement on the part of 
both powers had been performed by Spain alone before she had trans- 
ferred all her rights to the United States. The two powers are one in this 
respect; the two titles are one, and they serve to confirm and strengthen 
each other.” 

Great Britain, again through her plenipotentiaries, sought to . 
discredit the effect of the discovery of Columbia river by Cap- 
tain Robert Gray, for the reason, as suggested, that his ship, the 
Columbia, was a trading and not a national vessel. This conten- 
tion was speedily disposed of by Mr Buchanan with this remark: 

“The British plenipotentiary attempts to depreciate the value to the 
United States of Gray’s discovery because his ship, the Columbia, was a 

Final Adjustment of the Boundary 263 

trading and not a national vessel. As he furnishes no reason for this dis- 
tinction, the undersigned will confine himself to the remark that a mer- 
chant vessel bears the flag of her country at the masthead, and continues 
under its jurisdiction and protection in the same manner as though she 
had been commissioned for the express purpose of making discoveries.” 

In this great and prolonged diplomatic contest, one of the 
most interesting questions discussed was as to what extent con- 
tinuity of boundary furnishes a just claim in connection with 
those of discovery and occupation. This question grew out of 
the claim on the part of the United States that the Louisiana 
territory extended to the Pacific ocean. This claim was denied 
on the part of Great Britain. It was insisted, however, with 
great ability by Secretary of State Calhoun, and subsequently 
by Secretary Buchanan: First, that the claim was valid under 
publie law, and, secondly, that Great Britain, having asserted the 
validity of the doctrine in reference to her possessions in this 
country as against France, even to the extent of going to war 
with that power in 1763, was estopped from denying the validity 
of the doctrine as against the United States, especially inasmuch 
as our people had contributed so much to a result in that con- 
test favorable to Great Britain; and it was further contended by 
our diplomatists that Great Britain, whatever may have been 
her rights in Oregon territory, relinquished all to France by the 
seventh article of the treaty between Great Britain and France 
at the close of that war, in 1783. 

The controversy in reference to the correct northern boundary 
of the Oregon territory, whether the forty-ninth parallel, as now 
agreed upon, except along the straits of Fuca, or 54° 40° north, 
is one familiar to all. Spain unquestionably always asserted 
claim as far north as the sixty-first parallel, but in her treaty 
with Russia 54° 40’ was recognized. It was claimed, however, 
that by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, which provided for deter- 
mining “ the limits to be fixed between the bay of Hudson and 
the places appertaining to the French,” the boundary between 
Louisiana and the British territories north of it was actually 
fixed by commissioners on latitude 49°. Whether this is true 
or not is a matter of very serious disputation. A careful exam- 
ination of all history bearing upon the point leads me to the 
conclusion that such was not the fact. 

In reply to the claim of the United States to go to 54° 40%, it 
was asserted that whatever might have been the right of Spain, 
the latter in ceding to France in 1800 stipulated to convey only 

264 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

as far north as the forty-ninth parallel. To this contention the 
United States replied and with much force, and the contention 
should never have been abandoned: If this be so and if it be 
true the right of Spain is good to 54° 40’, then the strip between 
the forty-ninth parallel and 54° 40’, which it was alleged was not 
included in the cession of Spain to France in 1800, was included 
in the cession of Spain to the United States in the treaty of 
Florida of 1819, by which Spain conveyed every right she had 
on the continent north of the forty-second parallel. Mr Secre- 
tary Buchanan, in his reply to Packenham, said: 

‘“Ttis an historical and striking fact, which must have an important 
bearing against the claim of Great Britain, that this Nootka convention, 
which was dictated by her to Spain, contains no provision impairing the 
ultimate sovereignty which that power had asserted for nearly three cen- 
turies over the whole western side of North America as far north as the 

sixty-first degree of latitude and which had never been seriously ques- 
tioned by any European nation.” 

Subsequently to 1818 and down to the final settlement of the 
boundary question in 1846 the only material difference in the 
views of American statesmen and diplomatists was as to whether 
the rightful claim of the United States extended to 54° 40’ or 
only to the forty-ninth parallel. All concurred in the opinion 
that our claim was beyond question good at least as far north 
as the latter, while many of our ablest statesmen and diplomat- 
ists, strengthened and supported by a powerful sentiment among 
the people, insisted that our claim extended to 54° 40’. No one 
thing, however, nor indeed all other influences combined, did as 
. much to strengthen the sentiment and belief in favor of our 
claim to 54° 40’ as the mission of Dr Whitman in 1842. 

The Opening of the Oregon Route. 

Frémont has been designated in history as “the Path-finder,” 
and in some respects he is justly entitled to the pseudonym, but 
he was not the one who opened the great transcontinental trail to 
Oregon by way of Fort Hall. Fort Hall was the leading eastern 
outpost of the Hudson Bay company. It was located on Snake 
river about 100 miles north of Salt Lake City. ‘‘ Here,” says 
one historian, ‘many immigrant companies had been intimi- 
dated and broken up by Hudson Bay men, and so Fort Hall 
served as a cover to Oregon, just as a battery at the mouth ofa 
river protects the inland city on its banks.” Here it was that the 

The real Path-finder 265 

Hudson Bay people in 1836 made a determined but unsuccessful 
effort to prevent Whitman from attempting to go through with 
his wagon to Oregon, insisting it was a physical impossibility. 
The Tyler administration had promised to send Lieutenant Fré- 
mont and his company as an escort to protect Whitman and his 
200 wagons and 1,000 men, women and children on his return 
to Oregon in the summer and fall of 1843, but failed to do so. 

Whitman’s expedition left Waldport, Missouri, in June, 1843, 
and although at Fort Hall, 1,523 miles from the starting point, a 
determined effort was again made by the Hudson Bay men to 
prevent further progress, insisting that it was impossible to go 
through with wagons, Whitman and his 200 wagons did go 
through and arrived at his home on Columbia river September 
4,1843. Frémont did not reach Fort Hall until October 23 of 
the same year, forty-nine days after Whitman and his expedi- 
tion had passed that point; nor did Frémont arrive over a new 
trail but over the identical one, for a distance of some hundred 
miles, which Whitman, Spaulding and their wives had trodden 
seven years before. Dr Whitman left his home on the Columbia 
on this great mission October 3, 1842, and returned there Sep- 
tember 4, 1848, after an absence of just eleven months. 

The Organization of a Provisional Government in Oregon. 

Following this successful expedition led by Dr Whitman in 
1845 came the organization of a provisional government by the 
people then in the territory and the final settlement of the whole 
question by the treaty of 1846. At the time of the organization 
of the provisional government there was but one law book in 
all that region. This was a copy of the Iowa Statutes} and in 
the fundamental law of the provisional government there was 
this provision: “ The laws of Iowa territory shall be the law in 
this territory in civil, military and criminal cases when not other- 
wise provided.” , Another provision which these brave, courage- 
ous, liberty-loving pioneers inscribed in their fundamental law 
was this: “There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servi- 
tude in said territory, otherwise than for the punishment of crime 
whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.” 

Oregon, though added to the United States by the treaty of 
1846, and created a territory, including what is now the states 
of Washington and Idaho, in August, 1848, had no territorial 
government until 1849. In March of this year its first territorial 

266 John H. Mitchell—Oregon 

governor arrived and organized a territory with 8,785 inhabitants. 
This territory was not dismembered until 1853, when the terri- 
tory (now state) of Washington was carved out of it. It became 
one of the states of the union July 14, 1859, and in 1865 the terri- 
tory (now state) of Idaho was set apart from its area. 

Of all the public men of the country during the period of the 
early settlement of Oregon, no one seemed to grasp the real situ- 
ation or so fully comprehend the vastness of the prospective 
interests at stake as Lewis Field Linn, United States Senator 
from Missouri. To his memory more than to that of any other 
public man of the time do the pioneer immigrants and the people 
of Oregon generally owe a tribute of lasting veneration. 

The measure for which Senator Linn so vigorously and con- 
stantly labored prior to his death, in 1848, for making donations 
of the public lands in Oregon territory to citizens of the United 
States to induce immigration and settlement finally materialized 
in an act of Congress passed September 27,1850. This act very 
largely facilitated immigration to and settlement in that country. 
One unfortunate incident, however, attached to this otherwise 
beneficent and highly commendable piece of legislation. While 
it facilitated immigration it tended also to facilitate marriage, 
not only among the immigrants, but between male immigrants 
and Indian women. By the fourth section of the act a grant in 
presenti was made to any man who would reside on and culti- 
vate for four consecutive years a tract of 320 acres of land if a 
single man and 640 if married. While under this provision set- 
tlement of the country was rapidly developed, it is nevertheless 
a fact, fully borne out by the records of the courts in that country 
within the next few years thereafter, that the premium paid on 
marriage resulted in an unusual and abnormal crop of divorces, 
as Many marriages, especially those with Indian women, were 
based on no other or higher considerations than the mercenary 
ones offered by the act. 

The Name Oregon. 

There are various theories as to the origin and derivation of 
the name “ Oregon.” Some writers declare that it is derived 
from the Spanish, signifying “ wild thyme,” so called on account 
of the abundance of that herb found by early explorers. Others 
insist it is an Indian word, in use about the headwaters of the 
Columbia to designate the waters of that river and meaning the 

The beautiful Name of the State 267 

“great river of the west,” and obtained from them by Jonathan 
Carver, a native of Connecticut, in 1766-68, who spent two years 
among the Indians on the waters of the upper Mississippi, now 
the state of Wisconsin. Carver’s accounts, however, in reference 
to many matters, are contradictory and unreliable, though in 
reference to this he was quite likely right. It is more than 
probable that an article published fifty-three years ago, in 1842, 
in “ Hunt’s Magazine” and reproduced by the historian Brown in 
his political history of Oregon, presents the correct solution of 
the question. Speaking of Oregon territory and the discovery 
of Columbia river by Captain Gray, this article says: ‘The 
territory watered by this river and its tributaries has since ”— 
that is, since the discovery of the river—“ been called the Oregon 
territory from a tradition said to have prevailed among the 
Indians near lake Superior of the existence of a mighty river 
rising in that vicinity and emptying its waters into the Pacific, 
and whith was supposed to be the Columbia.” Bryant in his 
celebrated “ Thanatopsis,” written in 1815, refers to the Columbia 
river as the Oregon: “ Where rolls the Oregon, and hears no 
sound save his own dashings.” 

Early News-carrying in and to Oregon. 

It is a singular historical fact that the pioneers of Oregon 
territory down as late as the settlement of our northern bound- 
ary, in 1846, received most of their news from Washington by 
way of the Sandwich islands. A semi-yearly vessel also brought 
letters and papers around cape Horn, the news in which was neces- 
sarily somewhat stale. Jieutenant Howison in his report says: 

‘October 16, 1846, the American bark Toulon arrived from the Sand- 
wich islands and brought news of the Oregon treaty, the Mexican war 
and the occupation of California. The right of ownership of the soil 
being vested by treaty, I no longer felt any reserve in hoisting our flag on 
shore, and it has been some time waving over our quarters on the very 
spot which was first settled by white men on the banks of the Columbia.” 

On the receipt of the news from the Sandwich islands, James 
Douglass, the chief factor of the Hudson Bay company and a 
pronounced Britisher, addressed the following letter to Governor 
Abernethy, of Oregon: 

‘‘Fort Vancouver, November 3, 1846. 
“Dear Str: Very important news for all parties in Oregon has just 
been received by the bark Toulon from the Sandwich islands. It appears 


268 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

that the boundary question is finally and fully settled. * * * The 
British government has rendered more than strict justice required; but 
John Bull is generous, and was bound to be something more than just to 
his promising son Jonathan, who will no doubt make a good use of the 
Fabien (ena ree: 

“Yours truly, James DovuGuass.” 

It was not until 1850 that the people of Oregon had a semi- 
‘monthly mail, through a service established between San Fran- 
cisco and Portland, Oregon. 

The first attempt at sending mail across the continent from 
Oregon territory was in 1838, fifty-seven years ago, when letters 
were carried from the Willamette valley, in Oregon, to Medport, 
Missouri, in sixty days, including two days’ detention at Lapwai 
and two days at Fort Hall, carrying to Reverend Jason Lee, the 
Oregon missionary then in the east, the sad intelligence of the 
death of his wife in Oregon. 

The first Printing Press west of the Rocky Mountains. 

The first printing press in Oregon was received as a donation 
from the mission of the American Board of Foreign Missions in 
the Sandwich islands to the mission of the board in Oregon. It 
reached its destination at Lapwai, now the state of Idaho, then 
a part of Oregon territory, and was put in operation by Mr E. O. 
Hall, of the Sandwich Islands mission, and commenced publish- 
ing books in the Nez Percé language. This was in 1838, fifty- 
seven years ago. It was the first printing press west of the Rocky 
mountains. The first newspaper published within the lhmits of 
the present state of Oregon was established at Oregon City seven 
years later, in 1845. It was called the “ Oregon Spectator.” 

The first white Birth and Burial. 

The first white American child born on the Pacific coast was 
the daughter of Dr Whitman and wife, born near Walla Walla 
in 1839. On June 26, 1838, Mrs Maria Pitman, wife of the mis- 
sionary, Reverend Jason Lee, died near Salem, Oregon. She was 
the first white American woman to close her eyes in death west 
of the Rocky mountains. Today, on an humble headstone which 
marks her last resting place in Salem, Oregon, may be read the 
following inscription: 


The Baptism of Sorrow 269 

‘‘ Beneath this sod, the first ever broken in Oregon for the reception of 
a white mother and child, lie buried the remains of Anna Maria Pitman, 
wife of Reverend Jason Lee, and infant son. She sailed from New York 
in July, 18386; landed in Oregon June, 1837; was married in July, 1837, 
and died June 26, 1838, in full enjoyment of that love which constrained 
her to leave all for Christ and heathen souls. ‘Lo we have left all and 
followed Thee; what shall we have therefore?’” 

Geographic Characteristics and Natural Resources of Oregon. 

What, briefly, are the prominent geographic characteristics 
and natural resources and advantages of the state of Oregon? 
To enumerate, much less describe or discuss them would require 
a long series of lectures, each of which, to be properly under- 
stood and appreciated, should be fully illustrated. I may men- 
tion a few only of the most notable. 

First, an area—and I speak now of the present state of Ore- 
gon—of 96,050 square miles, containing 60,518,400 acres,’com- 
prising every conceivable character of surface configuration ; an 
area greater in extent by more than 6,000 square miles than all 
of England, Scotland and Wales combined, with their aggregate 
population of over 32,000,000; an area over eight times larger 
than Belgium, with its population of above 6,000,000, and but 
6,000 square miles less than one-half that of France, with its 
40,000,000 people. 

This area consists of numerous and extended fertile valleys ; 
mountain ranges, rich in minerals, both precious and base, whose 
sides are clothed with eternal verdure and whose peaks are 
crowned with eternal snow; forests unsurpassed in extent and 
in the number, variety and majesty of the trees composing them ; 
immense fertile plateaus of everlasting green, on whose nutri- 
tious grasses feed 2,600,000 sheep, of the value of $6,000,000, 
and which produce annually over 17,000,000 pounds of wool, 
averaging, according to price, from $2,000,000 to $2,250,000 ; 
250,000 horses, of the value of $7,000,000 ; 6,500 mules, of the 
value of $300,000; 125,000 milch cows, of the value of $3,000,000, 
and 1,000,0U0 oxen and other cattle, of the value of $12,000,000, 

Then we have sandy deserts, gradually being converted into 
fruitful grain fields in virtue of the processes of irrigation ; mag- 
nificent rivers, including the Columbia, the great father of 
western waters, the Snake, the Willamette, the Yamhill, the 
Tualatin, the Santiam, the Siuslaw, the Rogue, the Umpqua, the 

270 John H. Mitchell—Oregon 

Coquille, the Nestucca, the Nehalem, the Sandy, the John Day, 
the Link, the Lost, the Deschutes, the Umatilla, the Grande 
Ronde, the Powder, and others of less magnitude and signifi- 
cance, including innumerable streams, pure as the snow of the 
mountain sides whence they spring and filled with trout and 
other edible fishes ; grand lakes, which mirror back in sublime 
beauty their mountain walls of granite, fringed with the waving 
branches of stately firs; extensive caverns, brilliant in stalactites 
and cooled by running mountain streams of living waters ; and 
lastly, voleanic regions, bearing on their encrusted surface the 
very picture of' desolation, thus far successfully defying the 
ingenuity of man and every effort at reclamation. It is grati- 
fying, however, to be able to say that this character of configura- 
tion is confined to a very small area in southeastern Oregon, 
probably in all less than 1,000 square miles, known as the “ Lava 
Beds.” Here it was that General Canby and the Reverend Dr 
Thomas, peace commissioners, lost their lives while treating with 
the Indians, in 1872, an Indian desperado known as Captain 
Jack leading the murderous attack. Peace commissioner Colonel 
A. B. Meacham, an Oregon pioneer, was seriously wounded at 
the same time. 

Oregon is divided north and south by three mountain ranges, 
separating the state into four tiers of fertile valleys. First, the 
Coast range, running parallel with the Pacific ocean the length 
of the entire state, and on an average distant some 40 miles from 
the coast, separating the Nehalem, Tillamook, Alsea and other 
coast valleys from the valley of the Willamette; second, the 
Cascade range, running also north and south parallel with the 
Coast range, distant from the latter on an average 75 to 100 
miles, and separating the Willamette, Umpqua and Rogue river 
valleys from the great Inland Empire in eastern Oregon, inelud- 
ing the valleys of Umatilla, Ochoco and other grazing plains 
lying to the eastward ; and, third, the Blue mountains, running 
from southeast to northwest, separating these valleys again from 
the magnificent wheat fields of the Grand Ronde, Powder river, 
Wallowa, Snake river and other valleys in the counties of Union, 
Baker, Grant and Harney, in the region in which are located 
La Grande, Union, Baker City, Ontario, Huntington, Canyon City, 
and numerous flourishing mining and commercial towns. 

Again, the state is divided in the other direction by the Cala- 
pooia mountains, crossing the state from east to west, from the 

The great Ranges and Peaks 271 

Cascades to the Pacific ocean, about 150 miles from its southern 
boundary. Other minor ranges also intersect the state east and 
west, including the great Siskiyou range on the dividing line 
between Oregon and California. 

The state contains more than 25,000,000 acres of arable land. 
The Willamette valley alone contains 5,000,000 acres. The whole 
arable area is greater than the one-half of the entire area of the 
six New England states. Over 10,000,000 acres (or about one- 
sixth of the whole state) are covered with forests, the greater 
portion as magnificent and valuable as any in the world of like 
species, the balance of the state being mountain, grazing, and 
desert lands, the latter of which can be nearly all made highly 
productive by irrigation. 

The Mountain Peaks of Oregon. 

The great mountain ranges of Oregon and their grand scenery 
are the pride of all her people and the wonder and admiration 
of every traveler who beholds them. Rising from the Cascade 
range, in the state of Oregon, in stately beauty and majestic 
grandeur, with summits penetrating the clouds and wrapped in 
everlasting snows, stand, like great sentinels on towering battle- 
ments, mount Hood, 12,000 feet in height; Jefferson, 10,200 
feet; Black butte, 7,000 feet; Snow butte, 6,000 feet; the Three 
Sisters, 9,000 feet; Diamond peak, 8,807 feet; mount 'Theilsen, 
7,000 feet; mount Scott, 9,125 feet; Onion peak, over 4,000 feet ; 
and last, but not least, mount Pitt, or mount McLaughlin, as it 
is sometimes called, near the southern boundary of the state, 
9,760 feet in height. These are all in the Cascade range and 
within the state of Oregon, and, commencing with mount Hood, 
the giant of the line and seemingly the commander of the 
column, located about 25 miles due south of Columbia river in 
the center of the Cascade range, they stand in a line running 
almost due north and south in the order I have named them, 
mount Pitt being near the California line. Mount Hood was 
named after Lord Hood by Vancouver's navigator, Lieutenant 
Broughton, in 1792. The exact height of this mountain, I be- 
lieve, has never been accurately ascertained, the reported meas- 
urements ranging all the way from 11,000 to 18,000 feet. It is 
known, however, from more recent measurements, to be about 
12,000 feet in height, or some 3,400 feet lower than Shasta, in Cali- 

35—Nar. Geoac. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

272 John H. Mitchell—Oregon 

fornia, and mount Rainier or Tacoma, in Washington. Slghtly 
east of mount Hood and but 70 miles distant, in what was once 
a part of Oregon territory, but now the state of Washington, 
stands mount Adams, 9,570 feet in height, named for John 
Quincy Adams. It is one of the five snowy peaks visible at the 
same time from nearly every point of northern Oregon. One 
hundred miles north of mount Hood and northwest of mount 
Adams, also in Washington, is mount Saint Helens, some 9,750 
feet in height, a magnificent cone, which is said to be frequently 
in a state of eruption, and which is confidently said to have been 
(as also Rainier) during the past year. Mr J. Quinn Thornton, 
one of Oregon’s earliest pioneers and chief justice of the terri- 
tory, in his “ History of Oregon and California,” asserts it was in 
a state of eruption in 1831. Frémont records the fact that it was 
“in a state of activity November 13, 1843.” The statement is 
well authenticated that in 1832 mount Saint Helens scattered 
ashes over the country to a distance of 100 miles, so obscuring 
the sunlight as to make it necessary to employ artificial hght at 
midday that distance from the mountain. There is a perpetual 
flow of hot water at a point in its southern slope, indicating that 
the volcanic forces are not entirely extinguished. 

The ascent of mount Hood from the south has been fr equently 
made, and in more recent years by men and women numbered 
by the hundred. On July 4, 1887, members of the Oregon Alpine 
club of Portland, Oregon, carried to its summit 100 pounds of 
illuminating red-fire. The illumination lasted 58 seconds and 
was seen from Portland on the west, a distance of 60 miles, and 
Prineville on the east, a distance of 80 miles. The illumination 
was repeated in 1888, when it is asserted heliographic communi- 
cations were exchanged with the Signal Service officers at Port- 
land. In July, 1894, a party numbering about 180 men and 
women ascended to its summit in two separate columns, one 
from the north, the other from the south. This mountain has 
emitted smoke at intervals since the earliest settlement of the 

Crater Lake. 

No less interesting are the lakes of Oregon, which sleep in silent 
beauty in the icy embrace of the mountains, some of them hun- 
dreds and even many thousands of feet above the level of the 
sea. They are numerous and of interest as deep as their placid 

The mysterious and majestic Lake 273 

waters ; but the one which above all is romantically interesting 
and surprisingly wonderful is that known as Crater lake. It is 
located in the Cascade range, in southeastern Oregon, at an eleva- 
tion of over 8,000 feet. Its rim or shore is 1,800 feet higher than 
mount Washington, in New Hampshire; 4,000 feet higher than 
Vesuvius, in Naples, and on the same elevation above the sea as 
mount Sinai, in Arabia. It was discovered in 1853 by gold pros- 
pectors from southern Oregon, who in their wonder occasioned 
by its strange location and startling beauty named it ‘ Lake 
Mystery.” Later another party from fort Klamath in Visiting it 
were so awestricken with its peculiar character and its weird sur- 
roundings that they gave it a new name, “ Lake Majesty.” Sub- 
sequently, in 1886, scientific exploration developed the fact that 
the waters of this strange lake occupy the crater of an extinct 
volcano; that it is a gigantic bowl carved out of the mountain, 
whose rock-ribbed rim rises more than 8,000 feet above the level 
of the sea; that it is elliptical or oval in form, its surface cover- 
ing an area of some 28 square miles, being about 6} miles in 
length by about 42 in breadth. These discoveries led to a second 
change of name, and it is now and has been for several years 
past known as Crater lake. A few years since, mainly through 
the efforts of Representative Herman, of Oregon, this lake, in- 
cluding some twenty surrounding townships, was withdrawn 
from the public surveys and reserved as a national park. 

It is one of the most remarkable lakes on the face of the globe, 
It is the deepest fresh-water lake in the United States, if not in 
the world. By reason of its phenomenal location and awe-inspir- 
ing surroundings it is unsurpassed in scenic grandeur and marvel- 
ous beauty by any other known to man. The day is not far dis- 
tant when travelers, sight-seers, seekers after knowledge, students 
of nature, and lovers of the beautiful and the sublime of every 
tongue will come from all countries and every clime for the pur- 
pose of standing in the presence of its bewildering wonders, gaz- 
ing on its entrancing mysteries, and feasting on the inspiration of 
its majestic beauty. 

What is the explanation of scientists of this seemingly abnor- 
mal creation, which inspires awe and evokes mingled admiration 
and wonder in the minds of all who behold it? It is this: that 
there, in the departed centuries, once stood a giant voleanic moun- 
tain whose summit towered into the heavens to a height probably 
far above any other in the United States, if not in North Amer- 

274 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

ica. This conclusion is based by scientists on well known geo- 
metric and geographic principles. It is determined in part 
by ascertaining the extent and angle of the rim of the crater 
and taking into consideration the general configuration and com-. 
position of all its surroundings. According to the Geological 
Survey the depth of this crater is 4,000 feet and of the water 2,000 
feet over the greater portion—that is, from the rim of the lake it 
is from 1,500 to 2,000 feet down to the surface of the water, and 
the water is 2,000 feet deep. To add to the strange conforma- 
tion and beauty of this phenomenal lake, located in a mountain 
cup whose rim is indeed in nubibus, there is a second crater 
within the main one, which looms up in a hollow cone 650 feet 
above the surface of the water. This is called “ Wizard island,” 
while still two more similar craters exist which do not reach the 
surface of the water, the top of the one being 450 feet below the 
surface and that of the other 825 feet. 

One writer, Mrs Frances Fuller Victor, in her interesting and 
instructive book entitled “Atlantis Arisen,” in speaking of this 
lake says: 

“One cannot, owing to the sunken position of the lake, discover it 
until close upon its rim, and I say without exaggeration that no pen can 
reproduce its image, no picture be painted to do it justice, nor can it for 
' obvious reasons be satisfactorily photographed. At the first view a dead 
silence fell upon our party. A choking sensation arose in our throats, 
the tears flowed over our cheeks. I do not pretend to analyze the emo - 
tion, but if I were to endeavor to compare it with anything I ever read I 
should say it must be such a feeling which causes the cherubim to veil 
their faces before God. To me it was a revelation.” 

Captain (now Major) C. E. Dutton, in his report of the survey 
of this lake to the Director of the Geological Survey, says: 

“Tt was touching to see the worthy but untutored people who had rid- 
den a hundred miles in freight wagons to behold it vainly striving to 
keep back tears as they poured forth exclamations of wonder and joy akin 
to pain, nor was it less so to see so cultivated and learned a man as my 
companion hardly able to command himself to speak with his customary 

Did time permit, attention might be attracted to the many 
other interesting characteristics of this wonderland in Lake and 
Klamath counties, in southeastern Oregon. I might point to 
Upper and Lower Klamath lakes, to Link river uniting the two, 
with its valuable water power, having a fall of sixty-four feet in 

or ] 

The lesser Lakes'and Rivers 21) 

a mile and a quarter and an average breadth of 310 feet; to 
Williamson, Sprague and Lost rivers; to the hot and coid min- 
eral and non-mineral springs; to rivers which in great volume 
rise from and disappear into the earth ; to the lava beds, and to the 
magnificent fertile plains where wheat is grown in abundance 
at an elevation of over 4,000 feet; but these and many other 
features must be passed over or barely mentioned. 

The Oregon Caves. 

Scarcely less wonderful than the mysterious Crater lake are 
the caverns of the Oregon mountains. The Josephine county 
caves, about thirty miles from the railroad southwest of Grant 
pass, will be found when thoroughly explored, it is believed by 
those who know most about them, to be as extensive and won- 
derful as is the Mammoth cave of Kentucky. These caves were 
discovered but a few years ago by a hunter named Elijah David- 
son, who followed a bear to its lair in the lower cave. The 
entrance to each of the caves, one located higher in the moun- 
tain than the other, is about eight feet wide and seven feet high. 
They contain a great number of wonderful avenues, said to be 
miles in length, besides large numbers of chambers, grottoes, 
lakes, abysses and cataracts, and also innumerable chambers, 
large and small. The first chamber is ten feet in height. One, 
called “The Devil's Banquet Hall,” is 150 feet in length by 75 
feet in width and 60 feet in height. Its roof and walls are bril- 
liant with hundreds of scintillating stalactites. The only explo- 
ration of these wonderful caverns has been by private parties. 
A thorough, scientific exploration should be made at an early 
day, and it is my intention to ask an appropriation from the 
next Congress for such purpose. 

The Great Wheat-producing Inland Empire. 

The vast fertile grain-producing valleys of Oregon are the 
Willamette, the Rogue river, the Umpqua, and that portion of 
what is known as the “great Inland Empire” which lies in 
eastern Oregon. The Willamette extends from Portland to the 
Calipooia mountains, 30 miles south of Eugene, a distance of 
over 150 miles in length by an average of 75 miles in width. 
This valley is famed as one of the most fertile and productive 
in the world. There is scarcely an acre of waste land in this 

276 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

vast area of 12,000 square miles. It is a great Miocene basin; 
fossils of the Miocene age are found there in abundance. The 
greater portion of it is under improvement, but much of it is 
held in large tracts of 640 acres, being the donations made to 
settlers by the act of Congress of September 27,1850. Nearly 
the whole of it is well watered by streams, a very small propor- 
tion requiring irrigation. It produces wheat, oats, barley, corn, 
all kinds of vegetables, and fruits in abundance. The Willamette 
valley is alone capable of sustaining a population of 5,000,000 
souls, and even then the population would be but a fraction in 
excess that of Belgium to the square mile, and less than that of 
England by 102 to the square mile. The productive capacity 
of the Inland Empire in eastern Oregon is something wonderful. 
Thirty years ago not a bushel of wheat was raised in that en- 
tire empire, although across the line near Walla Walla some 
300 bushels of wheat were raised by Dr Whitman at his mission 
in 1841; Commodore Wilkes, a portion of whose party visited 
this mission in that year, so reports. Twenty years ago the 
coming fall I left the Central Pacific railroad near Salt Lake and 
journeyed westward through northern Utah and eastern Oregon. 
The first wheat of any importance was grown in eastern Ore- 
gon that year. There was a three-acre lot located near where 
the town of Weston, Umatilla county, now is and immediately 
outside the boundaries of the Umatilla Indian reservation. The 
crop had been taken off before my arrival. The wheat stubble 
being so abundant, I was amazed and expressed surprise to my 
host, with whom I remained over night, that there should be 
such a fertile spot in this vast desert, as the whole country 
seemed to me to be little less than a desert. He smiled and 
replied that the tract on which this wheat had grown was the 
same character as land of the whole surrounding country, in- 
cluding the greater portion of the Umatilla Indian reservation. 
I obtained a sack and immediately outside of the field, digging 
down some 6 or 8 inches, filled it with a peck of soil. I brought. 
it with me to Washington; took it to the late Professor Henry, 
then Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and requested that. 
he analyze it and tell me its properties and what good for. He 
inquired, “ Where did you get this soil?” I replied, “ West of 
the Rocky mountains.” Professor Henry remarked, “That is 
rather indefinite.” ‘‘ But Professor,” said I, ‘‘I shall not tell 
you whether it came from California, Oregon, the Willamette 

One of the World’s Wheat-fields 211 

valley or the top of mount Hood.” He made mea very inter- 
esting report, in which it was stated that he regarded the soil as 
the best wheat-producing soil he had ever examined; that it 
contained properties very similar to the soil of Sicily, where 
wheat had been raised for 2,000 years without exhausting the 
soil. The report further stated that the soil was of such char- 
acter that it would fertilize itself as cultivated; that it would 
not be necessary to let it rest after a crop or two, as in many 
portions of the country, or to fertilize it. The predictions made 
in that report have been amply verified. Two years ago I 
visited Umatilla county and what was formerly the Umatilla 
Indian reservation, and was told that there had been raised and 
harvested that year in that county alone over 4,500,000 bushels 
of wheat. That this single county will produce 5,000,000 bushels 
of the best quality of wheat the present year, or an amount con- 
siderably more than was produced in 1893 in any one of twenty- 
one different states in the Union, I have not the slightest doubt. 

In addition, it is estimated that there will be shipped the 
present year from the city of Pendleton, the county seat of Uma- 
tilla county, located on the transcontinental railroad, 5,000,000 
pounds of wool, while from The Dalles, the county seat of Wasco 
county, an equal quantity will be shipped. A large portion of 
the state, notably Umatilla, Union, and Baker counties, with 
several others in the eastern section, and Coos and Curry coun- 
ties in the southwestern portion, are admirably adapted to sugar- 
beet culture. The beets grown here are said to yield a larger 
percentage of saccharine matter than those produced elsewhere ; 
while 20 tons per acre is a moderate estimate of the annual crop. 

The Forests of Oregon. 

Another source of immense wealth in the state of Oregon is her 
forests. No state in the Union has a greater variety of valuable 
trees or fine woods. These include sugar pine and silver pine, 
cedar, red, yellow and white fir, redwood, and spruce of different 
varieties ; ash, hemlock, maple, myrtle, white oak, laurel, alder, 
dogwood, wild cherry, hazel, chittamwood, and Oregon yew; 
three species of poplar—the quaking asp, cottonwood and bal- 
sam tree; live-oak and chestnut oak, nutmeg, tamarack, moun- 
tain mahogany, juniper, birch, box elder, and many other 
varieties. In addition, there are the vine maple, growing from 

ale John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

6 to. 12 inches in diameter and from 12 to 30 feet in height; the 
Oregon crab-apple, which grows in groves, making the forest 
impenetrable for man or beast; and many other varieties. The 
Oregon cedar grows to an immense size. It is no uncommon 
thing in the forests of Tillamook and Coos counties, on the coast, 
to find vast forests of these trees 10 to 12 and very often 15 feet 
in diameter and from 200 to 250 feet in height. The Oregon 
sugar-pine grows to 250 feet in height, bearing cones from 12 to 
18 inches in length. The mills of Oregon manufacture over 
250,000,000 feet of lumber annually. 


The forests of the state are filled with all kinds of game, in- 
cluding bear, elk, deer, grouse, prairie-chicken, pheasants, Chi- 
nese or Denny pheasants (a most delicious game bird, introduced 
from China by Honorable O. N. Denny, of Oregon, while United 
States consul-general at Shanghai), quail, and other varieties of 
game birds. The rivers and lakes are, during the summer, filled 
with game fowl, including canvas-back, and teal of excellent 

The Precious and other Metals. 

No state in the Union is more highly favored in natural en- 

dowments than Oregon. Her resources, developed and unde- 
veloped, are almost as varied as are the gifts of nature, and their 
value cannot be estimated. Her mines, though only partially 
developed, are rich in the precious metals, as also in iron, coal, 
nickel, copper, cinnabar, asbestos, tin, marble, onyx, limestone, 
sandstone, granite, and dolomite. A recent writer on the geo- 
logic formations of Oregon remarks that “the igneous rocks of 
southern Oregon are said to contain all the zeolitic minerals; 
and some geologists believe precious gems of no small worth.” 
_ Already more than $25,000,000 in gold have been taken from 
the placer mines in two counties in the state—Jackson and 
Josephine, in southern Oregon. Eastern Oregon is rapidly de- 
veloping into a great gold and silver producing region. Capital 
only is required to make it one of the most valuable mineral 
fields on the Pacific coast. 

Oregon has an abundance of the very best quality of iron ore. 
Clackamas county in particular abounds in this mineral. Ex- 

Natural Wealth of the State 279 

tensive iron works are in progress at Oswego, in that county, 
located on the Willamette river 18 miles from its mouth and 7 
miles from Portland, and large amounts of pig-iron are produced 

Grains and Fruits; Rivers, Harbors, Railroads, ete. 

The resources of Oregon are not confined to her mountains or 
her rivers. Her valleys: are fertility itself. Wheat, oats, corn, 
barley, hops, flax, hay and other grains and grasses; apples, 
pears, peaches, apricots, plums, prunes, cherries, nectarines, 
grapes and other varieties of small fruits and berries, are all 
products of her soil. The natural advantages of the state are 
all that could be desired. A seacoast of more than 400 miles, 
indented with numerous capacious bays and storm-protected 
deep-water harbors; the Columbia, the Tillamook, the Neha- 
lem, the Yaquina, the Alsea, the Siuslaw, the Umpqua, the 
Coquille, Coos bay and port Orford, capacious enough to protect 
in safety all the navies of the world; a mighty river on its 
north draining a basin of 395,000 square miles, including its 
tributaries, which combine twelve degrees of latitude and thir- 
teen of longitude. The main Columbia is navigable 725 miles 
from its mouth, with two interruptions—the first at the Cascades, 
150 miles from the mouth, where there is a fall of 500 feet in four 
miles and where a canal and locks, being constructed by the 
general government, will be completed in the present year; and 
another at The Dalles of twelve miles, where the general govern- 
ment has taken steps looking to the construction of a boat rail- 
way. Willamette river is navigable for 140 miles; the Snake 
for 150 miles. The falls of the Willamette at Oregon City are 
estimated at 1,000,000 horse power; the fall is forty feet. Here 
a great electric plant has been established within the past two 
years at an expenditure of several millions of dollars, and this 
vast water power is being utilized in Oregon City and in Portland, 
twelve miles distant, in manufactories of various kinds and in 
electric lighting. 

The Salmon Fisheries of Columbia River. 

The salmon fisheries of Columbia river are the most extensive 
and profitable in the world, and a source of immense wealth. It 
is but thirty-three years since the first fishery for catching and 

280 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

barreling salmon was established there, and not until 1867 was 
the first fish cannery erected, the purpose of the latter being to 
preserve salmon in cans—fresh, spiced and pickled. There are 
today some thirty-eight canneries on Columbia river, in which 
are invested more than $5,000,000 capital. More than 4,000 men 
are employed during the fishing season. Canned salmon are 
shipped by rail across the continent and by ships to all parts of 
the world. A cargo frequently is valued at a quarter of a million 
dollars, and single cargoes have gone out occasionally of the value 
of over $300,000. The salmon season commences in May and 
ends in August. The fish are caught mainly by drift gill-nets 
ranging in leneth from 120 feet to 600 feet. Many salmon are 
also taken by traps and fish-wheels. 

In the single year 1880, 538,587 cases of salmon were canned 
on Columbia river, having an export value of $2,650,000. The 
average salmon weighs about twenty pounds, and they are 
packed three to a case, making a catch that year of about 1,600,000 

Salmon is by no means the only food-fish produced in large 
numbers in Columbia river. Sturgeon, flounder, smelt, tomcod, 
and salmon trout exist in abundance, and within the last few 
years shad weighing from three to four pounds have been plenti- 
ful. Other waters in the state of Oregon are full of salmon, 
Salmon fisheries are carried on extensively in Tillamook bay. 
Nehalem bay, Nestucca bay, in northwestern Oregon, and in the 
Rogue, Siuslaw, Coquille and other rivers in central and south- 
western Oregon. 

Dairy Interests. 

Several of the coast counties, especially Clatsop, Tillamook, 
Columbia, Douglass, Coos and Curry, in addition to their exten- 
sive and valuable lumber interests, and in some cases, notably 
Clatsop, Columbia, Tillamook and Coos, their valuable coal de- 
posits, are especially well adapted to dairying, and immense 
quantities of butter and cheese are annually produced. 

Railroad Facilities. 

In addition to the great facilities resulting from grand nayi- 
gable water-courses and capacious coast harbors, with which 
Oregon is so bountifully blessed, the state is now no longer iso- 

Facilities for Commerce 281 

lated by reason of lack of railroad transportation facilities. The 
city of Portland, the metropolis of the state, with a present popu- 
lation of more than 80,000 people and an annual trade of over 
$140,000,000, is the western terminus of five transcontinental 
railroads—the Southern Pacific, the Union Pacific in connection 
with the Oregon Short Line and the line of the Oregon Rail- 
, way and Navigation Company, the Northern Pacific, the Great 
Northern, and the Canadian Pacific; besides these, several state 
railroads center here. In addition to this, the city of Port- 
land is the head of ship navigation on the waters of the Colum- 
bia, located on the Willamette river 12 miles from its mouth, 
and to which ships of all nations, of whatever draught, steam 
and sail, come and go without interruption. The great warships 
of the navy, the Baltimore, the Chicago and the Monterey, have 
all been in her harbor within the past two years. But not only 
so, there are regular lines of first-class ocean steamers running 
weekly between San Francisco, California, and Yaquina bay, 
Oregon, connecting with the Oregon Pacific railroad, a first-class 
full-gauge road, now constructed and running regularly from 
Yaquina bay eastward across the entire Willamette valley, and 
which, I am credibly advised, will within the present year be 
extended to a transcontinental connection. Another line of 
steamers plies weekly between San Francisco and Coos bay, 
Oregon. A railroad is now under construction connecting As- 
toria, Oregon, with Portland and the great transcontinental lines 
of railroad. Other lines of railroad are being projected and 
built in Oregon, one connecting the valleys of the Willamette, 
Umpqua and Rogue rivers with the waters of Coos bay on the 
Pacific ocean. The interior cities and towns of eastern Oregon 
are rapidly being connected with branch lines. This has already 
been done as to Weston, Athena, Heppmer and other important 

Demand for the Nicaragua Canal. 

The people of Oregon, although blessed with innumerable 
blessings and endowed with commercial advantages not com- 
mon to states and people generally, nevertheless are in want of 
one thing. We want, our interests demand, and we must and 
will have at no distant day, a ship canal crossing the isthmus of 
Nicaragua. The interests not only of Oregon, but of the Pacific 
coast, of the whole nation, and of all the civilized nations of the 

282 John H. Mitchell—Oregon 

globe demand it. With one voice and with no uncertain sound 
should the people of all the commercial and civilized nations of 
the earth demand the speedy construction of this great work, so 
absolutely essential to the commercial necessities of the age and 
the proper advancement and promotion of the enlightened civili- 
zation of the century in which we live. We of the Pacific coast 
are no longer unimportant factors in the trade and commerce of 
the world. When Dr Marcus Whitman crossed the continent 
in 1842-48 to save Oregon to the union, the trade of the Pacific 
coast with foreign or domestic ports amounted to nothing. To- 
day our trade with Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, 
Cuba and Brazil, to say nothing of our trade with China, Japan 
and the Sandwich islands, amounts in value to more than 
$45,000,000 annually. Give us the Nicaragua canal and we will 
then stand erect in every element which constitutes independent 
commercial supremacy. Capable of meeting every home want of 
whatever nature, we become at once and forever a formidable 
competitor for our surplus products, not only in the home 
market, but in all the markets of the world. 


In conclusion, I cannot better personify the state of Oregon 
than by employing the language of that gifted writer, the author 
of “Atlantis Arisen.” She said: 

‘‘T know how, if I were a painter, I should personify the young giant 
Oregon. Lithe, strong, beautiful should he be, with Empire written on 
his brow and power tempered by mildness beaming from his eyes. Of 
fair complexion he, with tawny, blonde hair and curly, golden beard. 
His robe should be of royal purple, embroidered with wheat ears, and 
his crown of tarnished gold. His throne should be among the rugged 
mountains, with a lake at his feet, rolling yellow plains on one hand and 
smiling green valleys on the other. His sceptre, shaped like the taper- 
ing pine, should be of silver, set with opals, emeralds and diamonds. On 
his right should roll the magnificent Columbia, to which ships in the 
distance should seek entrance, and over his shoulder the white crest of 
mount Hood stand blushing in a rosy sunset.”’ 

The names and memories of the brave pioneer men and women 
who laid the foundations of empire in the wilds of Oregon de- 
serve to be forever perpetuated, not only in their country’s his- 
tory, but in the reverential hearts and minds of the people 
of the present and all future generations. There is something 

The Dream and Glory of Conquest 283 

strangely dramatic, as also sublimely pathetic, in the strange 
scene of hundreds of men, with their wives and little ones, bid- 
ding farewell to friends, to home, to civilization, and starting 
on a journey with ox-teams a distance of 3,000 miles across 
a trackless waste, and over rugged, unexplored mountains, the 
way obstructed by numberless bridgeless rivers, yawning, deso- 
late canyons and parched repellent deserts, with a view of estab- 
lishing new homes amid all the perils incident to a wilderness 
inhabited only by savage men and beasts. Many of these brave 
men and women never lived to reach their destination, but fell 
by the wayside, like Hervey’s ships, “that sailed for sunny 
isles, but never came to shore.” But, leaving the lonely grave 
of the loved one in the desert, the body soon to be devoured by 
the hungry wolf of the plain, the brave column of survivors, 
sustained by Wordsworth’s “ amaranthine flower of faith,” and, 
in the language of Milton, “ finding new hope springing out of de- 
spair,’ moved on and on, and although, in the words of Southey, 
“no station is in view nor palm grove islanded amid the waste,” 
they still press on and on, over burning deserts and trackless 
mountain steeps, until at last they rest in the cooling shades of 
“the continuous woods where rolls the Oregon.” 

As a factor in the civilization of America and of the age in 
which we live, Oregon as a state challenges attention. Civiliza- 
tion over two hundred years ago marshalled its battalions and 
took up its line of march in the Orient. Gathering strength 
with the steady advance of its conquering column, the tread of 
its victorious legions among the mountains and over the plains 
of the distant west signaled the rapid approach of the builders 
of empire; and though beauteous in its infancy, grand in the 
clear light of the Orient in the early morn of its existence, may 
we not expect that the state of Oregon will realize its grandest 
achievements amid the glories of accumulated splendor in the 
distant Occident ? 

It was truly a grand conception, a sublime thought, inspired 
by an almost supernatural prescience on the part of Coleridge 
when, more than half a century ago, he in his “ Table Talk” gave 
utterance to this sentence : 

“The possible destiny of the United States of America, as a nation of 
an hundred million of freemen, stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
living under the laws of Alfred and speaking the language of Shakes- 
peare and Milton, is an august conception. 

284 John H. Mitchell— Oregon 

The time is rapidly approaching when more than one hundred 
millions of freemen, breathing the pure air of liberty, inspired 
by one common sentiment of patriotism, sharing the blessings 
of a free country, upholding one flag, respecting and abiding by 
the same code of laws, honoring and revering the memories of 
the men who laid the foundations of the Republic, loving the 
same country and worshiping the same God, shall fill this great 
land from sea to sea with the glad anthems of a free, courageous, 
independent and happy people. 

ERS ry 




OcTOBER 31, 1895 




ABYSSINIA, Current money of........... eee 204 
AcosTA, Reference to writings of............ 211 

— cited on es ies ate peng Peru- 

— — — rain- making among the. “Santa 
Cruz Indians........ Rated perce ci eateealec<scc'sie cvs 42 

Across the deserts to San Francisco 
mountain, Arizona, Record of lecture 
ADLER, Cyrus. Record of lecture Diyeteeese xix 
ZE0LUS, Invocation to. .... .......+. bats 
AFFORESTATION, Processes Of.........02-..00. 143 
AFRICA, central, dwarfs and forests of, 
Record of lecture on.............. 
—, Civilization of........... 
—, Former occupants of, 
—, Inhabitants of .. 

—, Slow progress CE OA a baa 7 
AFRICAN slave trade found profitable... .. 16 
AGES of human development......... SotCo-CUe Ee 

AGRICULTURE, Egyptian... 

AIR, Geogra se PIL Cepcecececeuerseseashecnceveics 200 
AITKEN, Reference to experiments of...... 59 
ALASKA. Boundary Commission, Record 

of discussion on work Of...........seeceee es xiii 
ALASKAN Boundary Surveys, Record of 

INCUSSIOUNOI pices cssrarccescectiscoricrecee xiv, xix 
ALBATROSS and the wind.... Ripa AS 
ALEXANDER, Conquests of... 7 
ALGERIA, Climate of, .......... 17 
—, Conquest of, by French.. 17 
——OLEAIICY Tl. .cccsccgenessceoose 17 
—, Population of............. ae LT 
PENEAZON RICH VALE Y: Of....5/ cesses: escee> en-cee 18 
AMENDMENTS to by-laws, Record of ta- 

PoIRaR GO etree sc cs sstenicossecccestseravecsssressaceas 
AMERICA, Physical ‘geography of. xc 
ID ISCOVELY Ofsse-nsccenaperesecsse sels sescsne a 
——-—, New light COMME cee ecenves weetcerseics: 
AMERICAN Forestry Association, Record 

OM POUIE MCCEIN GS WIth. -.J...cecccuse oe sasesc xviii 
ANDERSON, W. W., cited on negro folk- 

lores ...: Drmtuedn cocbissecesssrccaesbreiacspuceasiaes noses 44 
ANDES of South America, explorations i in, 

PRECOLC OMLECEUTE Olliiccessscven-scceinsencons XV 
ANGEL, —, Reference to writings of...... 211 

ANIMALS, Geographic distribution of... 
ANTARCTIC continent, Note on the... of 
ANTIQUITIES and aborigines of Peru, 

RECOrd Of LECtUTE Ollicsscessccsscccsecoevasces 50x 
APPALACHIANS, Across the, Record of 
lecture on.. ceeeerescrses KIX 

—, northern, Record of address on.. 
-, southern, Geomorphology of... 

ARABIA, Physical features Of.............-0:00 
ARABS, Indebtedness of the world tothe. 6 

_, Nomadic character Of..{cscsccessscsesssseenes 
ARBUTHNOT, G., Record of lecture by.... xvili 
ARCHITECTURE, Sy Pilatloctese.cecssseases 7 
ARGENTINA, Climate of....... PGR 
—, Immigration into..... oe EY7: 
—. Population Ofc shies He 17 
ARIZONA, Rainfall season ia, 57 

—. northern, and the Rio Grande, "Record 
of lecture on... , xix 

ARKANSAS river and the plains, f Record 
of lecture on. Ree etearstssteceastneret aecrsy SOL 

36—Nar. Grog. Maa., von. VI, 1894. 

ARAMDA, Destruction Of..........0.ssccsseesseeeee 16 
ARYAN conquest of India and Persia. 
= AIA TALON vonteeccevattectencr wetosees 

ASHBURTON treaty - 
ASIA, political geography of, Recor d of 

lecture ODM iq snchoauacnceteesrecuaccacpnceeeseeeeees Xvili 
ASSYRIA, Cuneiform characters used in. 8 
=; Sch Stub «OFS. ead eee 7 
—, Indebtedness of the world to............. 8 
= ‘and Babylonia, recent discoveriés in, 

Recordlofi lectutetony,...2..-stseleesessees XVili 
ASTORIA, Founding of... ah 

AUBREY, cited on local superstition... AG 

AUDITING Committee, Report of the: 
Wm. A. De Caindry ‘and A. C. Rizer, xxviii 

AWOSTING LAKE, Geographic features of. 30 

BABYLON), City wallsiOfiecnsvesst-ccestocscnners oe et! 
— , Civilization (0) BES LTED 
=, RIGGS AMG (Oh Pe gececesneo on oe 
BABYLONIA, Pchentoreisass ints. ncae 
BAEER, Marcus, Record of address by.... x 
; Surveys and’ maps of the District of 

BALLENY, Reference to discoveries of...... 218 
BARROWS, ——, cited on discovery of the 
Columbia ssi cckic Aa caseseccscsasseseotacude tvcesnte 246 
BARUS,CARL, Reference toexperimentsof 59 
BATTLE (The) of the Forest; B. E. Fer- 
TOW iesrereasceeseaneeociineostcevacsnenccrsateecrase eeeee 127 
BATTLES of Fredericksburg, Record of ad- 
GHESSES TO tl ser wens vecete<cocscstssa- ced sreceanevoncter xX 
BAUDOUIN, —, Berea of, in Al- 
geria . 
BECHER, CAPTAIN, “Cited on ae eieY of 
Watling itandee eens 182-184 
BEDOUIN Poetry and ROMANCE... ..eseseseseeees 6 
BELLINGSHAUSEN, Reference to voyage 

BENTON, T. H., cited on dount oecupetiee 
of Oregon.. 252 
SS = Rocky ‘mountains | ‘as “natural 
DOUNCATLY......ceeceeseserercececceesscseeseseee senses 25 
BERGEN, Miss F. D., cited on call ofrobin. 43 
BERING, Reference to discoveries of......... 207 
BERING SEA Arbitration, peer results 
of, Record of address on.. . XVili 

Drake's av CNOLaAg eC. ..chnccass -deescsseuseeeeey 208 
BIBLIOGRAPHY Of artificial production of 
PAGEL EDL esteeeact ten sveantce see casisbeser=coehnaeaseand 60-62 
BIENAIME, CAPTAIN, Reference to voy- 
LE OL set ee tne ca nanan ssbccsr sense tassel sensen nese Rees 
BIRTHPLACE of commerce and letters....... 9 
BISCOE, Reference to discoveries of ......... 218 
BLACKFEET, Rain-making among the .. 38 
BomBay to the Himalayas, Record of lec- : 
EMTS ON. .n ae canes ccvaccancccereessocossesacccescncess Xvil 

BOUNDARY, international, between Mex- 
ico and United States, Record of dis- 

GUISSIOM OMe ccecessennctackejesednseasasecenet cs noone XIX 
— survey, Alaskan, Record of discussion | 

OD. cccccccces cove cccccsveccen sesccccccsssesceesens seese x1xX 
BourRKE, J. G., cited on rain-making 

among the Moqui veetnc Liat Manned et aaepeenain 39 
BOUSSING AULT, —, Reference to work of. 231 



BRAVAIS, LIEvr., Reference to work ee _ a 

BRONZE age.. 

BROWN, FRANCIS, Record of lecture by.. “xviii 

BROWN, J. HENRY, cited on Histon of 
Oregon... -s orton a2 
Bruce, DR, Reference to ‘report joke 222 
BRYANT, W. C., Reference to writings of.. 210 
—, Quotation frome ny. ek genes 267 
BUCKLE, H. T., Quotation from. .............. 18 
By-Laws of the National Geographic So- | 
CIELYjeanese= Wap eLEREBO SECEDE COS COREE RO -CRerr asogucesce XX1x 
CABRILLO’S explorations... see 203 
CALIFORNIA coast, Old map ‘Of. sone QUE 
— represented as an island.. nore 

CAL OfMbIEds Om alts se cenesests eee te eens 43 
CAMBRIDGE, Tardy Recosninon of geog- 
raphy at....... oc 
CAMBYSES, Conquests of... seodeoactcectosces || F 
CAMPBELL, M. R., Record of address by... KV 
—, and C. WILLARD HAYES; Geomior- 
phology ofthesouthern Appalachians 63 
CANADIAN Northwest Fur Company........ 
Cape CoLony, Climate of... .....00......2.. co 
=o Population (O) PER LRT eA Le amen 
CASTELAR, Reference to article by.. 
CATLIN, GEORGE, cited on rain- making 

among the Mandans... 37 
Cats and the weather... - oe a 
CAVENDISH, T., Voyages [a AG RT aT 208 
CARVER, JONATHAN, Reference to writ- 

ings fot cab mornin Pel ea Use ed endl 2 vice ee 267 
CENTRAL AMERICA, Settlement of........... 19 
CHALLENGER expedition, Reference to.218-222 
CHANCELLOR, Reference to voyage of...... 207 
CHARLEVOIX, P. F. X., cited as to weather- 

making among the Natchez.........0 36 
CHINA, Civilization Of... zs 4 
— , Crystallized culture of.. 5 
= ’ Physical geography oft; cl 
CisMONTDISTS ENGST OWS yoo oop recs rors ne ceoneneeree 5 
CHoctTaws, Rain-making among the....... 38 
CICADA, periodic appearance of, Record 

OffAAGEESS OTe te seeeeaseateee ateeemeneceees “Xvii 
CIVILIZATION, Arrested development of.. 13 
=a) CCA AO lines acters tee steckes=uastinrep ee rsiscaactesexy I4 
—, European, Birthplace of...................... . 16 
—, Geographic progress Of........0. 100. ceeeeee Ar 
CLaRK, W. P., cited on rain-making 

among the Blacieteet oe. (as lene 
CLIFF-DWELLERS of Mexico, Record of 

AC ALESS ON: teece-tsecercavecceseceeee ee nneeauee ace XV 
COLERIDGE, S. T., Quotation from... pans AIS} 
COLUMBUS, Falsification of log by. =<24 150 
—, First landtalltonre oe auia een ra 179 
Comps, Miss Cora, Honorable mention 

QL essekee screceseenaceepeceeneeeees Chegeatitetencees soe 28! 
COMMERCE, Birthplace of....... .........--...... 9 
Compass, Undetermined variation of...... 18r 
CoNcUSSION theory of rain-making....... 53-56 
CONFISCATION of Boschke’s map eoan| HY 
CONSTANTINOPLE, Fall Off o. cc. ee. ccie eneceee 15 
Cook, CAPTAIN JAMES, Reference to dis- 

COVEDICS Ofasesspetcers conse 207, 217, 241-243 
COPPER MINES, ANCIEeNt. .........-c--ccccneces see 
Costa RICA AND PANAMA, Record of lec- 

HHETEAS (OR pecs asoseonsacon ec ceeba soos oceMUSOeOSOED to XX 
COouUES, ELLIOTT, Record of address by...Xviii 
_, Reference to WARING S Ofte coe cent ence 247 
CRATER LAKE, Mount Shasta and Sacra- 

mento, Record of lecture on... .... . xix 
CROFFUT, W. A., Record of discussion by.. xvi 
CRONAU, R., Reference to writings of ..... 183, 
Crow, Call of, formrainie es cee eee 43 
CUBA, ‘geography of, Record ofaddress on..xvil 
CurTIS, G. E., Reference to report of...... 55 
CUSHING, F. H., Record of lecture by..... XVi, 

ibe, NOS 

National Geographic Magazine. 

DABLIN, ——, cited on weather-making 
among the Tilimois%-.....sssrssscscere woneee ma 
Dakota INDIANS, Weather-making 
AMONG: CME. soc. .sccrssvonncseaceeusshesolenyeeeaeae 40 
DALLMAN, ——, Reference to discoveries 
OE 5 iaeietesnnseoceee fecteesereaseees Mrcerioy 28S 
DALY, C. P., Record of letter FLOM. eseeese XVii 
DARTON, N. H , Record of address by ..... xx 
=F Shawangunk NMlOUNtAiN cscs eeceeeeree 23 
Davipson, G., Reference to researchesof. 213 
Davis, A. P., Record of discussion by..:... KV 
—, Record of lecture DYitc-ce-asct-penheareeeeeeeeee xix 
DAVIS, Wo. M., Record of lecture by..... xviii 
= Reference to writings of......... 65, 66, 71, 73, 
79, 226 
Day, D. T., conductor of excursion.......... XVi 
—, Record of lecture DY: sss. vesesauaterdeeeeaneanranealt 
DE KERGUELEN, —, Reference to voy- 
ADE, Of. sce crea: see ssns) ooncnosson teaesene nec eee een 217 
DICKINS, E. TF Record of discussion by.. xiv 
DILLER, aie Si, Record of lecture DYzccecssr es 
= , Reference’ to Writing Off:.<..<:-ssescseesveesan 220 
DISCOVERY of America, New light. on the. 224 
DISTRIBUTION (Geographic) of animals 
and plants.......... Sastoer 229 
DISTRICT OF CoLumBia, Alleged ‘center 

Of. per eeroermecoca. The 
—, Boundary monuments of... 152 
_  Corner-stone of. Sos cao 509 Aer 149 
—, Errors 1H SUEVEY Of....r<.sseasccusscenaee « 155 

=o These SAGA Olen, 
_, ’ Geological Survey map of. 
_, ’ Original dimensions of... 
_—, ” Original limits of.. 

_ * Retrocession of portion of. «153, 157 

-, ” Surv GSA Gna PSO. .scs-nd-casneteneeseeneee 149 
Pruecenter of vee ee 163, 164 

DOBRIZHOFFER, —. Reference to writ- 
TES OFS Sais) vases cdeseue eae 

DORSEY, J. OWEN, cited on weather-mak- 
ing among the Omahas... Seer en et 

—, cited on weather- -making ‘among the 
Kamze \(@imailna)) ica. cece scene cauerneseeeene Soy ke: 

DRAGON TREES, Longevity of. ee 128 

DRAKE, SIR FRANCIS, Anchor aes Offs 

— | Bravery Of darts 

—, Connection of, with slavery .. 16 
_ ’ Explorations of... «. 241 
—, Raids on Spanish colonies by aes cee epee 208 
Du CHAILLU, Pau B., Record of lecture 

DYoa cies sasssceseensvcensweecaesescceateeoeneaee XVii, Xvili 
DUCK iCallok for mainesssecs aoe eee 43 
D’ URVILLE, Reference to voyage of ...218, 222 
DWARES, African, habits) Of. 2---e.nreesceees 
—- and Forests of Central Africa, Record 

ofslectirexonmss nie Bee ait 
DYER, S. A., Reference to report Named: 55 
DYRENFORTH, R. G., Rain-makinug ex- 

periments by........ dcanssvetoaloccenens cot a ERG 

cord of lecttires on.. . Xiil 
Economic aspects of erosion, “Record of 

TE CEURE O10 seca. cascestenecensstonscneceeeeeeeeeee XVili 
Eeypet, Agriculture of... = cree 1 / 
—, Architecture of......... 7 
= Cli UZ LOT Ole nnsne- senenaenecs ear yi! 
—, Geographic features Of ......... -.seeeesceeeee 6 
BEES Indebtedness of the world to 

GILG r cesses acenskteensraaqitessanass ese ee ee ae eee eae 
ELLIcoTtT, A., Reference to work of... 150, ie 

ELLIS, JOHN T., Reference to report of... 55 

ENGEL, Reference to writings of...... 213 
ENGLAND, Colonies founded DYys seccreensacnene 16 
—, Foreign possessions Off ...........ceeeeeesseees 16 

_, ’ its begin ning as a maritime power...... 16 
_, Mineral wealth of........... Sanessauecnee 16 
—, Shakespeare's, Record of lecture on.. Xviil 

, oo 2 oe 

Index. 287 


ENGLISH NAVY, aupecmacy Of Ssscsccers « 208 

— reforms in India... Bene 
EROSION, wat and, ‘Record of lecture 

on. . xiii 
Espy, JAMES. it “Reference to. writings 

Cilhasancceamet sents . 49, 52 

EXCURSION to Dismal. swamp, “Record of.. xvi 
7A ee ae 5 soroosens 223 

FAIRCHILD, EUGENE, Reference to report 
EU Be earns oe cecass-hiSaoves caSubs ovcsseadecaes vere 55 

FARRELO, Voyage of 241 
FARWELL, SENATOR, Interest of, in rain- 

PEA eal OPER PELINLETCS ise. crcncsercesveoess-vees 54 
FERNOW, B. E.; The battle of the forest... 127 
FIELD MEETING, ReCOrd Of....sssssseccesee soso: XxX 
First landfall (The) of Columbus; ‘Jacques 

DWI REG WA: n.cacenesesene noo Ay, 
FISKE, Lea Reference to writings of. Rind ats 

superstition sogno sono ake Looe see seco nteconod 46 
—, cited on call of quail.......... 43 
FLETCHER, —, cited on Drake's. voy- 

OCC aeaencneeacen cuneate acess aevesess aeaaeessa . 208-212 

FLorA, early, Ty pes “of. 

+. 129-131 
— of the Pacific coast. . 

FLORIDA treaty ....... 244 
FOLK-LORE remnaiis... 43 
ForEsT, Battle of the..... 127 

— management, German method of. 147 

—, North American, Subdivisions of ....... 
_ ‘trees, eastern, Dimensions Of........ ..... 136 

_, Petrified, in Yellowstone National 
ey ta koran needs tes te acnien conc scaaicscaciescees, seen 
FORESTRY, ‘Tntellizent.. Wevnsces 
FORNEY, S., Record of address Dee ceeeicezxe xix 
FOSTER, JOHN W., Record of lecture by.. xviii 
Fox, C. J., cited on Nootka treaty............ 243, 
Fox, CAPTAIN G. V., Reference to writ- 

ings of... stores SY 
—, cited on first landfall of Columbus _... 179 
FREDERICKSBURG and uci, Record of 

symposium on. eee 
—, Record of field meeting at. 
FREMONT, the Path-finder.. : 
From Cape Town into the countries of the 

Ma-Shukulumbe, Record of lecture 

RTA eeeea eaters sencies sap ise sees st lesan cekinee wee Xvili 
FROST, JOHN, cited | on rain-making 

among the Mandane.................. 37 
FROsTsS, calling, Effects of, ‘on distribu- 

Soca Sa -nagooes Seer eceess 233 
GALIANO, Voyage Of .......00....0000 peneren eae 

GALILEO, Reference to discoveries of...... . 46 

GANNETT, HENRY, Record of lecture by... xix 
— — — PAPe4? DY.........ceee -eneseeeceee meteenauipeeaet XV 
GATHMAN, L., Wiethod of, for obtaining 

—, Rain-making experiments of... 
GEOGRAPHERS. Meeting of... 
GEOGRAPHIC distribution of animals and 

[DLGIINES Aner cokgeasebeds BOceboce eeDoCOED eErecpIeeas4 229 
— — — life, Record of address Ollisvededeone xviii 
— — — soils, Record of address on ........ xvili 
— progress of civilization ; Gardiner G. 

Tehtlotoyeged ly Sasori es aeeee he RCC EE DRE OneEr CoCe eee I 
— societies, work of foreign, Record of 

ava abetcChiep « Wee penereereree xvii 
—, Distinct branches of.. 204 
— ‘Educational neglect of, in ‘the United 

States. ..... aapaeee ans cas een 200) 
—— SLIM POTtATICe Of. .ccnseccarssssecess % 201 
—, mathematical, Relation of...... i 204 
_— of Cuba, Record of address OM.....s0.e05. XVil 



GEOGRAPHY of the air; A. W. Grey dees 200 
—, etc, of Oregon..... wandigesdsyee 239 
—} phy sical, Broad field of......... »» 204 

—, political, Scope of.............06 aecarersmezOd: 
—=) PFOPeL TEStHICHOMIOf.s. .crsvecserces ree 201 

—, science of, Record of address on...... 3 

GEOLOGY of Ulster county, New York...... 2 

GEOMORPHOLOGY of the southern Appa- 
lachians; C. Willard Hayes and Ma- 

rius R. Campbell pausvava tae bans Set Sedenmpwaiee 63 
GEORGETOWN, Early existence of............ 153 
GERMAN method of forest management... 147 
GERMANY, Study of geography in............ 200 
GIBBON, GENERAL JOHN, Record of ad- 

TESS Dil cecuasovrtascsvercususesssstaicts savevsescess xx 
GILBERT, G. K., conductor of excursion . xvi 
—, Record of lectures by............. L penee xili, xix 
— — — thanks to.............. ¥ Heo. h7 
— Reference to whitiN eS Of;./.c.ccecscesrniseiers 226 
GOLD medal of National Scoe eae So- 

ciety.. 227 

GOLDEN GATE, “Yosemite, “Los. “Angeles 
and San Bernardino, Record of lec- 

(MURR eS Ve kalirces Wade Sone eamaacet acc escone xix 
Goong, R. U., Record of discussion by..... xvi 
GOOSE dancing fOL FAL. sesscce Spuctenerciosieee ei. fe! 
GOVERNMENT, Patriarchal .........s.es00 5 
GRay, ASA, cited on growth of trees es 27 
GRAY, CAPTAIN, Explorations by ............ 245 

GREAT BRITAIN, Geographic features of.. 15 
—, Study of geography in, =e 

GREECE, Geographic features of... 

—, Indebtedness of the world to 

GREEKS, Different characteristics of........ 12 
GREELY, A. W., Be COR SEH of the air...... 200 
—, Record of address BY. Sauerect ces Xvii, xviii 
—, to judge essays.. coeneecos cece oe 228 
GREENHOW, Re cited on possession of 
ORES OMe eee cop eens ran enny cents hee ncees beet aren 254 
—, Reference to writings Off........ssescc see 210 
GRINNELL, G.B., cited on weather-mak- 
ing among the "PAWNEE weescssessesesnes cxveca AO 
GULF STATES, Increase of negroes in....... 20 
Guyot, P., Reference to work of.............. 206 
Haiti, Degradation eapahabetars Olensaees 21 
= . Revolution in. : oc saieeaneet MEL 
HALE, Reference to writings ‘of. Saecesieeer 211 
HARRINGTON, MARK W., Record of lec- 
TUE) DY seas cenearecsesivecssccecnsssvsencesh aemsoctonce xix 
—, Record of paper by . .. XVI 
, Weather-making, ancient. ‘and. mod- 
ENN] o-ccccccacchnancene coarcsssssnsonneclssdaaniscsansasenee 35 
HARVEY, FRED L., Acknowledgment to... 160 
HAWKINS, Connection of, with slavery.... 16 
HAYDEN, EVERETT, Record of address 
DY.cccccscececenerccccecse socsessecee soeccneesesase oe XVili 
HAYES, ae “WILLARD, Record of address 
by.. ape Se XV 
—and MARIUS me ‘CAMPBELL; “Geomor- 
phology of the southern Appalach- 
AAW ss: ccessos <= ceaceceweeSavence=seessscuecessaanus 63 
HECETA, ‘Voyages of . 241 

HECKEWELDER, J. =: E., cited as to 
weather-making among Muskingum 

DTUAV ATS Sc caeacocsckaccascncaecseessa cesanyh xa sohcanous 36 
HEER, Reference to work Py A TRL ets 207 
HEIGHT of Mount Saint Elias; Israel C. 

j Sb eloyatO leer nee ameren Mictr amonesceoet ce Se LES 

HERODOTUS, Quotation from.. 
HERRERA, Reference to writings of... 
HILt, R. A., Record of address by..... 
= Record of lecture Dip cerceatcerecarek 
HIsTory, etc, of Oregon. 
HopcGKins, W. C., Record of discussion 

: ‘186, 187 

DY. .ecccccese cevecccesssanesens sarcssonqnecs : Bp.iit 
HOLUB, “Emit, “Record. of lecture by xviii, xix 
Homer, Reference to poems Of.............++ 12 



HOOKER, Reference to work of... Sara ey/ 
HORACE, Quotation from, on fame.......... 261 
HOTCHKISS, JED, Record ‘of address by... xix, 

Houston, EDWIN J., Reference to writ- 
ings otek Oat hie mb, PEO el eg 52 

HUBBARD, GARDINER. G., Geographic 
rrogress of Civilization..........2..seceeeeeee I 

_, Record of address by 

Hupson IB ayAC OM Palhivinrsessastneaceenak tse eaecears 
Hupson, Reference to discoveries of....... 
HUMBOLDT, cited on climatic factors........ 229 
—, cited on early navigation of North 

IPA CULE eereua sec eceesisenl scaimae en oenecect tes See 2a 
Humupity, Effect of, on distribution...... 

HuRons, Rain-making among the..... 

HyxKsos, Conquests of.............002....2. 
ICELAND, Magnetic observations in, in 
ISLS 2 specanauaccacooconuon KEnsso proaceos deeeecqdAcceranaD 223 
IcE-WORK, Record of lecture on............... xili 
ILLINOIS, Weather-making among the.... 41 

INCANTATIONS in cae esa, Screnec {8} 

Inp1A, Diversity of Dovel eE one II 
-, English reforms in.. II 
—, Original arts of....... suk II 
_ ) Physical geography of. ens | 3106) 
— ; Population Olac. ei eserset aes S03) 1S) 
—, Various civilizations of.... St 
INDIANS, Degrees of civilization among... ELS 
_ , equatorial, IS IBM NSO rraccosoecccd) oecus coeec 
—, Mandan. Habits of...... ..... Bey iar) 
—, Organized government of......... co. > 3S! 
-, Reliance of, FOWSUP POLE etenceee cc ats) 

—, Variety of race and language among.. 18 
INDUSTRIAL statistics, Record of paper 

INTERACTION, Record of lecture on... 
INVENTIONS of the Chinese............... 
IRANIAN PLATEAU, Population of... 

TRoguoIS, Weather-making among ‘the... 39 

IRRIGATION Of Babylomia.........sesceeeeeseeee 7 
— in the far west ........... cece |“ HG) 
IRVING, WASHINGTON, cited on founding 

OPASEORIA A eterno corte ete 

ITaLy, Geographic position of...... 
—, New civilization in ......... se 
—, Study of geography in................0005 coas 

‘Jamaica, Geographic features of... 20 
=, HON ON Oli nosso ceboosansemeecobcos 21 
= OLAV Oh Atlencesseeeeancreterectcteee 21 
Jan MAYEN, Magnetic observations i in, in 

Te} S A acrestions cancoUccEceee cence dacodcenacee., -cbacawote 223 
Tamas Abolition of feudal despotism in.. 193 
== DE Wi StEVEMSii. conse dccaset eerie eter eubaeetoee 193 
—, Educational institutions in.. 195 
—, Executive government Of..........00..c0ecee 198 
Shai oSrmeyl IDIELE ON ceessesecnoonces 198 
IVAW) OL ee eecsceeneisecseoe . 199 
—, Newspaper press of........... -. 196 
—, Public administration Of..............0cc00- 195 
=p ASNT O TES ETA Tocco eoasdsoonen! Ssboasesten 194 
—, Restoration of imperial government 

TLS Seneca tes ccetenee cote eee S Ce oe 193 
—, Transportation facilities in.......... soca T95 
JESSUP, A. A., Record of lecture by......... xox 
JoHNSON, L C., Reference to writings of.. 110 
JOHNSON, W. iB), Record of lecture by... XV 
JULIEN, — , cited as to direction of ela- 

cial scorings Me ecemeeacleeatese eee encmccrceeneeete 33 
KAMCHATKA, Habits of natives of............ 3 

KEANE, JoHN J., Record of remarks by.. xvii 

KEELER, Lucy re cited on weather-mak- 
ing among the Dakotas.. 

KENNAN, GEORGE, Record of lecture Dyas 

National Geographic Magazine. 


KENTUCKY and Virginia, great caves of, 
Record of lecture Onc .-cs- eee Teel < 
KEPLER, Reference to discoveries of... 46 

KERR, W. C., Reference to writings Of 76 
KILDEER, Call of, for wind.. 7 
KILLING frosts, Important effects of... 
KING, NICHOLAS, Letter from.. 
_, Reference to letter from 

— — — work of... weceeearenee 

se eeeenes 

LABOR and industries of the South, Rec- 
ordiof lecture:on).c.ciircsccsteas ere XVili 

LAKE AWOSTING, Geographic features of. 30 

aes MINNEWASKA, ae features 

LAKE SUPERIOR, Some see sical features 

of, Record Of Lecture O11 «..ceccescsseeeseuene xix 
LANDING PLACE, Second, of Columbus..... 191 
LAND of the Midnight,Sun, Record of lec- 

ture on. wiv evecened VALE 
LANDTAG of Prussia, “Reference to debate 

Uns saceondveencsdassceccces checscuaresep en eee aa 147 
La ROCHE, —, Reference to voyage of... 217 
TARSEN,C.A., Reference to voyage of.. 220-222 
EOS Disagreement as tones eeveres 209 

, Parallels of, and peculiarities of na- 

EI OTIS hoo tei venseescnsdesce wesedtence UO ee 20 

Laws of temperature control of the geo- 
graphic distribution of terrestrial ani- 
mals and plants; C. Hart Merriam.... 229 

LEHMAN, R., Reference to suggestions by. 226 

1 ENFANT, P . C., Reference to work of... 150, 

154, 159, 161 

Metters seirthplacelo ficsssce-ssuesesecseee eee 9 

LEWIS AND CLARKE, Explorations of...... 246 

LINSSER, —, Reference to work of......... 231 

LITERATURE On artificial production of 
Taimfall 22sec Ack cccsscean tee melee 60-62 

DYsvesevecct scconticavesvzapescuceqsstveceen senteeeeeeee Xviii 
LOG BOOK, Falsification of, by Columbus. 180 
Loomis, 1. C., Record of address DYicae: xviii 
Loon, Call of, forraineesceeeee weveel eens oon 12) 
LOUISIANA purchase seteescdacessselss) Nestea eEeeee 244 
IUMHOLTZ, CARL, Record of address by.. xv 

MCDUFFIE, SENATOR, cited on supposed 

worthlessness of Oregon........... .. Saccen, 25s 
MACFARLANE, A., cited on Dyrenforth’s 
experiments.. paneneres ssesesennes 56 

MCGEE, W J, Record of lecture by... Sot 2s bs 

—, Reference to writings of.. 65, 79, 81, 82, 80, 94 

McGRATH, J. E., Record of address by... 
—, Record of discussion by 
—, Reference to work of.. 
McGREE, >, Ss ON formation of Mis- 
sissippi bad Jandsi.2/. cccsvecsnesceseeenees 143 
Mackay, GEORGE, Story of... Seoul 
MAGNETIC GhsaeyaneHe. in Iceland, Jan 
Mayen and Spitzbergen in 1892, ‘Note 

OTD Mics. vecweolesasshcentceves sec eeatecceenceeeee natant 223 
Major, R. H., Reference to researches 

Olgmamestes Sadoaneot nooo noNoeU EEOC vee vuceeCccrseateeee 182 
MALDONADO, VOyage Of. ....0...cscccessscsuecccere 241 
Man, the master of his environment........ 22 
Manban, Rain-making among the........ Rano. 
Manpana, ELVARO, Reference to vores 

Of Rivero ceseeseh b ceseee eoiteseeterneeeee 217 

Map, Boschke’s, Confiscation of.. . eae 
M APS, ete, of the District of Columbia ...... 149 
MaRIE- DAVY, Reference to writings of.... 231 
MARKHAM, Cc. R., cited on first landfall of 

Columbus esei2 ck asics ex cnselisecustnnceeeees 184, eS 
MARTEL, CHARLES, at TOurs.. ....... ..cecesee 
MAURY, M. 105 Reference to work of. ..... ioe 

MEARNS, E. A. Record of address by...... xix 

Index. 289 


MEARS, CAPTAIN, Reference to discover- 
MEM OfipckeacschascensttoansecrcCsserts 242, 2431 245) 246 
Mecca, Annual pilgrimages to... 5 

MEDINA, Annual pilgrimages to... Rieueeeraretcs 

MELBOURNE, FRANK, Alleged rain-mak- 
ing by.. 
MEMBERS, Active, List of. 
-, Corresponding, List of... 

SEK OMOLAT Y IGISt Ole cracivsnanc-snesesecasessne -xxxiii 
MENDENHALL, ADA OS Acknowledgment to. 42 
—, Record of discussion Dy saggseinsoencesaaage xili 
—, Record of paper by.. xvii 

to judge essays.. Fears aban eete) 
MERIDIAN, MMe temmbie le ok oo ccs cccsce 159 

MERRIAM, C. HART; Laws of tempera- 
ture control of the geographic distri- 
bution of terrestrial animals and 

DLAMIES! cc cacsasl== < ant os torecasgsecono sero 2238) 
—, Record of address by. Xvili 
_—, ’ Record of DADELS iD ersccesserescs sesccnccncssace xiv 
MESOPOTAMIA, Geographic features of... 7 
—, Great cities ‘of... = acREECEEY ass 
—, Successive THULE ORO eile sas vioschecwius 
MEXICO, Clif-dwellers of, Record of ad- 

SUAS G8 ae ne SS er 2S 

—, mountains of, Record of lecture on..... xvi 
MINNEWASKI LAKE, Geographic features 

of... paswanedit ees heen ase ccrerecoc<sss 29 
MississtpPi bad lands, Formation of....... 143 
—, Sources of, Record of address on....... Xviii 

—'valley a factor in growth and pros- 
perity of United States 
— —, Immigration into.,......... ccc... ceeceee 
MITCHELL, JOHN H.; Oregon: its his- 
tory, geography, and resources......... 239 

SS ERECOEMIOf 1ECEUTE DY sscscas. sesersesscocces oe sob. 
MIXED RACES, Adaptation of South Amer- 

NGA LOM eet sctees ocean vaaatrsdws sr <cne'’ ee TO 
MOHAMMEDANS and the sciences............ 6 
PASHAN = DIVIEUS sceccerecncscetencosesercsscseces caccsss 6 

MOHUNK LAKE, Geographic features of... 27 
Monocrapus of the National Geographic 

Society,... 225 
Mooney, JAMES, “cited on Indian belief 

‘concerning snakes and rain............... 44 
— cited on supposed influence of killdeer.. 44 
Mogul, Rain-making among the......... 38, 39 
MORTON, J. STERLING, Record of remarks 

b peeane XaWAULT 
Mosman, (Ne a “Record of address DYnesces xix 
Mount RAINIER, Ascent of, Record of 

TECHUTElONE... ccs. feabbt 
Mount SAINT ELIAS, Great at depth ‘of snow 
Oflines a scccestsavecsevons Meareteedte 215 
, Height of... 
MouNTAINS of Mexico, "Record ‘of lecture 
COUP eeeasevetiane ce ccaeteeseintecueeseeds aeeaseat VL 
Moxom, P, S., Record of letter from...... xvii 
MuNoz cited on first landfall of Colum- 
DUSte sec Ravana ceselivceececatanasce tests picaceuvkecel sas 179 
MurpDocH, LIEUTENANT, Reference to re- 
SGALCHESH Ole cts: serstsatesesseus seccccshasccstecces 182 
MurRRAY, J., Reference to work of..219, 221, 222 
INA A ClUMAtE OL, .c.ccsccasacsn coors oocerpacheank wen NG 
—, Government of..... 17 

—, Immigration into. 
—, Population of....... ats 
NATCHEZ, Weather-making among the.. 36 
NATIONAL domain, Record of discussion 

Eh lertnaaentrdeersccanavecezscss sar ilececarch aves de nese= xvi 

UAL SNO Us etencscncecasccecssnes hecnnedhasseoies ck: 225 
NAVARRETE, M. J. DE, cited on first land- 

PIM Hs COMUIMDUS.-. 04 ccccecsesencseaceescbccessess 79 
NEGRO folk-lore on Santee river............... 44 

—, Free, in ace aoe Suppants 
white man.. eeantobacunssctaccusthancichaescnce 22 

NEGRO population of United States ........ 20 
NEUMAYER, DrR., Reference to writings 
OD, LENE Pa tenccseudcaanteet ew sede cei ocatam steunens 222 
NEwcompB, SIMON, Reference to writings 
Oli tes cdencontactde ernest cease ee 52, 53 
NEWELL, F. H., Record of discussion by.. xvi 
_— , Record of lecture Yi csteceennnacotbesanncnseees xix 
NEW light on the discovery of America... 224 
NEw MEXxIco, Rainfall season in.............. 57 
NEWTON, Reference to discoveries of........ 46 
NIAGARA FALLS, Side trip to, Record of 
lecture on.. Ap oe. 

NIBLACK, A. P., “Record ‘of discussion by.. xiv 
NICARAGUA CANAL, Record of lecture 

OM Gsw satvessnsetvepeases'sscuuesetssmesmiesascesesnemne Xviii 
NILE, Length and breadth of the.. Soa 7) 
— valley, People ONEMeueas-t as Reccen 7, 
NINEVEH, City walls of.. SAS 
ALA GOSOf cave. aorees ve cenaeteseee oe nceacee tains 8 
NOBLE, W , cited on rain-making among 

Pines CHOCEA WSeecacesevestscesseera sie acenenseenane 38 
NOOTKA convention...................5 a 2Ae 
NORTH AMERICA, Settlement of...........0.- 19 
NORTHEASTERN boundary of United 

States, Record of paper on.............. Xvil 
NORTHERN ROCKIES, down the Columbia, 

Mount Rainier and Portland, Record 

OfPlS CHUTES OM ee aedeeneceecesaacsccscsctecsezerese xix 
NoRWAY, Physical features Of ............ss000 14 
OBSERVATIONS, Magnetic, in Iceland, Jan 

Mayen, and Spitzbergen in 1892... 223 
OCEANOGRAPHY, recent resultsin, Record 

OfaddressiOrines. trc.tesnas.ccscnesuervarsiesmer? XVili 
OFFICERS of the National Geographic So- 

CLE EY rite casvcces recor eciaseeanwenestresueotraenanqnaes xxxii 

OGDEN, H. G., Record of discussion by..... xiii 
Oi and gas regions, trip through, Rec- 

OLdionPectUreiotnc.-ceesscstaseseen Serre. ab. < 
OLDHAM, Y., Reference to paper by. centcacer 224 
OMAHA, Weather-making among the...... 36 
OREGON admitted as a State... cesses: 266 

—, Claim of Great Britain to.. sess 24 
—, Claim of Spain to.............. ere a 
—, Discovery of............ = 240 
—, First governor of...... tres 9206 
_, ees SKEUGHVOfisecesssevssreeesesesceceanss 240 
: its geography, history and resources, 
Recor dro lectunelOn. ts rcccecescocoreraens XixX, 239 
= OLLI Of) MAME! Olitenesearstcoccastossseucvcnenas 266 
_— ‘territory, Original dimensions of......... 240 

ORIGIN and configuration of the upper 
Alpine passes, Record of lecture on.. xviii 
ORINOCO! Rich) valley Of <...ccc:vc.-2ssesesssasene 18 
ORTON, EDWARD, Record of lecture by... xix 
OTTOMAN EMPIRE, Record of lecture on.. xix 
OutFirt and cruises of the Albatross, Rec- 
OF) Of AGALFESS! OMe tee cenencuns cucecassacesses XVili 
OUTHWAITE, J. H., Record of remarks 

Dye copoeck dos cdan te ss Ouncgta secsaccesceaneauancusemenee xvii 
OXFORD, Tardy recognition of geography 

Atrcrencoss cdasdsaccsuscachcdesveresncnccessaNece meter 201 
PaciFic and Arctic whaling industry, 

Record of lecture on.. xiv 
PARKER, WM. H., Reference to researches 

Obs crecee etn caeensen aocndee please eaneseueae iecorasieeanae 182 

PARKMAN, FR ANCIS, “cited on rain-mak- 
ing among the Hurons 
PERES, JUAN, , Voy AMC OLs cies eavecsesaseesssenbere 
PERIODIC appearance of cicada, Record 
of address on.. . xvii 
PERKINS, G. G., Record of lecture ‘by... ee kV 
PERKINS, E. ine Jr., Record of discussion 

—, Record of lecture by............. 
PERSIA, Physical geography of é 
PERSIANS, Character of the.............-00-+-005 10 



PERU, Antiquities and shonenres of, Rec- 
ord of lecture on.. Lai Oirciders esldeiaan stan tet neon 
—, Record of lecture OT Ane ae cae Xvil 
PERUVIANS, Rain-making among the...... 39 
PHENICIA, Indebtedness of the world to.. 9 
—, Wealthy CULLES Ol cecaastcnceerensesliae neeeeneacene 9 
PHENICIANS, Colonies of... reat) 
—, Manufactures of......... : Peete kc) 
—, Mercantile career Off. .....-2.-cec-eseseccoosee 9 

PHYSICAL methods of weather- making... 46 
PHYSIOGRAPHIC processes, Record of ad- 

LTE SSiODeetenec nace rca eo ecestee dec anctenes cece XVili 
PHYSIOGRAPHY, elements of, Record of 

AAALESS ON aeeecceeseeaeneestnae cate on aneementes Xvill 
—of southern Appalachians, Record of 

AACAEESS OM sensei seer aeek socaaeeae eer se eaese 15 eV, 

PICKERING, W. H., Record of lecture Ys Xv 
PIPE-SMOKING in weather-making.......... 36 
PLANTS, Geographic distribution Gian 229 
PLUTARCH cited on rainfalls after battles. 53 
POLITICAL geography of Asia, Record of 

WAC DGRE CIEL, Sacco snqeeebantberacceaceon once astoce xviii 
POPE ALEXANDER'’S bull.........:20.00 eeenele 
PORTUGAL, Physical features of..... ... cco | a5) 
PORTUGUESE traders and discoverers....... 15 
POWELL, J.W., Record of address by..xiv, xvii1 
— ,Record of lecture Dy ...-- endian secamncee age 16 xix 
=, Reference to writings of.......... 

POWELL, W. B., to judge essays 
POWERS, Epw’ D, Reference to writings of 53 
PRACTICAL results of Bering Sea arbitra- 

tion, Record of address on........... seeee XV1ll 
PRATT, ie F., Record of address by........ 

, Discussion ID /ertanoocnonsosonecso nos cneoue: 
PRAYER in weather-making .................... 
PRESIDENT’S annual address: Russia, 

Record of delivery of... scnoaceooLeO aoe Ore 
PRETTY, ——, Reference to writings of, 208-210 
PRINTING PRESS, Mnivention:Olesecessseeces eas 15 
PRIOR, ; Reference to writings of....... 210 
PRIZE ESSAYS: National Geographic So- 

CLE LY rele saree ctesenat eee at etcnehe une Nod etaancneies ets 5 B27 
PROBLEM of the Yosemite, Record of lec- 

tureon. on ALP AA 
PROCTOR, JOHN Re ‘Record ofaddress by xviii 
PROGRESS Of Civilization....... COS SBSH RUcOC REC eEee I 
PUBLICATIONS of the Society.........-.....---.- vi 
PUBLIC domain in its social aspect, Rec- 

ord of discussion on.. . Xvi 

— lands of Idaho, Record of discussion : on. xvi 
= = = whe United States, Record of dis- 

GUSSIOMOMMetecceses oes ee beeseesercesaers evil 
PUEBLO INDIANS, home of, Record “of lec- 
ELEN OU teecscrenseeee aaeee Seen BSD 
——, Record of Lecture OM.sesssseesssscsesseses XVI 
Quail Callvof torraiisssescredseeseseceesee Paes. AB 
RacEs, Struggle of the.......... ecco 22 
RAIN produced DYADTAUEUC Mines: pereew seater: 49 
RAIN-MAKING, Bibliography of........ 60-62 

—and stopping by SUD ts tune and re- 
ligious methods... Pidseteasieasecae cere seeee sa WOO 
— by ‘artificial means ..... n 
— — atmospheric concussion. 
— — chilling atmosphere..... 
— — means of great fires.. 7 
— — use of kite, in Algeria... - =p lis) 
— experiments, Congressional appropria. 
HOmfors eee secuebacabes Sosueaeeeteocen God 
_, Literature of....... 
—, Secret method of..... 
RAINIER, MOUNT, ascent “of, Record of lec- 
ture on.. Ligue cuarecsseteresmonsspeRlLal 
RAVEN, Call ‘of, Tor Tawi. ete Coenen 43 
RECEPTION at Arlington hotel, Record of. xix 
RECENT discoveries in Assyria 2 and Baby. f 
lonia, Record of lecture on.. sores XVIiL 

National Geographic Magazine. 

REDWAY, JACQUES W.; The first landfall 
of Columbus.. witeaenee LY, 
REPORT of the Auditing Committee... xxviii 
— — — Recording Secretary......ccccseceeeere Mp ot 
— — — Treasurer i 
RESOURCES etc, of Oregon 

RILEY, C. V., Record of address by......... 
RITTER. H. P., Record of address by.. 
— — — discussion by.........seesee 
ROBIN, Call of, for rain. 4 

Rocky MOUNTAINS, Mineral wealth ‘of... 19 

ROME: Conqttest Of: i. ccessonscaseuseunauneeaen PAPE eee 
—, Indebtedness of the world to .............. 13 
= Commerce of, with distant countries. 13 
—, Genius of, for ZOVErNMENt ..ceceeees cess 12 
=}; Renaissance Of 22. .-ssceuteuss saree ae a 

ROMERO, M., Record of remarks by .. casenese Sa 
Ross, J. C., Reference to voyages of... 217, 218 
RUGGLES, DANIEL, Patent for rain- -mak- 
ing granted On 54 
RUSSELL, eee Reference to writings ‘Of... 226 
; On height ‘of mount Saint Elias ...... 215 
RUSSIA, Record of presidential address on, xx 

SAINT ELIAS, MOUNT, Great depth of 

STOW, ODM-c cs <esnvaessenontanagtaceetoee nie meeeeee 215 
==, Height Of,.. 1-1... vessenscnseevssscenekses eee 215 
THE HIES | Ol taecccesseenessicsp ee acl cae aes ne eee I 
aboilok-ioshu=holicy(6) bepeerrey rea sesG ce socccnchec a 19 
SALT LAKE City and the Grand Canyon, 
Record! of) lecture On. .+...,-sveuaneassereeyateaesales 
STAN os Identity (Of. 2 eee . 186 
, probable first landing place of Colum- 
DUS \eseecesvesssecteesios «San sacee ecemaseaekaeteeeneeeem 192 
San ANTONIO, Rain-making experiments 
Ab ieccaccecrsscasscssenscns sesoeers necro eae tata 
SAN DOMINGO, “Degradation of inhabit- 
AUULS OTe esa tennseasces perpen ai 
—, Disappearance of Indians from......-. 

—, First European settlement of...... 
—, Former carrying tradeof....... 
oe ’ Geographic features of .. 

—, Revolution in.......... Be nocs occas 


SAN JUAN DE Fuca, Voyage Of nie “24r 

EianKoeyen aes ae. cobcaaccann Sasgesae AR 

SAVAGE, Decadence Of the.....cscccssseessses 19 

SCANDINAVIA, Revival of civilization in... 14 
ScHOOLCRAFT, H. R., cited on rain-mak- 
ing among the Moqui Sots de ck cacenaceen ee ame 
SCYTHIAN incursions into Mesopotamia... § 
SEARS, ALFRED F., Record of lecture by xvii 
SECRETARY, Recording, Annual report of 

Hers A Xx 
SEINE, Meuse, ‘and “Moselie, “Record “OF 

NE CHUTE OMe ac <ceiSececesee Secnc cease Eeeeeeneaee XVill 
SEQUOIAS, Longevity Oficereosenee eames wasediiees .. 128 
SHAKESPEARE’S England, Record of lec- 

ture on.. . xviil 
SHALER, N. Si Record of address by... NS Xviil 
_—, Reference to WV AGUELING'S Ofeerweceeceeseerees 81, 226 
SHAPING of the earth’s ; surface, Record of 

Tectures OM si iuccencssene Sassen eeeeeee eee ELL 
SHAWANGUNEK MOUNTAIN ; N. i. Darton... 23 
SIBERIA, Record of lecture on.. vbcevendh SROs 
SIGSBEE, Cc. D., Record of address by... Xvili 
SIGSBEE deep- sea sounding machine, Re- 

cordiof address: on: -e.cs sc eee eee we. XVI 
SrncairR, C. H., Reference to work of...... 152 

ward L. Berthoud........... «. 208 
SLAVERY in the United States . 20 
SLAVE trade found profitable... 16 

SMITH, C. A., cited on call of loon..... wee 43 

Index. 291 

SMITH, ERMINNIE A., cited as to 
weather-making among the Iroquois.. 36 
SMITH, EUGENEA,, Reference to writings 

Ratieeteeenenenercnacts denen saccade wel! ies<v ceca sau seuses 110 
SMITH, E. C., Record of lecture by... . Xili 
SNAKES and. the weather..........::.. ss. 44 
Sonora, Mexico, Record of lecture on...... xix 
SOPATER, Superstition CONCErDING..... 4... 45 
SouTH AMERICA, Adaptation of, to mixed 

MUG sierae hen are te racntteetat on cope cccacsasedsie sie 19 
—, Disappearance of pure Indians from... 19 
SUE EAIDIEATIES Olec..caven-cense--css0 s-cese 18 
—, Luxuriant vegetation of.. 18 
FSSC IESE Ofte seesnancout uleccnenccec nso asanesssocs 19 

DESY Glico oSocbaenaad eed Ot oe eee CU Eee Eee 1 63 
SPAIN, Commercial monopoly of, 208 
oe , Physical features of... 15 
—, Slavery in ..... “ ae US) 
—, War of, with the MOOrs.....ssccccsesessesee 15 
SPITZBERGEN, Magnetic observations in, 

ALDI aie ere gece | ty tenon U-WusencucNescesesesde 223 
Sues H. M., Reference to discoveries 

Ea emer ee ete eet (a Loop te enteatisSacenenicsSassere 207 
STANLEY-BROWN, J. Record of address 

Van ee 0 sere . Xvili 
STATISTICS of our industries, “Record of 

OPM Ua OMe ses arama sateeaacae ates coavedes sscsces sieeve XV 
STEELF, ——, cited on people of Finland. 46 
STEVENS, D. W., JADPAM..0.secsesesenneeereceecenes 193 
STEVENSON, M. Gy cited on rain-making 

among [Sg O70 ae a 39 
PEO) UP. Clradese wesacehessiscactswacserseresccccscsscccseses 
SUPERSTITIONS of Indians regarding 

PRS UNI p cro scatere-c enn cesteseersecszccsase wee 35-44 
— of negroes regarding weather............... 44 
— of sailors regarding weathet.............. 44, 45 
SUPERSTITIOUS methods of rain-making 

PTGS ESP UNO ee ose eee ashi eey cess oncsocusares- 35 
SURVEYS and maps of the District of Co- 

lumbia ; Marcus Baker... 149 
SYRIA a civilizing agency.. 9 
—a great battlefield... 9 
—, Physical features ah ee. Seeenice 8 
TANNER, Z. L., Record BRaHanesey. .XViil, xx 
TATARS of Asia, Habits of... bc 
TEMPERATURE control of geographic dis- 

tribution of animals and )lants......... 229 

TERTIARY changes in drainage of south- 
western Virginia, Record of paper on.. xv 
‘Texas land system, Record of discus- 
RAO MIM Olas caw can) <o-=cidcecraccesdevirsascsicecoceSccres xvi 
—, Rain-making experiments cflisecactess:cys 
—, Western, Rainfall in......... 3 socecenaces 5 V/ 
THOMPSON, A. H., Record of lecture by... xix 
THOMPSON, GILBERT, Record of address 
iD" Regcanetabodeaossoossracusearce es saaeeoes xviii, xx 
THOMPSON, J. B., Record of discussion by. xvi 
TIERRA DEL FUEGO, Habits of natives of. 3 
‘TIMBER, species of, Economic value of... 145 

— —— found in markets.. 0... + 145 
TITTMANN, O.H, Record of discussion by. xiv 
TOBACCO-BURNING in weather-making.... 36 
TOPOGRAPHIC forms, Record of address 

STUUR reso ec cscohes eabusavees.cs acs ceartee sarees xviii 
TORNADOES, Proposed destruction of......... 47 
TOURS, Hon Srey ae ae 
TREASURER, Annual report ‘of the.. XxXvi 
TREE LIFE, Persistence Of... .s-s00 127 
‘TURKISH EMPIRE, Record of lecture on... xx 
TURNER, J. H., Reference to work of....... «215 
‘TwIss, PROFESSOR, cited on discovery of 

the Columbia ..2.c.eeeeese aieoeashipeeesicesteciacs 246 

Types of early flora......... 

ULSTER COUNTY, N. Y, Geology of......... 24 
UNITED STATES, northeastern boundary 
of, Record of PAPC OLvvesse causes eteseces . Xvii 


UNITED STATES, Peculiarities of inhabit- 
SNES ONC sawihs cree eee eee eee saci 20 
Sabet S Vek LOLLOdUced intorseeee eee 20 

UPLIFT and erosion, Record of lecture on. xiii 
UTRECHT, Treaty of... 


VALDES, Voyage of... Sees acot neater aa 

VaNcouV ER, CapTAIN, Reference to dis- 
GOVETIESDE Gee ee 242, 243 

VMEDAS gAntiquity: Of tHe... cccsct aceseete ees 10 

VENEGAS, MIGUEL, Reference to writ- 
UNO STOfs ele heater Eee 

VIKINGS, Colonies founded by 
Se Ome OLE sna. 
VIRGINIA BEACH, “Record of meeting at... Xvi 

VISCAINO, Survey Ollicreccc-toterceseeee enn 213 
WALCOTT, C. D., Record of lecture by...... xix 
_ _ Record of remarks DYN eck cvgeece eee ee xvii 

WELKER, FULLER, Acknowledgment to.. 35 
WaSHINGTON city, Rain-making experi- 

ments near..... Saad oucwows owwpdedercenvsecssnatntes 54 
—, First map of...... sesve 154 
— in embryo, Reference to... 153 
— to Pittsburg and Niagara Falls, Record 

OMlEGhirevone pe ee ee Xix 
WATER supply of the United States, Rec- 

Ondtoifecttre ont. ew a eee xiv 
WATER WORK, Record of lecture on......... Xili 
WEATHER-CHANGING, Absurd schemes 

Opava caviess:cvemondatce trcesi veins pears aes eee 7 
WEATHER-MAKING, Ancient and modern; 

Mario WW. Elarrinotor.:s.c-5 a sees 35 

ee , Record of paper on............... 
WEBB, W. B,, Reference to writings of...... 162 
WEDDELL, J., Reference to voyages of... 217 
WELKER, PA, , Record of discussion by. xiii 
WELLING. dl (pean ’ Record of remarks by... xvii 
WEsT, FAR, Irrigation ATN ie eavecteconene eee 19 
WEST INDIES, Climate of.. 

Reet 22 
— , Fertility Of SOullOfoe natscetedectese 22 
-— ’ Introduction of negroes into. 16 

WHALING industry, Record of lecture on.. xiv 

WHITMAN Memorial College. ee 260 
ees AN, M.,, Mission of, to Washington. 257 

, Lardy appreciation Of ee een 260 

’ the real PAtuetin Ceres. secaees es eee 265 
Wri TNEY, MILTON, Record of address by xviii 
WILKES, Reference to voyage of ........ 218, 222 
WILLIS, BaILEy, Record of address by... Xvili 

Reference to writings of ............ 73) 79, 226 
WILSON, H. M., Record “of lecture by. case xvi 
— — — remarks Dyasaeeceinssscccceshcce nie ees xvi 

WIND-RAISING, Methods of... a 
WIND-WORK, Record of lecture on.. 
WEINS LP ENise ViOVaee: Ofn.c. 5s. .ces pie ee 250 
WINSOR, Justr, Reference to writings of. 210 
WINTER (A) in the depths of the Grand 

Canyon, Record of lecture on. ........... xix 
WINTHROP, —, cited as to retention of 

Oregon. ne 255 
WITCHES, Influence of, on weather 46 
Woop, J. W.. itings 65 
WRIGHT, CARROLL D., Record of lecture 

yp senomierescsecks Race aneneanemecaeceeenrecceeseeaetine Xviii 

HEWMLALTS) 1H aren sacceeseee sentetoss eves trasnuoeeneen 130 
YELLOWSTONE, wonderland of the, Rec- 

OLGvot VEchice OTe: cones esceeer scenes xix 
YOSEMITE, problem of the, Record of lec- 

ELM COIL or aun uses saacanscetssaneneesecisecedseeneceauees xv 
ZANZIBAR, Money recognized at ....... +. 204 
ZONES Of civilization I 
— — faunal and floral distribution... 229 

p= PTOCUCHION ss. ovncescnecexen serneceacec 
ZULU-Ma-ATABELE and modes of travel 

in South Africa, Record of lecture on.. xix 
ZuUNI, Rain-making among the................ 39 

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